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11. THE COLD WAR. DEFINITION: A STATE 64in the American influence at this term
OF PERMANENT HOSTILITY BETWEEN TWO POWERS because of the Vietnam war but massive
WHICH NEVER ERUPTS INTO AN ARMED military buildup in the Soviet Union At
CONFRONTATION OR A HOT WAR MEANS USED IN the end of the term Richard Nixon tried to
THE COLD WAR 1. U.S. DOLLARS 2. MILITARY stabilize the US-Soviet relation by the
FORCE 3. NUCLEAR ARSENAL 4. ALLIANCE policy of d?tente that included among
SYSTEMS 5. ECONOMIC WARFARE 6. PROPAGANDA other things arms control and opening to
22. ALLIES IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR. A) 65Shifting power balances 1963-73.
USA AND THE USSR BECOME ALLIES 1. JUNE October 1963: The Limited Test Ban Treaty
1941; THE GERMAN INVASION OF THE SOVIET concluded. Did not stop the arms race. A)
UNION 2. NOVEMBER 1941; THE LEND LEASE The US military buildup (MIRV) B) The
AGREEMENT 3. PEARL-HARBOR AND US WAR WITH Soviet military buildup. Strategic forces
JAPAN 4. GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON THE USA and conventional capacity The doctrine of
5. THE GRAND ALLIANCE OR ANTI-HITLER assured destruction. Mutually assured
COALITION. destruction (MAD).
33. BREAKDOWN OF ALLIANCE: AN OVERWIEV. 66Turmoil in the Third World 1963-73.
1917-1944: CAUSES OF THE BREAKDOWN OF THE Instability and conflict in the Third
US-SOVIET ALLIANCE A) LONG TERM CAUSES B) World increased cold war tensions. The
CONFLICT DURING THE WAR TIME C) DIFFERENT involvement of the superpowers exacerbated
PEACE AIMS 1945: THE BREAKDOWN OF THE local and regional problems Latin-America
US-SOVIET ALLIANCE THE LONG TELEGRAM 1946: The US response to the Cuban revolution
THE COLD WAR STARTS CHURCHILL?S SPEECH. was: (A) To promote economic development
44. CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR. A) LONG and political reform in Latin America
TERM CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR 1. 1917: U.S. through foreign aid (The Alliance of
AND THE SOVIET SYSTEM 2. THE SHOW TRIALS armed forces Soon the United States
IN THE SOVIET UNION (1936, 1937, 1938) 3. abandoned any pretense of favoring social
1939: THE NON-AGGRESSION PACT BETWEEN and political reform and began to view
HITLER AND STALIN IN 1939. B) CONFLICT military regimes in Latin America as
DURING THE WAR TIME 1. CRACKS IN THE bulwark against instability and
SOVIET-AMERICAN ALLIANCE A) ARGUMENT ABOUT revolutions. The 1960s witnessed rash of
THE OPENING OF SECOND FRONT AGAINST military coups in the continent Examples:
GERMANY B) STALIN?S SUSPICION C) THE (A) In Brazil the United States encouraged
MANHATTAN PROJECT. and supported the governments opponents
54. CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR. C) and welcomed its overthrow by military
DIFFERENT PEACE AIMS ROOSEVELT?S KEY officers in the spring of 1964; (B) In
POST-WAR AIMS INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND 1965 the United States invaded the
CO-OPERATION (UN) NO FORMAL SPHERES OF Dominican Republic when the local military
INFLUENCE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY (FREE proved unable to defeat a popular revolt
SPEECH, FREE ELECTIONS) FREE TRADE (OPEN aimed at reinstating the constitutionally
DOOR) RECONSTRUCTION OF WORLD ECONOMY (IM, elected president, whom the military had
WORLD BANK) STALIN?S KEY POST-WAR AIMS overthrown in 1963 The Middle East The
CO-OPERATION WITH AMERICA RUSSIAN SECURITY primary US interest in the Middle East was
SPHERE OF INFLUENCE ON SOVIET PERIMETER oil and the region was important to Soviet
RESTORATION OF RUSSIA?S 1914 BORDERS security The United States and the Soviet
LIMITING GERMAN POWER ECONOMIC Union found themselves supporting and
RECONSTRUCTION OF SOVIET UNION. arming different sides in the regional
65. THE BREAKDOWN OF THE US-SOVIET dispute In 1967: the six days war between
ALLIANCE, 1945: KEY ISSUES. A) POLAND THE Israel and the Arabs proved to be an
YALTA CONFERENCE IN FEBRUARY 1945 AND THE important turning point in the Cold War as
POLISH-QUESTION. (WHERE THE WEST: 1) both superpowers moved closer to their
OBJECTED THE REVISION OF POLAND?S EASTERN respective allies Africa The Cold War
BORDERS; 2) ASKE? FOR THE INCLUSION OF THE continued to influence African development
LONDON POLES IN THE LUBLIN COMMITTEE; 3) in for example South Africa, Southern
WANTED FREE POLISH ELECTION) IN THE LIGHT Rhodesia, Portugals colonies (Angola and
OF THE THERAN CONFERENCE 1943. (IN THERAN Mosambique) and Congo.
CHURCHILL HAD SUGGESTED A PERMANENT CHANGE 67Arms race; its development, causes and
IN EASTERN EUROPE?S FRONTIERS. RUSSIA impact. The arms race became an integral
COULD REGAIN HER 1914 BOUNDARIES BY part of Cold War conflict. Its costs posed
ABSORBING EASERN POLAND, WHILE POLAND severe economic strains on both the USA
WOULD BE CONPENSATED BY RECEIVING PARTS OF and the USSR. By the 1980s it was used as
EASTERN GERMANY AND THE BILATERAL MEETING a deliberate method of bankrupting the
CHURCHILL ACCEPTED THAT USSR SHOULD HAVE 68Vietnam and the origins of D?tente
ITS SPHERE OF INFLUENCE). THE POLISH 1963-73. US leaders feared that the loss
QUESTION AND STALIN?S RESPONSE RUSSIANS of South Vietnam would initiate a falling
DID NOT CONCLUDE FREE ELECTIONS IN POLAND domino effect By the early 1960s there
STALIN ABSORBED EASTERN POLAND HE KEPT HIS was a growing US involvement in the civil
PROMISE TO BRODEN THE LUBLIN COMMITTEE FOR war in Vietnam In March 1965 the United
A TIME BEING. States began sending combat troops to
7B) ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION JANUARY Vietnam By 1968, the number of US troops
1945. RUSSIA ASKS FOR $ 6 BILLION LOAN AND in Vietnam had reached 535,000 Fear of
AMERICAN CONDITIONS THE TERMINATION OF THE Chinese intervention prevented the United
LEND-LEASE IN MAY 1945 FURTHER REQUEST FOR States invading the North Vietnam The
AMERICAN LOAN IN AUGUST 1945 REJECTED Soviets supported North Vietnam with
RUSSIA DID NOT BE A MEMBER OF THE IMF AND generous military aid By the end of the
THE WORLD BANK. 5. THE BREAKDOWN OF THE decade, the strategic, economic, and
US-SOVIET ALLIANCE, 1945: KEY ISSUES. political costs of treating Vietnam as a
8C) ATOMIC WEAPONS 16 JULY 1945. THE vital country in the global containment of
FIRST AMERICAN ATOMIC BOMB EXPLODED. communism were proving too great for the
AMERICAN ATOMIC MONOPOLY A) WORRIED STALIN United States. The Vietnam war weakened
THE SOVIET UNION C) THE ATOMIC DIPLOMACY. economically, fed doubts about US foreign
5. THE BREAKDOWN OF THE US-SOVIET policy priorities and fuelled anti-war
ALLIANCE, 1945: KEY ISSUES. movement at home The Tet Offensive by
95. THE BREAKDOWN OF THE US-SOVIET communists forces in early 1968 convinced
ALLIANCE, 1945: KEY ISSUES. D) GERMANY THE president Johnson of the necessity to
YALTA CONFERENCE AGREEMENTS. (SHARED negotiate an end to the fighting. It also
POST-WAR OBJECTIVES OF USA AND USSR ON forced Johnson to withdraw from the
GERMANY) A) LIMITING THE POWER OF GERMANY presidential election the same year
C) GERMANY DIVIDED AMONG THE VICTORS INTO 1969-74) claimed he had a secret plan to
FOUR ZONES OF OCCUPATION D) THE WINNERS get the United States out of Vietnam. It
ENTITLED TO TAKE REPARATIONS FROM ITS OWN appeared that his plan was part of an
ZONE E) RUSSIA GRANTED ADDITIONAL overall revision of US grand strategy that
REPARATION FROM THE THREE WESTERN ZONES IN also included arms control, relaxation of
EXCHANGE FOR FOOD AND RAW MATERIALS FROM tensions with the Soviet Union,
THE SOVIET ZONE F) THE FOUR ZONES A SINGLE rapprochement with China, and reductions
ECONOMIC AREA DISAGREEMENT OR DIFFERENCES in direct US military involvement in the
OWER THE YALTA AND POTSDAM AGREEMENTS Third World Nixon and Kissinger hoped that
ABOUT GERMANY A) GERMAN COAL OUTPUT 1. rapprochement with the Soviet Union and
USSR: GERMAN COAL AS A REPARATION 2. USA: China would dilute their support for North
GERMAN COAL TO ASSIST IN THE ECONOMIC Vietnam and force the communists to
RECONSTRUCTION OF WESTERN EUROPE B) THE negotiate an end to the war The Soviets
SOVIETS WERE TREATING THEIR ZONE AS A also wanted to improve US-Soviet
SELFCONTAINED ECONOMIC ENTITY. DID NOT relations. They believed that improved
SUPPLY FOOD TO THE WESTERN ZONE C) relations could stabilize the arms race,
DIAGREEMENT OVER THE RUSSIAN DEMAND OF help them to solve their economic problems
ACCESS TO THE COAL AND STEEL OUTPUT OF THE by increased trade with the West, create
RUHR VALLEY D) THE USSR AND THE USA READ international recognition of the status
DIFFERENT MEANING INTO THE POTSDAM quo in central and Eastern Europe and of
AGREEMENT. the Soviet Union as a global power and
105. THE BREAKDOWN OF THE US-SOVIET prevent US-Chinese alliance The Chinese
ALLIANCE, 1945: KEY ISSUES. E) AMERICAN were also ready to improve relations with
ACTION AGAINST PRESUPPOSED SOVIET the United States as a way to deter Soviet
EXPANSION A) SOVIET INVASION IN MANCHURIA aggression Nixons and Kissingers attempt
AND THE AMERICAN RESPONSE B) SOVIET to link d?tente with progress toward
INVASION IN KOREA AND AMERICAN RESPONSE C) settlement in Vietnam delayed both. It
THE AMERICAN AND BRITHISH PROTEST AGAINST took them four years to negotiate US
OF YOGOSLAVIAN FORCES INTO TRIESTE E) process of d?tente: July 1, 1968: The
AMERICAN $ 25 MILLION LOAN TO GREEK. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty signed
116. THE COLD WAR STARTS. A) 1946: NEW September 1971: Quadripartite Agreement
PERCEPTION OF THE SOVIET UNION 1. GEORGE signed At the same time: Willy Brandt
KENNAN?S LONG TELEGRAM IN FEBRUARY 1946. (West German chancellor) starts his
OFFERED A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE Ostpolitik July 1971: Kissinger secretly
MOTIVES OF SOVIET FOREIGN POLICY RUSSIAN travels to PCR. In September the same year
RULERS HAD ALWAYS BEEN WEAK NEEDED TO China takes its seat in the United Nations
INVENT EXTERNAL ENEMY THAT ENEMY WAS THE February 1972: Nixon visits China May
WEST THEREFORE USSR WAS INEVITABLY 1972: The signing of the SALT I agreements
EXPANSIONIST AND HOSTILE TO THE WEST during Nixons visit to Moscow. Marked the
MARXISM-LENINISM WAS THE IDEOLOGICAL BASIS high point of a short-lived period of
OF SOVIET AGGRESSION AND EXPANSION BECAUSE limited d?tente, or relaxation of
2. WINSTON?S CHURCHILL?S SPEECH IN MARCH agreement 1972. Agreement was reached on
1946 ABOUT THE IRON CURTAIN. IRON three matters: 1. The AMB (anti-ballistic
CURTAIN HAD DESCENDED ACROSS EUROPE FROM missile) treaty. 2. The interim agreement.
WERE BUILDING AN EMPIRE IN EASTERN EUROPE 71Willy Brandts Ostpolitik. Digression.
BEYOND IT THEY WERE ATTEMTING TO PROJECT Expanded trade with Eastern Europe, signed
THEIR POWER BY DIRECTING COMMUNIST PARTIES treaties with the Soviet Union and Poland,
IN WESTERN EUROPE TO WORK AGAINST ELECTED recognized all borders in Europe,
GOVERNMENTS 3. SHIFT IN THE PUBLIC OPINION confirmed the division of Germany, and
WITHIN THE US AGAINST THE SOVIET UINION. concluded a treaty between the Federal
(IN OTHER WORDS: CHURCHILL?S SPEECH Republic of Germany and Czechoslovakia The
HARDENED THE PUBLIC OPINION WITHIN THE USA immediate results of this politic included
AGAINST THE USSR). a major reduction in tension in central
126. THE COLD WAR STARTS. B) NEW POLICY Europe Following the fall of communism in
TOWARDS THE SOVIET UNION (PATIENCE WITH Eastern Europe some analysts argued that
FIRMNESS OR GET TOUGH POLICY) 1. US by accepting the status quo, Ostpolitik
ACTION IN IRAN 2. MORE STRINGENT bolstered communist control and delayed
CONDITIONS TO LOANS AND CREDITS REQUESTED communisms collapse. Other scholars
BY THE SOVIETS 3. US TOUGHER POLICY contest this view and point out that the
TOWARDS SOVIETS IN GERMANY A) HALTED Soviets probably would not have accepted a
REPARATIONS B) BIZONE C) RELAXATION OF peaceful end to their sphere of influence
RESTRICTIONS ON GERMAN INDUSTRIAL in Eastern Europe without the decade and a
PRODUCTION 4. BARUCH PLAN (JUNE 1946) A) half of reduced tension that Ostpolitik
PROPOSALS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONTROL OF 72Causes and achievements of D?tente.
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION IN 1945 B) IN of confrontations between the superpowers
JUNE 1946 THE AMERICANS PRESENTED A PLAN caused the superpowers to rethink their
WHICH PROVIDED FOR FREQUENT INSPECTION OF strategies for conducting the Cold War.
ATOMIC ENERGY INSTALLATIONS IN UN MEMBER The result was the policy of d?tente in
STATES. THE BARUCH PLAN C) THE AMERICANS the 1970s which created an opportunity to
REFUSED TO DESTROY THEIR EXISTING ATOMIC reduce international tension by limiting
STOCPILE UNTIL INSPECTION ARRANGEMENTS the nuclear arms race A move towards
WERE FIRMLY IN PLACE D) THE RUSSIANS D?tente was stimulated by developments
REFUSED TO SUBMIT TO INSPECTION OF THEIR within the US and the USSR and initiatives
SITES UNTIL THE AMERICANS HAD DESTROYD taken by European leaders. Its cause was a
THEIR ATOMIC WEAPONS 5. THE CLIFFORD-ELSEY growing awareness of the potential danger
REPORT (JULY 1946) THE REPORT HIGHLIGHTED of confrontation leading to nuclear
EXAMPLES OF AGGRESSIVE SOVIET ACTIONS AND destruction The fear of war The needs of
WAS WORLD DOMINATION. of China European needs and Ostpolitik.
137. WHO TO BLAME FOR THE COLD WAR. 73Achievements of D?tente. Treaties such
STALIN?S RESPONSIBILITY DID NOT IMPLEMENT as SALT (1972) and the Helsinki Agreements
THE YALTA ACCORD ON POLAND BLOCKED (1975) have been seen as the central
ECONOMIC UNITY IN GERMANY INSTALLED achievements of D?tente. The Nuclear Test
AND BULGARIA MOVED SOVIET TROOPS INTO Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) are also
PRESENCE IN IRAN AFTER THE WAR. AMERICA?S Treaty): Consisted of the ABM treaty, the
RESPONSIBILITY A) MISINTERPRETED RUSSIAN interim agreement and the Basic Principle
POLICY ALL THE RUSSIAN ACTIONS WERE Agreement. A) The ABM treaty reduced the
DEFENSIVE. THEY OCCURRED ON THE PERIMETER tension caused by the destabilizing impact
OF THE SOVIET UNION AS AN ATTEMT TO of defensive systems. (With ABM systems in
CONSOLIDATE ITS FRONTIERS SOVIET FOREIGN place the ability to retaliate if hit by a
POLICY WAS DRIVEN BY NATIONAL SECURITY BUT nuclear missile was uncertain and
NOT EXPANSIONIST COMMUNIST IDEOLOGY SOVIET therefore encouraged each side to strike
UNION DID NOT OPPOSE AMERICAN INTERVENTION first). B) The Interim Treaty meant that
IN MANCHURUIA AND KOREA, WITHDREW THEIR limit were placed on the number of ICBMs
TROOPS FROM NORTH-KOREA, MANCHURIA AND and SLBM and it was an important step
IRAN AND DID NOT SUPPLY WEAPONS TO THE towards limiting nuclear arms. C) The
GREEK COMMUNISTS. DEMOCRATIC POLITICS Basic Principles Agreement extended the
CONTINUED IN HUNGARY AND FREE ELECTIONS guidelines to be used by both sides to
TOOK PLACE IN CHECHOSLOVAKIA IN MAY 1946 minimize the development of nuclear war
EFFECT AND NOT CAUSE OF THE COLD WAR B) reached at a conference in Helsinki to
THE SCALE OF AMERICAN POWER AFTER THE discuss European security. At the
SECOND WORLD WAR AND ITS DETERMINATION TO conference the Warsaw Pact countries
CREATE THE POST-WAR WORLD ACCORDING TO ITS wished to secure US recognition of
IMAGE. European borders established after Second
147. THE SECURITY DILEMMA. In the Cold World War and the US saw this as an
War the United States and the Soviet Union opportunity to gain concessions from the
frequently misinterpreted each others Soviet government in return SALT II: It
policy. United States believed for example set equal limits for missile launchers and
that the Soviet Union was systematically strategic bombers but left out cruise
penetrating areas vital to US security and missiles where the US had a significant
was engaged in a grand design to become lead. Increasing conflict in the Third
the words dominant post-war power. To World led to the Senates rejection of
this extent US policy was based on fear. SALT II in 1980 US-China relations: By
Policy makers saw the Soviet Union as the 1972 relations between China and the US
aggressor. They therefore took measures to were good enough to allow Nixon to visit
underpin US security, but those defensive China as a guest of the government
measures were construed by the Russians as European D?tente (Ostpolitik): Ostpolitik
aggressive, prompting the Russians to take played a major role in reducing tension in
further defensive measures which the Europe and contributing to D?tente. Gave
Americans then saw as offensive. Thus a legal recognition and reinforcement to the
dangerous cycle of action and reaction division of Cold War Europe.
came into being. Strategists call this 74Assessment and historical
situation the security dilemma. The net interpretations. Assessment Relations
outcome was less security for both stabilized Armaments increased Many
parties. agreements ignored D?tente did not reduce
157. CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR HISTORICAL tensions Both superpowers took advantage
INTERPRETATIONS. THE ORTHODOX SCHOOL THE of d?tente Historical interpretations
REVISIONIST SCHOOL THE POST-REVISIONIST Politicians on the American left: D?tente
SCHOOL. positive step The post-revisionists:
16The orthodox School: Stalins D?tente meant less dangerous situation The
expansionist policy. Part of eastern American right: D?tente was a sign of
Poland to the USSR, communist governments weakness.
in Poland and other Eastern European 75From d?tente to confrontation 1973-80.
countries and the Berlin blockade. 7. Overview Following its high point in 1973,
CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR. STALIN?S FOREIGN d?tente foundered as increased instability
POLICY. THE ORTHODOX SCHOOL. in the Third World and technological
177. CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR: USA?S advances that threatened mutual deterrence
RESONSIBILITY. THE REVISIONIST VIEW. USAs interacted to intensify Soviet-American
hard-line approach towards the USSR after distrust.
the war. The role of the power of big 76Third World conflict during 1970s.
business and the military-industrial During the 1970s, both superpowers often
sector in pushing the US government charged each other of taking advantage of
towards Cold War confrontation as way of d?tente to increase its influence in the
protecting then economic interests of Third World September 1973: Military coup
capitalism USA ignored the USSRs security in Chile (the socialist president Salvador
needs USAs provocative actions. Allende was removed from power) supported
187. THE POST-REVISIONIST SCHOOL. Has by the United States. The Soviet Union
sought to avoid blaming either side for regarded US action in Chile as a betrayal
breakdown in relations and to approach the of d?tente October 1973: The Middle East
topic from a more objective standpoint. war between Egypt and Israel subjected
197. CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR. ROLE OF d?tente to further stress. US Secretary of
PERSONALITY. The big three: Churchill State, Henry Kissinger, used the crisis as
replaced by Attlee 1945 Roosevelt replaced an opportunity to win over the Egyptian
by Truman 1945 Stalin. leader, Anwar Sadat, and increase US
20CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR: THE SEEDS OF influence in the Middle East. Focused on
CONFLICT 1941-1945. Difference of excluding the Soviet Union from the peace
ideology. Communism, capitalism Economic settlement. The Soviets lost an ally The
differences Political differences A) 1973 war led to an oil crisis in the West.
Liberal democracies B) The communist The oil crisis evoked images of a weakened
state. West. The Soviet Union benefited from
21CAPITALISM AND COMMUNISM: IDEOLOGICAL higher oil prices The fall of South
DIFFERENCES. Capitalism (USA) Communism Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos to communist
(USSR) Limited government Strong central forces in the spring and summer of 1975
state Multi party politics One party evoked powerful image of American decline
government Individual rights Free Conflicts in Africa further undermined
enterprise economy A command economy Open d?tente. In February 1975 the impending
society Closed society. end of Portuguese colonialism set off a
228. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 1. THE civil war in Angola and the United States
TRUMAN DOCTRINE IN 1947 CIVIL WAR WAS and Cuba (backed by the Soviet Union)
GOING ON IN GREECE BETWEEN ROYALISTS AND supported different rival factions in the
COMMUNISTS RUSSIA HAD PUT PRESSURE ON war. There was also a war between Ethiopia
TURKEY. WANTED TO REGAIN RUSSIAN LAND and Somalia in 1977. Even though Somalia
WHICH TURKEY HAD CONQUERED IN 1918 AND had been an Soviet ally since 1960s the
THAT THE MONTREAUX AGREEMENT ABOUT FREE Soviet Union and Cuba supported Ethiopia
SAILINGS THROUGH THE DARDANELLE-STRAIT financially and militarily and turned the
SHULD BE REVITALIZED IN THE BEGINNING OF tide of the war. Somalia turned for the
1947 BRITAIN INFORMED THE USA THAT IT United States for help. The United States
COULD NO LONGER AFFORD TO GIVE FINANCIAL and The Soviet Union swapped clients. US
AID TO GREECE AND TURKEY TO CONVINCE THE warned that Soviet and Cuban involvement
RELUCTANT CONGRESS TO SEND AMERICAN MONEY in the Horn of Africa, an arena in the
AND MILITARY ADVICERS TO GREECE AND TURKEY northeast corner of the continent close to
TRUMAN ANNOUNCED THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE ITS the Middle East, could threaten Western
CORE IS AS FOLLOWS: I BELIEVE THAT IT access to Middle East oil. Viewed the
MUST BE THE POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES TO developments as a Western defeat.
SUPPORT FREE PEOPLE WHO ARE RESISTING 77European d?tente during 1970s. D?tente
ATTEMTED SUBJUGATION BY ARMED MINORITIES in Europe continued to make progress The
OR BY OUTSIDE PRESSURE CONGRESS GRANTED Conference on Security and Cooperation in
THE PRESIDENT 400 MILLION DOLLARS TO Europe (CSCE) led to the Helsinki Accord
GREECE AND TURKEY. in August 1975 The final act consisted of
238. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 2. three sets of baskets 1. Basket One 2.
NATIONAL SECURITY A) THE UNITED STATES Basket Two 3. Basket Three The Helsinki
INCREASED ITS STOCPILE OF ATOMIC BOMBS Agreement played a positive role in
FROM 13-50 IN ONE YEAR FROM JUNE 1947 B) breaking down barriers that divided Europe
THE NATIONAL SECURITY ACT WAS ESTABLISHED In 1977 the Soviets began deploying SS-20
(1947) 1) ENLARGED DEFENCE DEPARTMENT intermediate range missiles in Europe. As
CREATED (AT THE PENTAGON) 2) CENTRA a response NATO decided in December 12,
INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (CIA) ESTABLISHED 3) 1979 to proceed with the planned
248. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 3. THE Pershing II intermediate-range ballistic
MARSHALL PLAN Announced by Secretary of missiles and Tomahawk ground-launched
State George Marshall on 5 June 1947 cruise missiles.
Massive program of economic assistance for 78Arms control during 1970s. The SALT I
countries of Western Europe. Amounted 13 agreement had held out the premise of an
billion dollars between 1948 and 1952 end to the arms race This opportunity was
Motives: a) Economic. Create markets for lost for several reasons: 1. Technological
American goods b) Containment of change: 2. The US attitude: 3. The US
communism. (people who were hungry and strategy of extended deterrence:) November
unemployed were more likely to turn to 1974: The United States and the Soviet
extreme parties of the left for solution Union agree on the broad outlines of a
of their problems). The best antitoxin to SALT II agreement in Vladivostok Senator
communism was prosperity Stalin was Henry Jackson criticized the Vladivostok
offered the Marshall aid but turned it agreement of arms control. The Carter
down and forced other Eastern European administration proposes new SALT II
countries to do the same. Saw the Marshall agreement The Soviets rejected the US
Aid as an attempt to create an American proposal It took two more years of
economic empire in eastern Europe Prompted negotiations before the two nations were
more aggressive Soviet policy in eastern able to reach agreement Meanwhile the US
Europe Russian answer was the Molotov Plan played the China card. Im June 1979
and reformation of Cominterm, now renamed Carter and Brezhnev signed the SALT II
Cominform. More aggressive policy in treaty in Vienna.
eastern Europe, Hungary, Czechoslovakia. 79Continued conflict in the Third World
Marshall Plan was a key episode in the during 1970s. January 1979: The Islamic
Cold war and marked the moment when Revolution in Iran. July 1979: The
compromise between the two sides was no Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua.
longer possible. October 1979: A coup by reformist military
258. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 4. officers in El Salvador. At the end of
Creation of a West German state US December 1979: The Soviet occupation of
initiation to combine the three western Afghanistan. Finished d?tente. The Soviet
occupation zones into a West German state reason for the invasion. The Carters
1947: Restrictions on industrial administration response was tough. The
production of (West) Germany relaxed 1948: Carter Doctrine; January 1980. The
the three occupying powers of the West met Presidential Directive; July 1980.
to draw up a constitution for a new West 80The death of d?tente; summary and
German state June 1948: Introduction of a conclusion. The demise of d?tente
new currency in the three Western zones demonstrated the close and mutually
Stalins response; a land blockade of reinforcing relationship between arms
Berlin In June 1948 Russia blocked the control and overall Soviet-American
road and rail routes to Berlin The purpose relations. Improved relations in the early
was to force the western powers to cancel 1970s had provided an environment in which
their plans for West German state The arms control could proceed successfully,
response of the western powers was to while arms control agreements symbolized
supply west Berlin from the air. The and strengthened improved relations. As
Berlin Airlift In may 1949 Stalin ended Soviet-American relations deteriorated due
the Blockade In September 1949: The birth to instability in the Third World, arms
of the Federal Republic of Germany control also suffered. In addition,
(West-Germany) October 1949: The Soviet continued competition in the arms race
occupation zone becomes the German contributed to mutual mistrust by raising
Democratic Republic (East-Germany) The concerns that the other side was taking
partition of Germany reflected the advantage of d?tente to gain unilateral
division of Europe as a whole. advantage in the Cold War.
268. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 5. NATO 81The rise and fall of the second Cold
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) War, 1981-91. Overview January 1981:
Established 4th April 1949 Military Ronald Reagan becomes US president
Alliance Article 5: Adopted a principle of (1981-1989) Denounced the Soviet Union as
collective security whereby an attack on an immoral evil empire Heightened the
one or more member states would be Cold War tensions. Approved massive
considered an attack on them all and could increase in military spending, started
be met with armed force Purpose: To keep huge military buildup, ended arms control
the Russians out, the Germans down and the negotiations with the Soviets and pursued
Americans in. aggressive policy to roll back Soviet
278. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 6. influence in the Third World This second
CONTAINMENT IN ASIA: A) JAPAN The main Cold War proved short-lived, however, as
objective of US occupation policy towards the Soviet Union began to pursue policies
Japan between 1945 and 1947 aimed at improving relations with the
Demilitarization and democratization The United States after Mikhail Gorbachev came
Japanese armed forces were demobilized, to power in 1985 With the Soviets making
stockpiles of weapons were destroyed and a most of the concessions, the United States
no war clause was written into a new and the Soviet Union reached important
Japanese constitution Some of Japans vast arms control agreements in 1987 and after
industrial combines were broken up in At the end of Reagans term communism in
order to neutralize Japans war making Eastern Europe collapsed.
capacity The right to strike was 82The new Cold War. The Reagan
recognized and trade unions were legalized administration intensified the military
War criminals were brought to trial and build-up and increased military spending
Japan was forced to pay reparations to its enormously March 1983: the Strategic
former enemies. Defense Initiative (SDI), known as Star
288. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 6. Wars, Reagans aim was to: a) re-establish
CONTAINMENT IN ASIA: A) JAPAN US POLICY US military superiority, b) use the arms
TOWARDS JAPAN AFTER 1947 In 1947 US race to place great strain on the Soviet
changed its policy towards Japan to win economy. c) increase US strength before
support of the nation Emphasis on economic engaging in arms control negotiations with
reconstruction of Japan In 1949 Americans the Soviet Union INF negotiations (INF)
authorized $ 500 million in aid to Japan Negotiations on strategic weapons (START).
The program of industrial de concentration 83The Third World. Reagan followed a
was diluted and restrictions on industrial confrontational policy toward Third World
production were relaxed so as not to regimes he deemed hostile and increased
hinder economic recovery In 1948 military and other assistance to pro-US
government workers were forbidden to Third World regimes El Salvador Nicaragua
strike and US occupation authorities Grenada Afghanistan The Reagan Doctrine
started arresting communist sympathizers Angola Cambodia.
The prosecution of war criminals was 84Reagans policy towards Poland, the
quietly scaled down Responsibility for Soviet Union and China. Poland The Soviet
day-to-day government was increasingly Union China.
handed over to the Japanese. 85Gorbachev and the end of the Cold War.
298. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 6. The problems in US-Soviet relations in the
CONTAINMENT IN ASIA: B) CHINA US tried to first half of the 1980s were intensified
prevent communist victory in the civil war because of the deaths in quick succession
in China by supporting Jiang Jieshi and of three Soviet leaders Brezhnev in
his Nationalists (Kuomintang) For the November 1982, Yury Andropov in February
Americans the Cold War was as much a 1984, and Konstantine Chernenko in March
conflict over the control of key resources 1985 March 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev came to
as a battle of ideas. They believed that power. Took the initiative in the Cold War
the recovery of Japan depended on access The heart of his policies was glasnost
to the resources and markets of the (open debate on government policies) and
Chinese interior and that the communists perestroika (economic restructuring)
would prevent that. Gorbachev wanted to end the Cold war and
308. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 6. democratic renewal in the Soviet Union.
CONTAINMENT IN ASIA: C) KOREA, VIETNAM AND Both were necessary for economic
THE DEFENSIVE PERIMETER Worsening transformation in his country. Gorbachev
Soviet-American relations meant that focused first on arms control. Thought
neither side could agree on terms for that a limited number of nuclear weapons
unification of Korea. Policy-makers in provided sufficient security against US
America were convinced that USA must hold nuclear attack April 1985: To show his
on to South-Korea at least. US support and good will Gorbachev suspended the
economic aid to Syngman Rhee in countermeasures applied in response to the
South-Korea USA was supporting France in NATO INF deployments and halted further
its colonial war in Vietnam in spite of deployment of SS 20s November 1985:
the fact that one of Roosevelts aims for Gorbachev and Reagan met in Geneva and
the post-war era had been decolonization. established good personal relationship
Americans were afraid that withdraw of the January 1986: Gorbachev unveiled a plan
French from Vietnam would swell the rising for complete nuclear disarmament to take
tide of communism in Asia For America the place in three stages by the year of 2000.
first line of military defense against Stage One proposed that the United States
communism in Asia would not be the land and the Soviet Union reduce their
mass but a belt of offshore islands intermediate-range nuclear forces to zero,
including Japan, the Riukyu Islands, Guam and did not mention British, French, and
and the Philippines. US air bases and Chinese forces.
garrisons existed on all these islands and 86The Reykjav?k summit in October 1986.
formed a so-called defense perimeter Gorbachevs proposals at the Reykjav?k
against an Asian aggressor. summit: 1. Proposed a plan to cut US and
318. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 7. How Soviet strategic nuclear forces in half.
successful was the policy of containment? (Accepted US definition of strategic
1. The policy of containment had met with weapons). 2. Proposed that the United
reasonable success in Europe in September States and the Soviet Union should reduce
1949 A) Territorially communism made no their intermediate-range nuclear forces to
gains B) The influence of communist zero (accepted Reagans zero option) 3.
parties within Western Europe was in Wanted to strengthen the ABM treaty from
decline 2. In Asia the strategy of 1972 and confine the research of defenses
containment was less effective A) Success to laboratories. The United States should
in Japan and partly in South-Korea B) quit the SDI program. Although the two
Little success in China and Vietnam. leaders almost reached agreements on
328. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT. 8. Why eliminating nuclear weapons entirely,
was the policy of containment less Reagans dogged defense of SDI prevented
successful in Asia than in Europe? any agreement as the Soviet leader
American policy was resolutely Europe insisted that agreement on SDI was a
first The communist threat was more prerequisite for progress on all arms
complex in Asia than in Europe. Americans control matters.
assumed that communist forces everywhere 87After the Reykjav?k summit. Following
were part of a monolithic movement Reykjav?k, Gorbachev dropped his previous
answerable to Moscow and were slow to insistence that agreement on SDI was a
appreciate the diversity of Asian prerequisite for progress on all arms
communism The relative failure to contain control matters and accepted the zero
communism in many regions of Asia was the option proposed by the United States in
consequence more of the inherent 1981. December 1987: The Intermediate
popularity of communism based on Nuclear forces (INF) Treaty signed in
circumstances the US could not control Washington December 1988: Gorbachev
than of lack of American resources and announced a 12 percent unilateral
willpower In Vietnam for example US was reduction in total Soviet conventional
siding with an unpopular colonial power forces Change of Soviet strategy.
against a champion of national 88The collapse of the communist Eastern
independence. Europe in 1989. By the end of 1989 every
339. ESCALATION: GLOBAL COLD WAR, HOT pro-Soviet communist regime in Eastern
WAR IN KOREA 1950-53. 1. New communist Europe had collapsed; in Poland, Hungary,
threats: 1. Communist victory in the East-Germany (November 9-10, the Berlin
Chinese civil war in October 1949 2. The Wall, pr-eminent symbol of the Cold War
Soviet Union detonated its first atomic division of Germany and Europe, was
bomb in late August 1949. The end of breached), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and
American atomic monopoly 3. American Romania.
reaction: NSC 68. A document produced by 89The development following the collapse
the National Security Council in April of Eastern European communism. September
1950. Proposed a substantial increase in 12, 1990: A treaty signed where the
Americas military strength, i.e. expansion Soviets accepted German reunification as
of US conventional forces and its arsenal well as its membership in NATO October 3,
of atomic weapons and accelerated 1990: The Federal Republic of Germany
development of the hydrogen bomb. absorbed East Germany November 1990: NATO
349. THE KOREAN WAR 1950-53. 2. Hot war and the Warsaw Pact signed a treaty
starts in Korea: 1. North Korean soldiers drastically reducing the size and
cross the 38th parallel on 25 June 1950 A) armaments of their conventional forces in
Kim Il Sung, the leader of North Korea, Europe (the CFE-treaty) ratified by the
was encouraged (to invade South Korea) by United States in November 1991 July 1,
Achersons (US Secretary of State) defense 1991: The Warsaw Pact formally dissolved
perimeter speech in January 1950, in which At the same time Gorbachev was working to
he had omitted South Korea from a list of repair relations with the PRC December
countries which the United States would 1991: The Soviet Union disintegrated.
automatically defend in the event of 90End of the Cold War in the Third
aggression 2. Americas response: A) Was World. February 1988: Gorbachev announced
not in accordance with Achersons speech his intention to pull all Soviet troops
B) 27. June: The United States sponsored a from Afghanistan February 1989: the Soviet
resolution in the National Security Union withdraws its forces from
Council calling for military action Afghanistan Gorbachev successfully
against North-Korea. The resolution was pressured the Vietnamese to withdraw their
passed C) 30 June: Truman ordered American troops from Cambodia in two stages in 1988
troops stationed in Japan into Korea 3. and 1989 December 1989: An agreement
Why did America change its policy? A) They provided for the withdraw of all foreign
could not accept that Kim was acting forces from Angola by mid-1991 1990: The
independently. The invasion was Soviets began cutting back military
interpreted as a clear instance of Soviet assistance and withdrawing their advisers
expansionism. If US did nothing in Korea from Ethiopia and the Cubans withdrew
the neighboring states would fall to their combat forces and advisers at the
Soviet communism (the domino theory) B) On same time 1987: Peace effort led by Costa
another level, the invasion of South Korea Rican President Oscar Arias S?nchez ends
provided a test of Americas credibility the Cold War in Central America. The
and ability to resist communism across the Sandinistas agreed to hold free elections
world. in Nicaragua in February 1990.
359. THE KOREAN WAR 1950-53. 3. The 91Why the Cold War ended. While most
development of the war: 1. August 1950: scholars agree that the Cold War ended
The North-Koreans capture Seoul 2. when the leaders of the Soviet Union
September 1950: The UN forces occupied decided it was no longer worth fighting,
only a toehold around Pusan 3. Mac Arthur the reason for the shift in Soviet
lands UN forces behind enemy line at the policies are still in dispute. Two
port of Inchon and UN troops brake out of theories: 1. Reagans supporters and some
the Pusan perimeter 4. Truman decides to scholars claim that the Soviets shifted to
unify the two Korean states. The policy of less confrontational policies in response
rollback 5. China sends 260.000 troops to the US military build-up and political
across the Yalu River 6. January 1951: The offensive. In this view, US actions raised
fall of Pyongyang and Seoul 7. Truman the costs of confrontation and forced the
considers to use atomic weapons against Soviets into corner from which there was
China but eventually: 8. Abandons the no escape save for surrender 2. Other
objective of unifying Korea, reverts to scholars argue that the new generation of
the policy of restoring the 38th parallel Soviet leaders that emerged in the 1980s
and decides to fight a limited war in had already concluded that the policies of
Korea 9. Disagreements between Truman and their predecessors had been
MacArthur. Truman relieves Mac Arthur of counterproductive and that continued
his command in April 1951 10. February conflict threatened their goal of
1951: UN counterattack 11. March 1951: UN overcoming the disastrous legacy of
troops re-cross the 38th parallel. The Stalinism, reforming their economy,
battle line stabilized 12. July 1951: democratizing their policies, and
Peace talks begin 13. July 1953: revitalizing their society. According to
Armistice. this analysis, US actions did not cause
369. THE KOREAN WAR 1950-53. 4. the changes in Soviet domestic and foreign
Consequences: 1. Truman now supported the policies and might have delayed them by
increase in military spending proposed in providing opponents of reform with
NSC 68. Korea marked the militarization of arguments against better relations with
the Cold War 2. NATO was strengthened and the West and the relaxation of internal
enlarged 3. US started to prepare for a control.
rearmament of West Germany 4. US made 92The Vietnam war (1945-60). Before the
arrangements to secure Japan as a post-war Second World War: Vietnam part of the
ally 5. US support to Taiwan 6. The ANZUS French empire During the war: Vietnam
pact 7. United States threw its weight taken over by Japan Ho Chi Minh and his
behind the French in their war with the Viet Mihn (a communist-nationalist
Vietminh 8. The globalization of the Cold movement) conducted a military campaign
War. against the Japanese army After the war
37WHY AMERICA COMMITTED ITSELF TO LAND the French wanted to regain their colony
WAR IN KOREA? Kim Il Sung, the leader of but faced strong opposition from the Viet
North Korea was encouraged (to invade Mihn which was seeking Vietnamese
South Korea) by Achersons (US Secretary independence At first the USA wanted
of State) defense perimeter speech in Vietnamese independence but then decided
January 1950, in which he had omitted to help the French stay in Indochina as
South Korea from a list of countries which the Cold War developed. The US government
the United States would automatically concluded that Ho was an instrument of
defend in the event of aggression Why did international communism and believed that
America change its policy? 1. They could the loss of Indochina would have drastic
not accept that Kim was acting results for south-east Asia (the domino
independently. The invasion was theory) In 1950s US advisers already took
interpreted as a clear instance of Soviet part in military operation in Vietnam and
expansionism. If US did nothing in Korea by 1954 the USA was paying about 70 per
the neighboring states would fall to cent of the French military budget in
Soviet communism (the domino theory) 2. On Indochina On 7 May 1954 the French were
another level, the invasion of South Korea defeated by Viet Minh in the battle of
provided a test of Americas credibility Dien Bien Phu and decided to withdraw from
and ability to resist communism across the Vietnam At a conference held in Geneva in
world. July 1954 the opponents reached an
3810. EISENHOWERS COLD WAR 1953-61. 1. agreement about a temporary division of
1953: New strategy of containment: The Vietnam into North and South along the
new look. Differed from Trumans policy. 17th parallel and that national elections
Increased reliance on nuclear weapons. Now to bring about reunification would be held
regarded as a weapon of first and not last within two years (the Geneva Accords) The
resort. The doctrine of massive USA did not sign the Accords and started
retaliation. Smaller role for conventional to prop up South Vietnam to block
forces. More willingness to use covert communism from advancing from the North in
operations; CIA More willingness to use what was effectively the start of US
personal diplomacy as a legitimate part of involvement in the longest war in history
the policy of containment. In 1956 the USA appointed leader of
39EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. Europe: The South-Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, announced
Soviet suppression of workers uprising in that the national reunification elections
East-Germany in 1953. The United States would not be held Communists in the South,
did not do anything in spite of the fact known as the Viet Cong, began to organize
that US Secretary of State, John Foster resistance and guerrilla warfare In 1959
Dulles, had promised rollback and the North Vietnam announced its intention to
liberation of eastern European countries reunite Vietnam In 1960 the Viet Cong
under Soviet domination during the 1952 formed the National Liberation Front which
presidential election The Soviet acted as its political arm.
suppression of the Hungarian uprising in 93Kennedys Vietnam war. Kennedy adhered
1956. The United States did not do the domino theory Increased economic aid
anything The Rapacki Plan (1958). The to Diem and sent military advisers to
Soviet proposition of a phased reduction South-Vietnam. Just before his
of conventional forces and nuclear-free assassination, Kennedy authorized the CIA
zone in central Europe. US rejected the to assist a group of South Vietnamese
plan 1958: Khrushchevs demand that the generals in a coup against Diem. On 1
western powers quit Berlin within six November 1963, Diem was overthrown and he
months. Rejected by the West US difficulty and his brother were murdered.
with France. France refused to accept the 94Indochinas (Vietnams) impact on the
rearmament of West Germany. But eventually Cold War. The search for new alliances:
(1955) Germany joined NATO. Tensions over Indochina led the USA to
40EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. Korea Eisenhower create another NATO-type alliance for
was personally committed to a speedy end Asia. On 8 September 1954: the South East
to the Korean war Negotiations for Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was set
armistice foundered on the repatriation of up. The Soviet response to SEATO was to
North Korean and Chinese prisoners Ike give its support to the non-aligned
applied pressure to the Chinese by hinting grouping of African and Asian states which
that the US might use atomic weapons had been set up at the Bandung Conference
against the Chinese mainland In July 1953 in Indonesia. Mao was alarmed by the
the two sides agreed an end to announcement of the formation of SEATO.
hostilities. This was the reason for Chinas attack on
41EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. China, Taiwan the offshore islands, Quemoy, Matsu and
and the Offshore Islands Major crisis in Tachen Islands (1954-1955 and again 1958).
Sino-American relations in 1954,1955 and This tension over SEATO and the situation
1958 1954: The communist Chinas in Asia led to worsening relations between
bombardment of two tiny islands, Quemoy the USSR and China. On 20 June 1959, this
and Matsu, occupied by Taiwans growing Sino-Soviet split resulted in the
Nationalist forces 1955: The Chinese USSR suddenly withdrawing all its experts
communists attack the Tachen islands. US from China.
response: Fully supported Jiang Jieshi, 95Johnsons Vietnam war. When Lyndon B.
renewed its commitment to defend Taiwan Johnson became US president he was
against communist invasion and threatened determined to step up US involvement in
to use atomic bombs against China for the the war in South Vietnam August 1964: The
second time. The Formosa resolution 1958: Gulf of Tonkin Incident Congress persuaded
Renewed bombardment of Quemoy and Matsu. to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, March
US forces in the Far East put onto a war 1965: US bombers were flying regular
footing and a veiled threat of nuclear massive bombing missions against the North
strike against China again issued (Operation Rolling Thunder) March 1965:
Explanation of US response: Any instance Johnson sent some US ground forces to
of communist aggression regarded as a test South Vietnam July 1965: Johnson ordered
case of Americas determination to defend in 180,000 US troops 1968: The number of
the free world. Americans were aware US troops in Vietnam was 540,000 January
that a firm stance on the issue of the 1968: The Tet Offensive. Turned to be a
offshore islands might create cracks in turning point in the Vietnam war. March
the Sino-Soviet alliance. 1968: Johnson announced his decision not
42EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. Indochina to stand for re-election as the Democrat
(Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) American candidate in the November elections
intervention in the region was justified Johnson called for peace talks with the
by the domino theory (if Indochina fell to North Vietnamese and negotiations began in
the communists other Asian countries might Paris in May 1968.
follow) 1954: The French defeated at the 96Nixons Vietnam war. When Richard
Dien Bien Phu by Vietminh (the communist Nixon became US president he was
forces of Ho Chi Minh) Negotiations opened determined to end the war. Nixon decided
and the Geneva Accords concluded (in 1954) on a policy of Vietnamization of the war.
Vietnam temporarily divided along 17th Nixons method to get out of Vietnam was
parallel and provisions made for national to promising improved US-Soviet relations.
elections to unify the country within two This policy was called d?tente Nixon also
years The United States did not sign the made an attempt to improve relations with
Geneva Accords US policy was to bolster China January 1973: Vietnamese peace talks
South-Vietnam as a stable non-communist in Paris between Kissinger (USA) and Le
state South-East Asian Treaty Organization Duc Tho (North Vietnam), led to an
(SEATO) established. Its purpose was to agreement on ceasefire and the USA began
prevent communist interference in to withdraw its remaining troops On 29
Indochina The Americans opened military April 1975: The Viet Cong and the North
mission in South-Vietnam 1956: Eisenhower Vietnamese army captured Saigon (the
decided that South-Vietnam would not capital of South Vietnam). The same year
participate in the nationwide elections the Khmer Rough took power in Cambodia and
agreed at Geneva In the late 1950s: the Pathet Lao took over in Laos.
Vietcong and the National Liberation 97Effect of the Vietnam war on US policy
front established. Began to conduct after 1975. The new policy of d?tente as
guerrilla warfare against the government regards the communist world Kissinger
of South-Vietnam In Laos the pro-Western argued that the USA was focusing too much
government of Laos was encountering on communist activity in one area of the
opposition from communist group (the world at the expense of the total global
Pathet Lao). balance of power Kissinger also saw the
43EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. The Middle East; world had shifted from a bi-polar
Iran 1951: Mohammad Mossadeq appointed as international situation to a multi-polar
prime minister of Iran Nationalized the one US reluctance to commit its own troops
Anglo-Iranian Oil Company half owned by to other developing-world conflicts which
Britain Britain and the US then led a the USSR took advantage of.
boycott of Iranian oil on the world market 98Why did the United States fail to win
Americans decided to overthrow Mossadeq by the Vietnam war? Some statements: The
undercover operation The Shahs attempt to defeat was an inevitable consequence of
remove Mossadeq by the order of the the policy of gradual escalation imposed
Americans failed CIA orchestrated fake on the US military by a civilian
communist demonstration on the streets of government. The anti-war movement in the
Theran to arouse fear of communist USA encouraged the failure of political
takeover Then they mounted massive will to pursue the war to victory by
counter-demonstrations in the favor of the making a full commitment. The US military
Shah. American money was paid to street authorities relied too much on
mobs Mossadeq quit office and Iran was now conventional methods of warfare and did
clearly aligned with the United States. not understand the nature of guerrilla
44EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. 1955: The war. The USA did little to win over the
Baghdad Pact formed (Britain and Iraq and hearts and minds of the Vietnamese. The
later Iran and Pakistan) Purpose: Designed USA also failed to understand the
to exclude Soviet influence from the circumstances in Vietnam.
Middle East After 1959 it was known as the 99The nature of conflict during the Cold
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) when War. Ideological conflict: The cold war is
Iraq withdrew from the Baghdad Pact. often portrayed as a conflict between two
45EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. Egypt President competing ideologies: capitalism and
Nasser played off the two superpowers communism The USSR symbolized communism
against each other in an attempt to secure (the ideology of Marxism-Leninism),
aid for Egyptian economic development The involving a political system of one-party
United States offered to part-finance the state and an economic system of state
construction of the Aswan Dam in order to ownership The USA stood for liberal
avert an alignment between Egypt and the democracy, with its freedom of political
Soviet Union When Nasser recognized the expression, and capitalism with its
Peoples Republic of China in 1956, the US emphasis on private ownership of the
cancelled economic aid to Egypt As a economy Many scholars are critical of the
response Nasser nationalized the view that Cold War conflict was based
British-owned Suez Canal Company On 5 primarily on ideological differences. They
November Britain and France along with see the Cold War as a battle for supremacy
Israel started military operation against between two powerful countries pursuing
Egypt to regain the Suez Canal zone Soviet their own interests. Ideology was merely a
Union threatened to intervene militarily tool with which to attack the opposing
in defense of Egypt. Wanted cooperation side.
with US which Eisenhower rejected 100Economic measures in the Cold War. In
Eisenhower condemned the whole operation order to ensure that spheres of influence
and put pressure on the British, French were brought firmly under their control,
and Israel to withdraw their forces which the superpowers used economic measures
they did Soviet-Egyptian alliance emerged Restoring the economies of Europe after
in the aftermath of Suez Aroused fear in the Second World War was a powerful weapon
the West and the response was the of the USA against the spread of
Eisenhower Doctrine in January 1957 which communism, as well as securing its own
granted the president powers to send markets (the Marshall Plan) The USSR
economic and military aid to friendly viewed Marshall aid as an instrument of
states in the Middle East The Eisenhower capitalist interference and put pressure
Doctrine invoked in Jordan in 1957 and in on its satellite states to refuse the
July 1958 when Americans invaded Lebanon offer. The establishment of Comecon in
to halt Nassers influence in the region. 1949 provided the hope that eastern Europe
46EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. Central America would receive financial assistance from
and the Caribbean The United States viewed the Soviet Union but it tended to work to
Latin America and the Caribbean as its the advantage of the USSR. It also helped
backyard. Its aim was to exclude communism the regimes of eastern Europe to impose
from the Western hemisphere 1951: Jacobo Stalinist economic systems on their
Arbenz elected president in Guatemala countries Economic measures also played a
Started land reform by seizing unused land significant role in the Berlin Blockade of
owned by the US United Fruit Company 1948-9. The Wests decision to introduce a
Eisenhower saw it as the prelude to a new currency in the western sector of the
communist reform program and authorized a city highlighted the recovery of economic
CIA plan to overthrow Arbenz The CIA confidence in West Berlin and the
supplied the anti-communist Castillo Armas difference between the two systems in the
with funds, mercenaries and the base in city As the Cold War developed in the
Honduras In June 1954 Armas invaded 1960s and 1970s offers of financial
Guatemala supplied with two planes flown assistance became an important tool in
by US pilots and Arbenz fled to Mexico. securing the superpowers influence in the
47EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. Cuba On New Third World.
Years Day 1959 Fidel Castro came to power 101The superpowers non-cooperation during
in Cuba Quickly initiated a program of the Cold War. In 1945 the two superpowers
land distribution Castros confiscation of were still talking to each other By 1947
US assets on the island and his superpower cooperation had broken down The
recognition of communist China aroused degree of mistrust between them had caused
American fears that he might become each side to view the other as employing
Moscows ally When Cuba signed trade strategies of deliberate non-cooperation
agreement with the Soviet Union Eisenhower in order to secure their own interest. The
responded with an embargo on Cuban sugar superpowers came to the conclusion that
imports and instructed the CIA to train non-cooperation was a more effective
Cuban exiles in Guatemala for invasion of method of safeguarding their interests
the island Later US blocked all trade with than negotiation The withholding of
Cuba and in January 1961 the two countries information was one aspect of
broke off diplomatic relations. non-cooperation (f. example Hiroshima) The
48EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. US-Soviet Berlin crisis was a stark example of
relations under Eisenhower 1953: non-cooperation. The Berlin Wall was for
Eisenhowers proposal Atoms for Peace example to become symbolic of the
Plan. Khrushchev policy of peaceful non-cooperation between the superpowers
co-existence. May 1955: Agreement on the over Europe Tactics of non-cooperation
future of Austria. 1955: Geneva summit were used elsewhere during the Cold War
Ikes proposal of Open Skies. Rejected and played an important part in delaying
by the Russians. The Hungarian rising and and obstructing agreements that could have
the Suez crisis soon dissipated the ended conflict at an earlier stage
Spirit of Geneva The Russians launching Non-cooperation was an effective method of
the worlds first orbiting satellite, avoiding reaching an agreement that
Sputnik. Ike accused of allowing missile necessitated unpleasant compromises. It
gap to grow between USA and USSR. Ike was not until after the Cuban Missile
hoped for a ban on the atmospheric testing Crisis of 1962 had highlighted the dangers
of nuclear weapons. America ceased testing of non-cooperation that meaningful
in October 1958 and the Russians cooperation was partly resumed.
immediately followed suit in absence of 102Propaganda. Propaganda was viewed by
formal agreement Khrushchev issues an both sides as important tool used to
ultimatum giving the Americans six month consolidate their control over their
to leave Berlin. Ike ignored the ultimatum spheres of influence and ensuring loyalty
Khrushchev visits the United States in at home. Actually propaganda took a
September 1959 (the Spirit of Camp central place in the conflict of the Cold
David) On 1 May 1960 a U-2 spy plane shot War US propaganda: US propaganda focused
down over the Soviet union The U-2 on freedom as the basis of Americanism and
incident and its consequences. attacked communism for the limits it
49EISENHOWERS COLD WAR. Eisenhower: An seemed to impose on this In order to get
assessment Western Europe offered a secure its message through the US government
frontier against communism Were successful established the United States Information
in confining China (the doctrine of Agency, radio stations (Voice of America
massive relations) Friendly Iran ensured and Radio Free Europe), the Office of
Avoided major split with Arab states International Information and Cultural
because of his policy in the Suez crisis Affairs, US libraries in foreign
Controlled the cost of the cold war The countries, the film industry, videos and
policy in Indochina was failure The so on Soviet propaganda: The Soviet
overthrow of Mossadeq and Arbenz examples authorities took measures to ensure that
of American imperialism CIA too powerful the ideas that the Soviet population was
Authorization of U-2 flight was a major exposed to were restricted. Any sign of
error. western influence were to be condemned and
50KENNEDY. Cold warrior Policy of severely dealt with. The Soviet
flexible response Main elements: A) authorities laid down strict guidelines
Increase in conventional forces and for literature and other arts in an
enlargement of nuclear arsenal, B) attempt to purify them of western
Economic aid, C) Covert action, D) bourgeois influences. As all Soviet
Negotiation 1. Increase in military media were under state control, the
spending and buildup of military forces 2. government was able to coordinate the
Economic aid as an instrument of information provided to its own
containment. Alliance for Progress 3. population.
Covert action, invasion of Cuba, Operation 103Espionage. The use of spies became a
of Mongoose 4. Negotiations with Russia. central weapon in the battle for
51KENNEDY. The central purpose of superpower supremacy. Espionage was used
flexible response To expand the to gain information on the enemy Soviet
available means of countering communism. agents played a vital role in passing
(The doctrine of massive retaliation important secrets to the Soviet
left the president with very few options authorities, (for example securing the
if the opponent did not give in to nuclear information required to make the atomic
blackmail) To meet the assumption that the bomb) Soviet espionage was organized by
communist threat was more diverse than the KGB In the USA the CIA was established
before To serve as a reaction to the new in 1947 in order to collect and analyze
tactics of the communist powers and the information on threats to US security. The
expansion of the Cold War into new areas successes of CIA included the overthrow of
of the world (Khrushchev had promised that left-wing governments in Guatemala (1954),
the Russians would champion wars of Iran (1953) and Chile (1973). The agency
national liberation). also developed successful intelligence
52KENNEDY. Military spending Grew by 13 gathering using the U2 spy plane and space
per cent under Kennedy. The defense budget satellites Perhaps the most serious
rose from 47.4 billion dollars in 1961 to failures for the CIA was its involvement
53.6 in 1964 The cuts in conventional in the Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961 and
forces imposed by Ike were reversed by the incident when U2 spy plane was shot
Kennedy. The number of combat-ready down over the Soviet Union in may 1960.
divisions increased considerably and the 104East-West relations between 1948 and
armed forces grew in size. 1962. In 1948 Cold War positions in Europe
53KENNEDY. Alliance for progress Kennedy had been consolidated. Before 1950 the
wanted to remove the economic conditions Cold War had been focused on Europe but
which created the seed-bed for communism after 1950, this changed. The main
In an attempt to alleviate poverty in changes: 1. The development of globalism.
Latin America the Alliance for Progress 2. The nuclear arms race. 3. The thaw.
was founded in 1961 and 20 billion dollars 105East-West relations between 1948 and
was set aside to promote living standards. 1962. Issues which caused tension in the
54KENNEDY. Covert actions In 1961 the period 1948-55 1. The German problem. 2.
CIA planned an invasion of Cuba by The rise of communism in the Far East. 3.
anti-Castro Cuban exiles and subsequently European decolonization. 4. Soviet actions
implemented Operation Mongoose, whose in limiting de stalinization. 5. The arms
objective was to destabilize Castros race.
communist regime in Cuba and ultimately to 106East-West relations between 1948 and
bring down the Cuban leader. 1962. The hostile stand-off between the
55KENNEDY. Laos Civil war between Pathet superpowers changed after 1953. There was
Lao (communists) and the pro-western a move towards establishing a dialogue
government installed by CIA. In 1961 between the superpowers Factors that
Kennedy threatened US military promoted a thaw in superpower relations
intervention in the war. In 1962 an between 1948 and 1955 1. The consolidation
agreement was concluded but an unofficial of positions. 2. The death of Stalin. 3.
war continued. Khrushchev and Peaceful Coexistence. 4.
56KENNEDY. Vietnam 1. The Domino Theory The policy of Eisenhower and Dulles. (From
2. Kennedy increased economic aid to South the early 1950s, both the superpowers saw
Vietnam and dispatched additional military the necessity to reach an accommodation
advisers but rejected advice to commit US with each other of economic reasons and to
ground troops 3. In 1959 the communists in avoid nuclear war).
the North had pledged themselves to the 107East-West relations between 1948 and
reunification of Vietnam by armed 1962. The achievements of the thaw?
struggle. Formed National Liberation Front Resulted in a series of summits between
which was the political wing of the Eisenhower and Khrushchev after 1953 which
Vietcong 4. Kennedys response: A) became part of the so-called Geneva
Increased the number of US military Spirit. The thaw marked an improvement
advisers B) Authorized counter-insurgency in relations between the two superpowers
operations against the communist but caused a serious split between USSR
guerrillas C) Pressed Diem (the president and China.
of South Vietnam) to enact reforms 5. In 108The crises between 1956 and 1962 and
November 1963 CIA and Kennedy encouraged the nature of the Cold War. The period
army generals to overthrow Diem because of 1956-62 saw a series of important crises
rising unrest in the country. develop, which revealed the superficial
57KENNEDY. Why did Kennedy get involved nature of the thaw and created need for
in the Vietnam war? Was an adherent of the some form of rules by which conflict
domino theory: the communist takeover of should take place and be limited. Those
South-Vietnam would expose other Asian crises were the following: 1. The
states to communist influence. Vietnam was Hungarian rising, 1956. 2. Berlin,
considered as part of larger struggle 1958-62. 3. The Cuban Missile Crisis,
between the US and the communist powers. 1962. Assessment and conclusion.
The survival of an independent 109The change of superpower rivalry
non-communist Vietnam was an article of between 1979 and 1991. Carters role in
faith. the Second Cold war. The D?tente period
58KENNEDY. US military strategies in finally broke down by the Soviet invasion
Vietnam. The strategic hamlet program of Afghanistan in 1979 It marked the
and Search and destroy missions After beginning of the Second Cold War The
Vietnamese civilians had been persuaded superpower hostility can nevertheless be
to move into strategic hamlets in areas seen as early as 1976 during the US
controlled by the South-Vietnamese army presidency of Jimmy Carter The reason was
and the USA (to remove them from contact Carters inexperience in foreign affairs
with the Viet Cong), US troops were then (the central weakness of his foreign
sent into these cleared areas to search policy was his inconsistency in choosing
and destroy the Viet Cong. It was assumed which advice to follow) and his emphasis
that any Vietnamese who remained in such on human rights which increased rather
areas must be members or supporters of the than reduced tension Carter reached
Viet Cong, so troops were encouraged to agreement with Brezhnev on SALT II Treaty
achieve a high body count Spraying of in June 1979 but he was under growing
defoliant such as Agent orange in order to pressure from critics at home who thought
deprive Vietcong soldiers of cover in the that all negotiations with the Soviet
jungle The use of chemical napalm. Union were made at USAs expense
59KENNEDY. The Berlin crisis 1961 In Accusations that the Soviets were
June 1961 Kennedy and Khrushchev held a increasing their influence in the Third
summit in Vienna One of the key issues was World led Carter to increase supplies of
the future of Berlin The Soviet leader arms to anti-communist groups and
wanted withdraw of Western forces from governments in the Third World The Soviet
Berlin. Otherwise USSR would conclude a invasion in Afghanistan in 1979 (because
separate peace treaty with East Germany of the Islamic revolution in Iran the same
which would terminate the post-war rights year the spread of the Muslim
of the Western powers in Berlin and allow Fundamentalists posed a threat to Soviet
East Germany to close off air, road and interests) marked the end of any further
rail corridors to West Berlin Kennedy negotiation between the superpowers and
stated that the presence of Western troops killed D?tente Carter was unwilling to let
was non-negotiable The summit broke up the USSR get away with an intervention in
without an agreement After the summit affairs of a foreign country. (Looked at
Khrushchev issued a six-month deadline for the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan as
the withdraw of Western troops from Berlin a threat to US oil interests in the Middle
Kennedys response was tough. Prepared the East which had already been affected by
USA for war with the USSR In August the the Iranian revolution) His initial
East German government began to seal off response was to withdraw the SALT II
the eastern part of the city by fences Treaty from the Senate, cut off trade
which were later strengthened to form the contacts between the USA and the USSR and
Berlin Wall US and USSR tanks in Berlin encourage a western boycott of the Moscow
moved into position. Serious confrontation Olympics in 1980 A sign of the developing
between the two superpowers ensued until tension and hostility was Carters
both sides agreed to withdraw Khrushchev decision to increase arms spending.
abandoned his attempt to force the Western Presidential Directive 59 authorized an
powers out of the city Berlin ceases to be increase in the US nuclear arsenal: the
a major issue in US-Soviet relations. era of arms limitation was at an end.
60KENNEDY. The Bay of Pigs invasion 110The change of superpower rivalry
Kennedy inherited a secret plan by CIA to between 1979 and 1991. Reagans role in
topple Castro 17 April 1961: The invasion the Second Cold War President Ronald
at the Bay of Pigs by anti-Castro exiles Reagans attacks on the Soviet Union were
equipped and financed by the Americans The a major factor in the escalation of the
invasion failed completely After that Second Cold War He saw the USSR and
Washington attempted to weaken Castros communism as the embodiment of evil Reagan
regime by a program of covert action increased defense spending by 13 per cent
(Operation Mongoose), economic and in 1982 and over 8 per cent in each of the
diplomatic isolation of Cuba, and military following two years Central to his arms
pressure. (American agents sabotaged build-up was the Strategic Defense
petroleum installations on the island, Initiative announced in 1983 Reagan also
while the CIA sank Cuban merchant vessels took decisive measures to try to halt the
in the Caribbean) Castros response: growth of Soviet influence in the Third
Increased Soviet military support. Russia World by developing what became known as
starts to deploy ballistic missiles on the the Reagan Doctrine (assistance and
island The aggressive policy of the United military supplies to anti-communist
States towards Cuba was partly a cause of insurgents as well as anti-communist
the Cuban missile crisis. governments, invasion of Grenada and so
61KENNEDY. The Cuban missile crisis in on) (Instability in the political
October 1962 14 Oct: Kennedy saw U-2 situation of the Soviet union because of a
photographs of missile sites and launch succession of old and infirm leaders
pads on Cuba 16 Oct: Kennedy assembled caused difficulties for the superpowers in
Ex-Comm group of advisers. Two reaching agreements).
alternatives discussed, A) Naval blockade 111Why the Cold War came to an end.
of Cuba, B) Air strikes 22 Oct: Kennedy Gorbachevs new political thinking Mikhail
announced Quarantine on national Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet
television 24 Oct: Soviet ships carrying Union in 1985 He recognized the need for
warheads turned back in face of blockade urgent reform of the Soviet system and
26 Oct: Khrushchev sent his first understood that the domestic reform
telegram: removal of missiles in return required a change in international policy
for non-invasion pledge. U-2 shot down This could be done only if arms limitation
over Cuba 27 Oct Khrushchev sent his talks with the USA were reopened and
second telegram stating removal of US military spending reduced Gorbachevs new
Jupiter missiles in Turkey as condition of political thinking presupposed that
withdraw of Soviet missiles from Cuba. US confrontation between the superpowers were
offered non-invasion pledge in return for unproductive because it led to escalation
dismantling of Soviet missiles. Robert in arms and retaliatory measures that
Kennedy met Dobrynin and offered private increased insecurity Gorbachevs new
assurance about later removal of Jupiters political thinking presupposed a
28 Oct: Khrushchev agreed to withdraw re-evaluation of Soviet interference in
missiles in return for non-invasion the Third World Gorbachevs new political
commitment The Jupiters were withdrawn in thinking omitted the theory of
April 1963. international class struggle and focused
62KENNEDY. Consequences of the Cuban instead on universal values of human
missile crisis Kennedy gained politically rights to promote the interests of all
and personally from the missile crisis peoples Gorbachevs new political thinking
US-Soviet relations improved after the meant that it was unnecessary to have
crisis. Both Kennedy and Khrushchev now eastern Europe as a Soviet sphere of
initiated a period of detente. A hot influence.
line between Moscow and Washington was 112Why the Cold War came to an end.
set up Both superpowers supported a UN Gorbachevs actions and the consequences
resolution prohibiting the deployment of of his new political thinking Gorbachev
weapons in outer space The most proposed phasing out nuclear weapons and
significant breakthrough, however, was the offered a series of ever increasing
Test Ban Treaty agreed in June 1963 concessions that took the US leadership by
Operation Mongoose continued and plans to surprise At Washington in 1987 the INF
assassinate Castro. agreement was signed leading to the
63KENNEDY: AN ASSESSMENT. Succeeded in scrapping of all intermediate-range
Berlin The Cuban missile crisis US-Soviet ballistic missiles By 1988 Gorbachev
relations improved after 1962 The hot line announced his intention to withdraw Soviet
and the test ban treaty Failed in The troops from Afghanistan and reduce its
Alliance for Progress Bay of Pigs invasion forces in eastern Europe by half a million
Laos Vietnam. In 1989 communism in Eastern Europe
64From Cold War to D?tente 1963-73. collapsed and Germany was reunified the
Overview In the 1960s Kennedy and Johnson year after In 1991 the superpowers signed
continued to build up US strategic forces the START I Treaty and the Soviet Union
and expand its conventional forces Decline collapsed.



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The english-speaking countries - The English-speaking countries. Australia. Great Britain. Disneyland. USA. Scotland.

The green movement - Green color which is used by participants of movement as the general emblem, serves as a symbol of the nature, hope and updating. National offices Green Peace are opened in 43 countries of the world as the independent units working over achievement of the purposes of the national projects. Their features.

Invention - The term bicycle was coined in France in the 1860s. The Invention of Television. Percy Spencer invented the first microwave oven after World War II from radar technology developed during the war. John Baird opens the first TV studio, however, the image quality was poor. He is considered by many Italians as the inventor of the telephone.

Word 2010 - Insert a table of contents. Character spacing. Page breaks. Change height and width. Sorting and filter records. Summary. Table of contents. Toggle switches. Using an excel worksheet. Tables organize information. Match fields with database. Modify styles. Columns. Reviewing pane. Merge and split cells.


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