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15.0 Ocean Energy

содержание презентации «15.0 Ocean Energy.ppt»
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115.0 Ocean Energy. Frank R. Leslie, B. 2215.4.4.1 Water-Driven Wave Turbines.
S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology Waves can be funneled and channeled into a
3/25/2004, Rev. 1.4 fleslie @fit.edu; rising chute to charge a reservoir over a
(321) 674-7377 www.fit.edu/~fleslie. “It weir or through a swing-gate Water passes
is pleasant, when the sea is high and the through waterwheel or turbine back to the
winds are dashing the waves about, to ocean Algerian V-channel [Kotch, p.228]
watch from shore the struggles of Wave forces require an extremely strong
another.” Lucretius, 99-55 B.C. structure and mechanism to preclude damage
215.O Overview of Ocean Energy. Ocean The Ocean Power Delivery wave energy
energy is replenished by the sun and converter Pelamis has articulated sections
through tidal influences of the moon and that stream from an anchor towards the
sun gravitational forces Near-surface shore Waves passing overhead produce
winds induce wave action and cause hydraulic pressure in rams between
wind-blown currents at about 3% of the sections This pressure drives hydraulic
wind speed Tides cause strong currents motors that spin generators, and power is
into and out of coastal basins and rivers conducted to shore by cable 750 kW
Ocean surface heating by some 70% of the produced by a group 150m long and 3.5m
incoming sunlight adds to the surface diameter. 040323.
water thermal energy, causing expansion 2315.4.4.2 Air-Driven Wave Turbines. A
and flow Wind energy is stronger over the Wavegen™, wave-driven, air compressor or
ocean due to less drag, although oscillating water column (OWC) spins a
technically, only seabreezes are from two-way Wells turbine to produce
ocean energy. 040323. electricity This British invention uses an
315.1 Ocean Energy. Sustainable energy air-driven Wells turbine with symmetrical
comes from the sun or from tidal forces of blades Incoming waves pressurize air
the moon and sun; usually implies not within a heavy concrete box, and trapped
using it faster than can be replenished air rushes upward through pipe connecting
The tidal gravitational forces and thermal the turbine Wells turbine is spun to
storage of the ocean provide a major starting speed by external electrical
energy source Wave action adds to the power and spins the same rotation
extractable surface energy, but is less regardless of air flow direction Energy is
than tidal energy Major ocean currents estimated at 65 megawatts per mile.
(like the Gulf Stream) may be exploited to http://www.bfi.org/Trimtab/summer01/oceanW
extract energy with underwater rotors ve.htm. 040324. Photo by Wavegen.
similar to wind turbines. 040324. 2415.4.4.2 Air-Driven Wave Turbines
415.1 History. Some first uses of ocean (Con’t). A floating buoy can compress
energy: Tidal grain mills developed trapped air similar to a whistle buoy The
Currents used to cross the Atlantic and oscillating water column (OWC) in a long
return Ocean winds blow boats (sometimes pipe under the buoy will lag behind the
where desired). 040324. buoy motion due to inertia of the water
515.2 Sources of Energy. Tidal motion column The compressed air spins a
of water up and down changes potential turbine/alternator to generate electricity
energy Changes of pressure beneath the at $0.09/kWh. The Japanese “Mighty Whale”
tide height Tidal horizontal flow into has an air channel to capture wave energy.
basins and rivers results Wind-driven Width is 30m and length is 50 m. There are
motion of water horizontally increases two 30 kW and one 50 kW
kinetic energy Changes in flow rate that turbine/generators. 040324.
produces strong currents Solar heating of http://www.earthsci.org/esa/energy/wavpwr/
surface waters warms the ocean by avepwr.html.
conduction Upwelling and overturning mixes 2515.5 Ocean Energy: OTEC (Ocean Thermal
and heats lower layers. 040325. Electric Conversion). Hawaii has the
615.2.1 Available Energy. Potential research OTEC system [shut down in 1985?]
Energy: PE = mh Kinetic Energy: KE = ? mv2 OTEC requires some 40°F temperature
or ? mu2 Wave energy is proportional to difference between the surface and deep
wave length times wave height squared waters to extract energy Open-cycle plants
(LH2)per wave length per unit of crest vaporize warm water and condense it using
length A four-foot (1.2 m), ten-second the cold sea water, yielding potable water
wave striking a coast expends more than and electricity from turbine-driven
35, 000 HP per mile of coast [Kotch, p. alternators Closed-cycle units evaporate
247] Maximum Tidal Energy, E = 2HQ x ammonia at 78°F to drive a turbine and an
353/(778 x 3413) = 266 x 10-6 HQ kWh/yr, alternator. Ref.:
where H is the tidal range (ft) and Q is www.nrel.gov/otec/achievements.html.
the tidal flow (lbs of seawater) E = 2 HQ 040324.
ft-lb/lunar day (2 tides) or E = 416 x 2615.6 Current Flow Turbines. Current
10-4 HV kWh, where V is cubic feet of flow turbines are essentially waterproof
flow. 040323. underwater wind turbines The forces are
715.3 Ocean Energy: Tidal Energy. Tides much greater since water has 832 times the
are produced by gravitational forces of density of air Turbines can turn slowly
the moon and sun and the Earth’s rotation and are less likely to damage marine
Existing and possible sites: France: 1966 animals This version is raised above the
La Rance river estuary 240 MW station water surface for maintenance. 040324.
Tidal ranges of 8.5 m to 13.5 m; 10 2715.7 Hydraulic Pressure Absorbers for
reversible turbines England: Severn River Wave and Tide. Large synthetic rubber bags
Canada: Passamaquoddy in the Bay of Fundy filled with water could be placed offshore
(1935 attempt failed) California: high where large waves pass overhead Also
potential along the northern coast respond to tides A connecting pipe
Environmental, economic, and esthetic conducts hydraulic pressure to a positive
aspects have delayed implementation displacement motor that spins a generator
Lunar/solar power is asynchronous with The motor can turn a generator to make
daily load cycle. 040325. electricity that varies sinusoidally with
815.3 Tidal Energy. Tidal mills were the pressure.
used in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries http://www.bfi.org/Trimtab/summer01/oceanW
in England, France, and elsewhere Millpond ve.htm. 040323.
water was trapped at high tide by a gate 2815.8 Other Issues. Biofouling can clog
(Difficult working hours for the miller; intake pipes or other parts of submerged
Why?) Rhode Island, USA, 18th Century, equipment Storms can tear loose moorings,
20-ton wheel 11 ft in diameter and 26 ft leading to loss of equipment Offshore
wide Hamburg, Germany, 1880 “mill” pumped units may pose a navigation hazard Simple
sewage Slade’s Mill in Chelsea, MA founded obstruction Adrift from a storm NIMBYs may
1734, 100HP, operated until ~1980 Deben not want to see them and loudly protest.
estuary, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England has 040324.
been operating since 1170 (reminiscent of 2915.C Conclusion. Renewable energy
“the old family axe”; only had three new offers a long-term approach to the World’s
handles and two new heads!) Tidal mills energy needs Economics drives the energy
were common in USA north of Cape Cod, selection process and short-term (first
where a 3 m range exists [Redfield, 1980] cost) thinking leads to disregard of
Brooklyn NY had tidal mill in 1636 [?]. long-term, overall cost Wave and tidal
040323. energy are more expensive than wind and
915.3 Tidal Energy (continued). solar energy, the present leaders
Potential energy = S integral from 0 to 2H Increasing oil, gas, and coal prices will
(?gz dz), where S is basin area, H is ensure that the transition to renewable
tidal amplitude, ? is water density, and g energy occurs Offshore and shoreline wind
is gravitational constant yielding 2 S ? energy plants offer a logical approach to
gH2 Mean power is 2 S ? gH2/tidal period; part of future energy supplies. 040324.
semidiurnal better Tidal Pool Arrangements 30References: Books, etc. General:
Single-pool empties on ebb tide S?rensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second
Single-pool fills on flood tide Edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000,
Single-pool fills and empties through 911 pp. ISBN 0-12-656152-4. Henry, J.
turbine Two-pool ebb- and flood-tide Glenn and Gary W. Heinke. Environmental
system; two ebbs per day; alternating pool Science and Engineering. Englewood Cliffs:
use Two-pool one-way system (high and low Prentice-Hall, 728pp., 1989.
pools) (turbine located between pools). 0-13-283177-5, TD146.H45, 620.8-dc19
040323. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge
1015.3.1 Tidal Water Turbines. Current MA: The MIT Press, 1992. 0-262-02349-0,
flow converted to rotary motion by tidal TJ807.9.U6B76, 333.79’4’0973. Di Lavore,
current Turbines placed across Rance Philip. Energy: Insights from Physics. NY:
River, France Large Savonius rotors (J. S. John Wiley & Sons, 414pp., 1984.
Savonius, 1932?) placed across channel to 0-471-89683-7l, TJ163.2.D54, 621.042.
rotate at slow speed but creating high Bowditch, Nathaniel. American Practical
torque (large current meter) Horizontal Navigator. Washington:USGPO, H.O. Pub. No.
rotors proposed for Gulf Stream placement 9. Harder, Edwin L. Fundamentals of Energy
off Miami, Florida. 040323. Production. NY: John Wiley & Sons,
1115.3.1.1 Tidal Flow: Rance River, 368pp., 1982. 0-471-08356-9, TJ163.9.H37,
France. 240 MW plant with 24, 10 MW 333.79. Tidal Energy, pp. 111-129. Wind:
turbines operated since 1966 Average head Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power
is 28 ft Area is approximately 8.5 square Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 351
miles Flow approx, 6.64 billion cubic feet pp. ISBN 0-8493-1605-7, TK1541.P38 1999,
Maximum theoretical energy is 7734 million 621.31’2136 Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for
kWh/year; 6% extracted Storage pumping Home & Business. White River Junction,
contributes 1.7% to energy level At neap VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., 1993.
tides, generates 80,000 kWh/day; at 0-930031-64-4, TJ820.G57, 621.4’5 Johnson,
equinoctial spring tide, 1,450,000 kWh/day Gary L, Wind Energy Systems. Englewood
(18:1 ratio!); average ~500 million Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. TK 1541.J64
kWh/year Produces electricity cheaper than 1985. 621.4’5; 0-13-957754-8. Waves:
oil, coal, or nuclear plants in France. Smith, Douglas J. “Big Plans for Ocean
040323. Power Hinges on Funding and Additional
1215.3.1.2 Tidal Flow: Passamaquoddy, R&D”. Power Engineering, Nov. 2001, p.
Lower Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada. 91. Kotch, William J., Rear Admiral, USN,
Proposed to be located between Maine (USA) Retired. Weather for the Mariner.
and New Brunswick Average head is 18.1 ft Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Flow is approximately 70 billion cubic 551.5, QC994.K64, Chap. 11, Wind, Waves,
feet per tidal cycle Area is approximately and Swell. Solar: Duffie, John and William
142 square miles About 3.5 % of A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal
theoretical maximum would be extracted Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons,
Two-pool approach greatly lower maximum Inc., 920 pp., 1991. 040323.
theoretical energy International 31References: Books. Brower, Michael.
Commission studied it 1956 through 1961 Cool Energy. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press,
and found project uneconomic then Deferred 1992. 0-262-02349-0, TJ807.9.U6B76,
until economic conditions change. 040323. 333.79’4’0973. Duffie, John and William A.
[Ref.: Harder]. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal
1315.3.1.3 Other Tidal Flow Plants under Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons,
Study. Annapolis River, Nova Scotia: Inc., 920 pp., 1991 Gipe, Paul. Wind
straight-flow turbines; demonstration Energy for Home & Business. White
plant was to be completed in 1983; 20 MW; River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub.
tides 29 to 15 feet; Tidal Power Corp.; Co., 1993. 0-930031-64-4, TJ820.G57,
~$74M Experimental site at Kislaya Guba on 621.4’5 Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar
Barents Sea French 400 kW unit operated Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press,
since 1968 Plant floated into place and 1999, 351 pp. ISBN 0-8493-1605-7,
sunk: dikes added to close gaps Sea of TK1541.P38 1999, 621.31’2136 S?rensen,
Okhotsk (former Sov. Union) under study in Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition.
1980 White Sea, Russia: 1 MW, 1969 San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp.
Murmansk, Russia: 0.4 MW Kiansghsia in ISBN 0-12-656152-4. 040323.
China. 040324. 32References: Internet. General:
1415.3.1.3 Other Tidal Flow Plants under http://www.google.com/search?q=%22renewabl
Study (continued). Severn River, Great +energy+course%22 http://www.ferc.gov/
Britain: range of 47 feet (14.5 m) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
calculated output of 2.4 MWh annually. http://solstice.crest.org/
Proposed at $15B, but not economic. http://dataweb.usbr.gov/html/powerplant_se
Chansey Islands:20 miles off Saint Malo, ection.html
France; 34 billion kWh per year; not http://mailto:energyresources@egroups.com
economic; environmental problems; project http://www.dieoff.org. Site devoted to the
shelved in 1980 San Jose, Argentina: decline of energy and effects upon
potential of 75 billion kWh/year; tidal population Tidal:
range of 20 feet (6m) China built several http://www.unep.or.kr/energy/ocean/oc_intr
plants in the 1950s Korean potential sites .htm
(Garolim Bay). 040323. http://www.bluenergy.com/technology/protot
1515.4 Wave Energy. Energy of pes.html
interchanging potential and kinetic energy http://www.iclei.org/efacts/tidal.htm
in the wave Cycloidal motion of wave http://zebu.uoregon.edu/1996/ph162/l17b.ht
particles carries energy forward without l
much current Typical periodicities are one http://www.bluenergy.com/public/index_2.ht
to thirty seconds, thus there are l Waves:
low-energy periods between high-energy http://www.env.qld.gov.au/sustainable_ener
points In 1799, Girard & Son of Paris y/publicat/ocean.htm
proposed using wave power for powering http://www.bfi.org/Trimtab/summer01/oceanW
pumps and saws California coast could ve.htm http://www.oceanpd.com/
generate 7 to 17 MW per mile [Smith, p. http://www.newenergy.org.cn/english/ocean/
91]. 040324. verview/status.htm
1615.4 Ocean Energy: Wave Energy. Wave http://www.energy.org.uk/EFWave.htm
energy potential varies greatly worldwide. http://www.earthsci.org/esa/energy/wavpwr/
Figures in kW/m. Source: Wave Energy avepwr.html. 040324.
paper. IMechE, 1991 and European Directory 33References: Internet. Thermal:
of Renewable Energy (Suppliers and http://www.nrel.gov/otec/what.html
Services) 1991. 040323. http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/ert/otec_hi.ht
1715.4.1 Concepts of Wave Energy l#anchor349152 on OTEC systems Wind:
Conversion. Change of water level by tide http://awea-windnet@yahoogroups.com. Wind
or wave can move or raise a float, Energy elist
producing linear motion from sinusoidal http://awea-wind-home@yahoogroups.com.
motion Water current can turn a turbine to Wind energy home powersite elist
yield rotational mechanical energy to http://telosnet.com/wind/20th.html.
drive a pump or generator Slow rotation 040323.
speed of approximately one revolution per 34References: Websites, etc.
second to one revolution per minute less awea-windnet@yahoogroups.com. Wind Energy
likely to harm marine life Turbine reduces elist awea-wind-home@yahoogroups.com. Wind
energy downstream and could protect energy home powersite elist
shoreline Archimedes Wave Swing is a Dutch geothermal.marin.org/ on geothermal energy
device [Smith, p. 91]. 040323. mailto:energyresources@egroups.com
1815.4.2 Water Current Equations (also rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps/chap2/
applies to wind turbines). Assume a “tube” -01m.html PNNL wind energy map of CONUS
of water the diameter, D, of the rotor A = windenergyexperimenter@yahoogroups.com.
? D2/4 A length, L, of water moves through Elist for wind energy experimenters
the turbine in t seconds L = u·t, where u www.dieoff.org. Site devoted to the
is the water speed The tube volume is V = decline of energy and effects upon
A·L = A·u·t Water density, ?, is 1000 population www.ferc.gov/ Federal Energy
kg/m3 Mass, m = ?·V = ?·A·u·t, where V is Regulatory Commission
volume Kinetic energy = KE = ? mu2. www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/ert/otec_hi.html#anch
040323. r349152 on OTEC systems
1915.4.2 Water Current Equations telosnet.com/wind/20th.html
(continued). Substituting ?·A·u·t for www.google.com/search?q=%22renewable+energ
mass, and A = ? D2/4 , KE = +course%22 solstice.crest.org/
?·?/4·?·D2·u3·t Theoretical power, Pt = dataweb.usbr.gov/html/powerplant_selection
?·?/4·?·D2·u3·t/t = 0.3927·?W·D2·u3, ? html. 040325.
(rho) is the density, D is the diameter 35Units and Constants. Units: Power in
swept by the rotor blades, and u is the watts (joules/second) Energy (power x
speed parallel to the rotor axis Betz Law time) in watt-hours Constants: 1 m =
shows 59.3% of power can be extracted Pe = 0.3048 ft exactly by definition 1 mile =
Pt·59.3%·?r·?t·?g, where Pe is the 1.609 km; 1m/s = 2.204 mi/h (mph) 1 mile2
extracted power, ?r is rotor efficiency, = 27878400 ft2 = 2589988.11 m2 1 ft2 =
?t is transmission efficiency, and ?g is 0.09290304 m2; 1 m2 = 10.76391042 ft2 1
generator efficiency For example, ft3 = 28.32 L = 7.34 gallon = 0.02832 m3;
59.3%·90%·98%·80% = 42% extraction of 1 m3 = 264.17 US gallons 1 m3/s = 15850.32
theoretical power. 040324. US gallons/minute g = 32.2 ft/s2 = 9.81
2015.4.3 Salter “Ducks”. Scottish m/s2; 1 kg = 2.2 pounds Air density, ?
physicist Prof. Stephen Salter invented (rho), is 1.225 kg/m3 or 0.0158 pounds/ft3
“Nodding Duck” energy converter in 1970 at 20?C at sea level Solar Constant: 1368
Salter “ducks” rock up and down as the W/m2 exoatmospheric or 342 W/m2 surface
wave passes beneath it. This oscillating (80 to 240 W/m2) 1 HP = 550 ft-lbs/s =
mechanical energy is converted to 42.42 BTU/min = = 746 W (J/s) 1 BTU = 252
electrical energy Destroyed by storm A cal = 0.293 Wh = 1.055 kJ 1 atmosphere =
floating two-tank version drives hydraulic 14.696 psi = 33.9 ft water = 101.325 kPa =
rams that send pressurized oil to a 76 cm Hg =1013.25 mbar 1 boe (42- gallon
hydraulic motor that drives a generator, barrel of oil equivalent) = 1700 kWh.
and a cable conducts electricity to shore. 040323.
Ref.: www.fujita.com/archive-frr/ 36Energy Equations. Electricity: E=IR;
TidalPower.html ©1996 Ramage. P=I2 R; P=E2/R, where R is resistance in
http://acre.murdoch.edu.au/ago/ocean/wave. ohms, E is volts, I is current in amperes,
tml. 040323. and P is power in watts Energy = P t,
2115.4.4.1 Water-Driven Wave Turbines. where t is time in hours Turbines: Pa = ?
Davis Hydraulic Turbines since 1981 Most ? A2 u3, where ? (rho) is the fluid
tests done in Canada 4 kW turbine tested density, A = rotor area in m2, and u is
in Gulf Stream Blue Energy of Canada wind speed in m/s P = R ? T, where P =
developing two 250 kW turbines for British pressure (Nm-2 = Pascal) Torque, T = P/?,
Columbia Also proposed Brothers Island in Nm/rad, where P = mechanical power in
tidal fence in San Francisco Bay, watts, ? is angular velocity in rad/sec
California 1000 ft long by 80 ft deep to Pumps: Pm = gQmh/?p W, where g=9.81 N/kg,
produce 15 – 25 MW Australian Port Kembla Qm is mass capacity in kg/s, h is head in
(south of Sydney) to produce 500 kW. m, and ?p is pump mechanical efficiency.
040323. 040323.
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