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I. Musical Timbre (
I. Musical Timbre (
B. Classical Definition: Helmholtz, On the Sensations of Tone (1863)
B. Classical Definition: Helmholtz, On the Sensations of Tone (1863)
Helmholtz/Fourier Definition
Helmholtz/Fourier Definition
1. Amplitude Envelope Components
1. Amplitude Envelope Components
A. Klangfarbenmelodie
A. Klangfarbenmelodie
III
III
[Chart]
[Chart]
Example: Jean-Claude Risset, Mutations (1969)
Example: Jean-Claude Risset, Mutations (1969)
Score and Recording Excerpt
Score and Recording Excerpt
V. Timbre Analysed II: Cross-Synthesis
V. Timbre Analysed II: Cross-Synthesis
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
B. Acoustic Reality
B. Acoustic Reality
B. Acoustic Reality
B. Acoustic Reality
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3 класс в современных ритмах мюзикл

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1Compositional Languages Fall 2012. 23III. Timbre Classified: Pierre
Instructor: Prof. SIGMAN Tuesday Schaeffer.
13:00-15:00 Lecture XII (LAST LECTURE!). 24A. Musique concr?te. 1940s: Pierre
2End-of-Semester Schedule. 12/04: Schaeffer and Pierre Henry experiment with
Musical “Timbre” 12/11: Final Project transforming recorded sounds using analog
Presentations; Study Guide distributed equipment in Radio France studios Sources:
12/18: FINAL EXAM (??). sounds from the outside world Processes:
3Assignment III. DUE TODAY! (??). Classical forms and phrase structure
4Topics. I. Musical Timbre Defined (?) applied.
II. Musical Timbre Structured: 25Musique concr?te example: Etude aux
Klangfarbenmelodie III. Musical Timbre chemins de fer (1948). Sources: train
Classified: Musique concr?te IV. Musical (railroad) sounds “Unnatural” ordering and
Timbre Analysed I: repetition Source sounds -> SOUND
Melody-Harmony-Timbre-Orchestration V. OBJECTS (objets sonores), separated from
Musical Timbre Analysed II: their original CONTEXT
Cross-Synthesis VI. Noise. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuFTo4UVYG8
5I. Musical Timbre (??) Defined. 26B. Pierre Schaeffer, Trait? des objets
6A. Dictionary Definition. “the musicaux (1968). “Treatise on musical
character or quality of a musical sound or objects” Treatise on the classification
voice as distinct from pitch and (????) of all timbres into a solf?ge.
intensity” Origin: French (timbre); Greek 271. “Reduced Hearing”. Separation of
(tumpanon) = “drum”. objet sonore (sound object) from its
7What does this mean? Timbre is: NOT source Elimination of source-bonding
pitch/harmony (but related) NOT rhythm NOT (pairing of source with sound object)
intensity NOT register So what is it? Reduction of universe of sounds to
8(Imprecise) Timbre descriptors. sound-object categories Psychological,
Rough/smooth Rich/poor Thick/thin rather than acoustic classification
Complex/simple Nasal Flute-ish, system.
Violin-ish, etc. Stable/unstable 282. Schaeffer’s sound classification
Attack-oriented/resonant ??? scheme. 2 main criteria: mass and
9B. Classical Definition: Helmholtz, On treatment.
the Sensations of Tone (1863). 29Mass. M1 = pure tones M2 = complex
10Helmholtz/Fourier Definition. Complex pitched sounds M3 = complex, non-variable
tone = sum of sinusoids. sounds M4 = slightly varying sounds M5 =
11Problem with Helmholtz’ Theory. Timbre highly varying sounds.
defined as time-constant (or 30Treatment (facture): F1-F3: Continuous
“steady-state”) spectrum Most sounds are F4: Impulsive F5-F7: Discontinuous.
time-varying (change in time). 31[Chart].
12C. Time-Varying Timbral Parameters. 32Schaeffer and the Objet musical.
131. Amplitude Envelope Components. Musical contexts for sound objects Class:
142. Spectral Envelope. Unfolding of a musical morphology Genus: musical
sound’s spectrum over time e.g., brass character Species: musical character,
instruments: high harmonics rise later intensity, etc. This classification system
than lower ones. encourages analytic and intimate listening
153. Other Sources of Time Variation. experience of sounds.
Vibrato (frequency variation) and tremolo 33Schaeffer Introduction: Solf?ge de
(amplitude variation) Crescendo: gradual l’objet sonore (1967).
shift in spectral energy, tuning, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWMA_iRQSFg
resonance, pitch-to-noise ratio. 34Objections. Can the sound really be
16D. J.K. Randall, “Three lectures to separated from its source? Does the sound
scientists” (1967). “It seems to me that not contain its source? As sounds change
any psycho?acoustician who forges ahead in time, are they best described as
blithely out of touch with current objects?
concerns in musical analysis and musical 35IV. Timbre Analysed I:
composition is putting himself in an Melody-Harmony-Timbre-Orchestration.
excellent position to produce silly 36Example: Jean-Claude Risset, Mutations
science, silly music, or silly both.”. (1969). For electronics Melody->
17E. Composer Definitions. 1) timbre as harmony-> bell timbre Steady-state
distinct and mobile “parameter”? 2) as (time-constant) timbre Inharmonic partials
reducible to quantifiable, atomic Similar to harmonies and orchestration
parameters? 3) timbre-harmony-pitch (+ based upon trombone spectrum in Grisey’s
rhythm) continuum/ambiguity/fusion? In Partiels.
Ravel, Wagner, Scelsi, spectral music… 4) 37Score and Recording Excerpt.
as determined by human “modes of http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQRxTGLp8AY
production” and/or anatomy of the 38V. Timbre Analysed II:
instrument (e.g., scordatura) 5) as Cross-Synthesis.
multi-dimensional and constantly in flux. 39A. Cross-Synthesis Defined. Creation
18II. Timbre Structured: of hybrid sound by combining spectral or
Klangfarbenmelodie. temporal properties of time-constant OR
19A. Klangfarbenmelodie. “The evaluation time-varying sounds E.g.: a violin with a
of tone color, the second dimension of trumpet amplitude envelope E.g.: A bell
tone, is in a much less cultivated, much with a voice spectral envelope
less organized state than is the aesthetic https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/SpecEnv/Ap
evaluation of pitch…Now, if it is possible lication_Example_Cross_Synthesis.html.
to create patterns out of pitches, 40B. Jonathan Harvey (b. 1939): Mortuous
patterns we call ‘melodies,’ progressions, plango, vivos voco (1980). What’s going on
whose coherence evokes an effect analogous here?
to thought processes, then it must be also http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYdRzDx1_J4
possible to make progressions out of…tone 41VI. Noise.
color, progressions whose relations to one 42A. Definitions. 1) loud, unpleasant
another work with a kind of logic entirely disturbance 2) confusion 3) irregular
equivalent to that logic which satisfies fluctations (??) in a signal.
us in the melody of pitches.” –Sch?nberg, 43B. Acoustic Reality. Random amplitude
Harmonielehre, 1911. fluctuations No regular integer harmonics:
20Summary. “tone colour” progressions = all frequencies present.
structured like chord progressions and 44C. Types of Noise. White Pink Brown.
melodies Tone colour = “the second 45D. Noise-Tone Continuum. There is no
dimension of tone”. place where tone ends and noise begins
21B. A.Sch?nberg, “Farben”. 5 Orchestra Therefore: tone and noise fall along a
Pieces, op. 16, no. 3 (1909) Use of continuum.
Klangfarbenmelodie Process: harmony 46E. Peter Ablinger: Der Regen, das
changes slowly Canon between 2 groups of Glas, das Lachen (1992). Explores
instruments Tone colour “progression” as continuum between pure tone and white
second layer to harmonic progression. noise
22Score/Analysis/Recording. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cuf0IcZ0dVc
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tFT6NIYMF1I 47?? ?????! Next week: PRESENTATIONS! ?
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