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First, a quick Phonetics review of English
First, a quick Phonetics review of English
Non circled vowels = lax vowels
Non circled vowels = lax vowels
Non circled vowels = lax vowels
Non circled vowels = lax vowels
Non circled vowels = lax vowels
Non circled vowels = lax vowels
What are the different regional accents in your opinion
What are the different regional accents in your opinion
Dialect regions according to some dialectologists/sociolinguists
Dialect regions according to some dialectologists/sociolinguists
Dialect regions according to some dialectologists/sociolinguists
Dialect regions according to some dialectologists/sociolinguists
Linguistic variation and change – cot vs
Linguistic variation and change – cot vs
General American - Vowel Reduction
General American - Vowel Reduction
General American - Vowel Reduction
General American - Vowel Reduction
General American - Vowel Reduction
General American - Vowel Reduction
Linguistic variation and change Style and ling change interacts with
Linguistic variation and change Style and ling change interacts with
Linguistic variation and change Style and ling change interacts with
Linguistic variation and change Style and ling change interacts with
Linguistic variation and change Style and ling change interacts with
Linguistic variation and change Style and ling change interacts with
Interpreting Labov, 1994
Interpreting Labov, 1994
Interpreting Labov, 2001
Interpreting Labov, 2001
Different Vowel Systems – Philly Bonnie - listen
Different Vowel Systems – Philly Bonnie - listen
Different Vowel Systems – Philly Bonnie - listen
Different Vowel Systems – Philly Bonnie - listen
Linguistic variation and change Regional difference by vowel
Linguistic variation and change Regional difference by vowel
Linguistic variation and change The Southern Shift (Play Arkansas
Linguistic variation and change The Southern Shift (Play Arkansas
Linguistic variation and change The California/Canada Shift (Play Cali
Linguistic variation and change The California/Canada Shift (Play Cali
Different Vowel Systems - Portland
Different Vowel Systems - Portland
Linguistic variation and change Ethnicity - African American
Linguistic variation and change Ethnicity - African American
Linguistic variation and change – Listen to clips from DYSA Ethnicity
Linguistic variation and change – Listen to clips from DYSA Ethnicity
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About me, you and this lecture – What do you hope to gain from this lecture

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1About me, you and this lecture – What 22Different Vowel Systems - Portland. C
do you hope to gain from this lecture? = syllable closed by Cons; F = free –
Jeff Conn’s Webpage: web.pdx.edu/~connjc vowel final; V = closed by voiced Cons or
Information about this lecture at: final; 0 = closed by voiceless Cons.
http://web.pdx.edu/~connjc/Suzhou%20Lectur 23“Do You Speak American” – watch video
%20Conn%202010.htm. for examples of regional linguistic
2First, a quick Phonetics review of variation – jot down notes about anything
English. (voiceless sounds on the left). surprising or parts that were hard to
3Non circled vowels = lax vowels. understand Watch clips of video in class –
4Sociolinguistics. The study of the website here:
language in its social contexts The http://www.pbs.org/speak/ Conn article on
correlation of linguistic variation and Portland speech is here:
social factors Speech community - group of http://www.pbs.org/speak/seatosea/american
people who share some set of social arieties/pacificnorthwest/.
conventions (socioling norms) regarding 24Let’s try to sound Southern Let’s try
language use Accent - pronunciation to sound Northern (Northern Cities Shift)
Dialect - includes pronunciation Let’s try to sound Californian (maybe west
(phonological/phonetic), but also includes coast in general).
grammatical, lexical and language usage - 25Linguistic variation and change -
MFL example Some examples of homophones Attitudes There are many different
for some -- hock/hawk, caller/collar, varieties - what is correct? Standard
cot/caught, Don/Dawn. English is just one of many different
5Sociolinguistics. Dialects in North varieties Linguistics try to describe
America are mutually intelligible - the these varieties and all the varieties are
differences do not impede communication equal in linguistics terms Are other
totally Dialect continuum – go village by dialects mutually intelligible – here some
village, from northwestern France to sounds here from the Northern Cities area:
southern Italy and each adjacent village Northern Cities Shift (not #5).
can understand each other, although 26What are the consequences of speaking
Parisians cannot understand Romans. a non-standard dialect? What is standard
Variety - used as a more neutral term for American English? Is there a standard
dialect or language Issues between dialect pronunciation? What happens if someone
differences versus language differences speaks non-standard in China? What are the
are linguistic and political What are some consequences? Listen to clips from
dialect differences in China? American Tongues – Funny Accents track,
6Linguistic variation and change – Chapter 12 (negative feelings toward
dialect (and language) differences due to southern American), American Tongues
linguistic change over time Some social Chapter 17, 44:24.
factors interacting with linguistic 27Linguistic variation and change
variation: REGION* - what are the major Ethnicity - Chicano English, African
dialects/accents spoken in America? American Vernacular English, Native
Sex/Gender Social class* Age Ethnicity* American English; etc. AAVE - shares
Style. Sociolinguistics. features with other English dialects
7Linguistic variation and change - Phonological features part of other
Region Regional varieties described in varieties Habitual be, copula deletion -
terms of lexical choices done through more elaborate than standard English The
Linguistic Atlas creation Dialectologists coffee cold today. (One time event) The
looked at NORMs - (non-mobile old rural coffee be cold here. (Habitual).
men) Asked what is the word you use for... 28Linguistic variation and change
Plotted variation on a map and drew lines Ethnicity - African American Vernacular
– isoglosses Craig Carver, 1987 – Used English, From O’Grady, et. al. 2005.
Dictionary of American Regional English 29Linguistic variation and change –
(DARE) which looked at lexical variation Listen to clips from DYSA Ethnicity -
to identify dialects of N. American African American Vernacular English, From
English Now sociolinguists look at urban O’Grady, et. al. 2005.
populations and exam different regions in 30What are the benefits for teaching
terms of what is happening in the cities English with knowledge of variation?
with respect to language change Labov, Ash Knowledge of the different types of
and Boberg, 2005: Lingusitic Atlas of English students will encounter will help
North American English = large scale them prepare. All language has variation,
phonological survey of North American so to NOT acknowledge that is to limit our
English. American Tongues – Chapter 10. knowledge of the language. Need to
8What are the different regional understand the repercussions for speaking
accents in your opinion? in a non-standard way Language and
http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/mapping/ma identity connected – American Tongues
.html. 52:27 – do we accept differences?
9Dialect regions according to some 31Teaching pedagogy As far as teaching
dialectologists/sociolinguists. American style, I prefer a very informal setting.
Tongues – Chapter 5. While lectures are good, I believe
10Dialect regions according to some lectures with laughter are better. Why? I
dialectologists/sociolinguists. think that students grasp the knowledge
11Linguistic variation and change – cot better if they can interpret it through
vs. caught From Linguistic Atlas of N their own experience. I think an emotional
American English. connection to the information is vital for
12Some “general” American pronunciation having it mean something to the student
Voiced sounds (like b, d, g, j) are not rather than just processing information.
really voiced in beginning and end of a While some students are great at
word in isolation – dad = [d?Qd??] almost processing information on a very
like ‘tat’ Voiceless stops (p, t, k) have rational/objective level, I feel I reach
aspiration after (little puff of air) more students if I can access their
before the vowel (when stop occurs right emotional/subjective level of
before vowel and no s in front). Contrast understanding. Through this (what Krashen
bit [b?It] pit [pHIt] and spit [spIt] in Second Language Acquisition calls an
North American t – Can be aspirated at the Affective Filter), I think students will
beginning of a word (immediately before a not only gain a more thorough
vowel) as in tip [tHIp]. Can become understanding of the material, but it will
glottal stop (shut off air in throat) at also be more valuable to them.
end of word as in cat [kHQt?]. Can be 32Resources. Video and Internet Sources:
glottal stop before a nasal with American Tongues video -
unstressed vowel as in kitten [kHI??n]. http://www.cnam.com/non_flash/language/ame
Between vowels (second vowel is ican.html Nice examples of different
unstressed) it becomes a tap (like a d) as American dialects, mostly regional
in writer [raIR??] which comes out the dialects, some profanity, a little
same as rider because this happens to d outdated, good examples of how every day
too – rider [raIR??] American English r – people feel about dialects Do You Speak
dialect differences but all dialects have American – website and video
some r. Say “uh” and curl tip of tongue up http://www.pbs.org/speak/ Nice examples of
to roof of mouth. a lot of different American Englishes,
13General American - Vowel Reduction. In regional differences as well as ethnic
unstressed syllables, vowels become more differences, linguist viewpoint (very
central Common reduced vowels in English: descriptive with little information on
high central unrounded vowel. attitudes toward language), a little long
14Linguistic variation and change Some and not all is relevant, good web
dialects in North America have no r at the resources that can be used with video
ends of words (car, card, guard, etc). For including teacher’s guide Conn article on
them, r can only be the beginning of a Portland accent:
syllable. Includes New York City, Boston, http://www.pbs.org/speak/seatosea/american
New England and some older southern styles arieties/pacificnorthwest/ International
(like Savannah, GA, Charleston, SC, Dialects of English Archive -
Richmond, VA) American Tongues Chapter 17, http://web.ku.edu/~idea/ Great examples of
44:24 post-vocalic r (car, card, guard, many types of English, a little hard to
etc) William Labov - NYC - listen to a New find some good accent productions (not all
Yorker. speakers have strong regional accents).
15Linguistic variation and change Style 33Resources. Some Useful Books: Labov,
and ling change interacts with social W. (1994) Principles of Lingusitic Change,
class ? William Labov’s department store Volume 1: Internal Factors. Oxford:
study. Blackwell. (Very technical information
16Interpreting Labov, 1994. about language change) Labov, W. (2001)
17Interpreting Labov, 2001. Principles of Lingusitic Change, Volume 2:
18Different Vowel Systems – Philly Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell. (Very
Bonnie - listen. C = syllable closed by technical but detailed including Labov’s
Cons; F = free – vowel final; V = closed Philadelphia Study.) Milroy, L. and
by voiced Cons or final; 0 = closed by Gordon, M. (2003) Sociolinguistics: Method
voiceless Cons. and Interpretation. Oxford: Blackwell.
19Linguistic variation and change (Good information about field and
Regional difference by vowel production methodology of sociolinguistics – some
shifts (language change) over time technical linguistic knowledge required,
Northern Cities Shift (play Chicago sample not a lot of actual examples) Wells, John
- 3mins). O'Grady, W., Archibald, J., C. (1982) Accents of English 1: An
Aronoff, M., Rees-Miller, J. (2009). Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ
Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction Press. Wells, John C. (1982) Accents of
(6th edition). English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge:
20Linguistic variation and change The Cambridge Univ Press. Wells, John C.
Southern Shift (Play Arkansas 2mins; play (1982) Accents of English 3: Beyond the
Eng 3mins; O'Grady, W., Archibald, J., British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ
Aronoff, M., Rees-Miller, J. (2009). Press. (Good descriptions of different
Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction accents, focuses on pronunciation, mainly
(6th edition). descriptive and not as theoretical as
21Linguistic variation and change The others) *Wolfram, W. and Schilling-Estes,
California/Canada Shift (Play Cali - 1:45; N. (2006) American English. Oxford:
Ontario 2:15). O'Grady, W., Archibald, J., Blackwell Publishing. 2nd Edition. (Best
Aronoff, M., Rees-Miller, J. (2009). choice for beginners – assumes some
Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction linguistic technical knowledge, many
(6th edition). specific examples).
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