Курсы английского
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Figure 1: The Action Research Spiral
Figure 1: The Action Research Spiral
Sample sentence to analyse – After Dan Brown
Sample sentence to analyse – After Dan Brown
Sample rank scale sentence analysis
Sample rank scale sentence analysis
‘Acting out’ the process
‘Acting out’ the process
‘Acting out’ the process 2 with new – more reflective – tools Group
‘Acting out’ the process 2 with new – more reflective – tools Group
ATLAS ti: software for qualitative analysis
ATLAS ti: software for qualitative analysis
Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’ grammar analysis on the VLE (1)
Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’ grammar analysis on the VLE (1)
Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’ grammar analysis on the VLE (2)
Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’ grammar analysis on the VLE (2)
Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’ grammar analysis on the VLE (3)
Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’ grammar analysis on the VLE (3)
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Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge

содержание презентации «Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge.ppt»
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1Action research for curriculum 17morpheme clause phrase words (e.g.
developments in languages: identifying adverbs; possessive adjectives vs
troublesome grammar knowledge. Marina possessive pronouns) (but also sentence
Orsini-Jones Faculty of Business, and paragraph structure in general).
Environment and Society Coventry 18Other problems: students’ beliefs
University m.orsini@coventry.ac.uk. (Wenden 1991) and need to compare
Linking Teaching and Research in qualitative and quantitative data. Some
Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies students stated that they had not
University of Southampton, 10/07/07. understood the concept (and/or its
2McNiff: Action Research: Principles components), but analysed the sentences
and Practice (1988:4-6). Applied to well and had a good level of
classrooms, action research is an approach understanding. Others were extremely
to improving education thorough change, by confident in their assessment of their
encouraging teachers to be aware of their performance in grammar analysis, but their
own practice, to be critical of that results betrayed lack of understanding.
practice, and to be prepared to change 19Factors affecting understanding of key
it.(…) It is research WITH rather than concepts. ‘new to me’ terminology
research ON. (…) (It) encourages teachers (students opposed to change, refusing new
to become adventurous and critical in type of analysis, refusing its semantics);
their thinking, to develop theories and prior (mis)knowledge of terms such as
rationales for their practice, and to give ‘phrase’ or ‘clause’ - lecturers had to
reasoned justification for their public ‘undo’ their pre-conceived definitions of
claims to professional knowledge. It is the grammar categories involved the
this systematic ENQUIRY MADE PUBLIC which cohort’s composition and the variety of
distinguishes the activity as research. nationalities present in it (e.g. 14
3Action Research Processes. different ones in academic year
Reconnaissance Planning Acting Reflecting 2003-2004); ‘prior knowledge’ - background
Re-planning (and cycle starts again). and previous grammar learning experience;
4Figure 1: The Action Research Spiral. reliance in group work upon peers who
After Kemmis and McTaggart (1988:14) cited found the grammatical categories
in Hopkins (1993:48). ‘troublesome’ but decided nevertheless to
5Reconnaissance: identifying and take a lead in the analysis of the
defining the problematic issue. Focus sentences; misunderstanding of the
group research and students’ results in concepts and lack of ability to ask
language tasks highlighted lack of lecturers for help; lack of motivation
grammatical awareness amongst languages towards the module.
students (first year undergraduates 20Re-planning – changes from phase one
majoring in one or more languages); to phase two. Doubling of the time
Subject benchmark requirement that allocated to explaining grammar in general
students should develop ‘appropriate (increased from two to four face-to-face
linguistic tools and metalanguage to sessions) and morphemes in particular, and
describe and analyse the main features of changing the assessment of the module to
the language(s) studied’. better reflect this increase in grammar
6Planned solution (collaborative input; Provision of more samples of
assessed task, with input from students grammatical analysis; Provision of more
and staff). Design of a group grammar collaborative practice/workshops on
project for a mandatory skills module to morphemes following the lecture on
address the issue of lack of grammatical grammar; Uploading of all the grammatical
competence. Use of the Hallidayan rank explanations and exercises onto the VLE
scale grammar classification. Syllabus to for those students who had not been able
evolve on a yearly basis according to to attend; Creation of a dedicated grammar
action-research findings. Task to include forum in the VLE’s discussion area,
both individual elements and group ones enabling students to air their concerns.
as: ‘Without connection people cannot 21Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’
grow, yet without separation they cannot grammar analysis on the VLE (1).
relate’ (Ackermann, 1996:32). 22Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’
7The task: students had to. Create a grammar analysis on the VLE (2).
website containing linked web pages. 23Re-planning: more exercises on ‘meta’
Analyse a sentence on each web page grammar analysis on the VLE (3).
according to the rank scale concept and 24Other emerging data. On the whole
categories. At least one of the chosen students from continental Europe are less
sentences (minimum of 3) had to be in one challenged by grammar than their British
of the target languages studied, and the counterparts (and are not ‘scared’ of
other(s) in English. Choose sentences from grammar) - obvious advantage of French
a list given to them, and each group had students in understanding the rank scale
to create the relevant analysis and concept due to their previous exposure to
website. Upload the website into the metalinguistic grammar analysis in the
Virtual Learning Environment (WebCT)’s French education system; On the whole
collaborative group area. Present their British students acknowledge that their
website and grammar analysis to the rest weakness is English grammar and that they
of the class with the support of a wish they had been taught it at school;
PowerPoint slide presentation to highlight Many British students understand grammar
the major issues encountered while in the target language studied better than
completing the project. Write an English grammar (grammar analysis shows
individual report on the experience of this);
building the grammar project. 25Other emerging data 2. Negative
8Rank Scale concept (Coulthard attitudes towards grammar (‘difficult’,
1985:121). A first assumption of a ‘boring’) have been fostered at school
‘categories’ description is that the (British schools); Foreign lecturers
analytic units can be arranged on a teaching in this country are not always
rank-scale which implies that units are fully aware of this ‘grammar gap’ and
related in a ‘consists of’ relationship assume a basic level of grammar knowledge
with smaller units combining with other on the part of their students (which they
units of the same size to form larger don’t have).
ones. Thus a sentence consists of one or 26Elusive nature of troublesome grammar
more clauses, each of which in turn knowledge. I understood it in class, it
consists of one or more groups, and so on. was when we went away, and I just seemed
The structure of each unit is expressed in to have completely forgotten everything
terms of permissible combinations of units that we did on it, and I think that was
from the rank below, the structure of a when I struggled because when we were sat
clause for example being described in in here, we’d obviously got help if we had
terms of nominal, verbal, adverbial and questions, but I did grasp the concept of
prepositional groups. breaking it down, but when it came to
9Sample sentence to analyse – After Dan applying it to the project (...) I
Brown. Bundling his black cassock around couldn’t. I understood the lectures and
himself, the bishop climbed into the back everything that we did on it but couldn’t
seat and settled in for the infuriatingly actually apply it, I think that was the
long drive to the country retreat. difficulty.
10Sample rank scale sentence analysis. 27Collaboration helps. I found the first
11‘Acting out’ the process. Group work: assessment the most challenging. This was
webpage of grammar analysis 2004-2005 to create a web page, breaking up the
(Word/Compact HTML)– sample group project grammar of a particular sentence in one of
page (word classification). the target languages and in English. I
12‘Acting out’ the process 2 with new – think that this was because it was the
more reflective – tools Group grammar first assessment and the fact that I was
analysis with PebblePAD still settling at university. I had never
(ePortfolio/Webfolio tool) – really studied grammar in this depth and
sentences/clauses. found it quite difficult to grasp at
13Marking Scheme: 50% module mark group first. However, as we worked as a group, I
task + individual reflective report 30% began to understand more….I have learnt a
module mark. Website: grammar content - 30 lot of grammar and now know all the
marks Website: technical aspects different aspects of grammar, such as
(clarity/interface/navigation/colour-schem clauses, morphemes, etc. This has helped
/DDAIV friendly) - 10 marks Reflective me with my two languages a lot. (Written
Power Point presentation (group): anonymous feedback, May 2004, highlights
reflective content and presentation skills by author of this paper).
- 10 marks Individual reflective report in 28Success? `From doing this project I
Word (1000 w.): reflective content and have definitely learned a lot more about
report style (30 marks). grammar. Initially English grammar such as
14Reflection - evaluation of data and morphemes and derivation and inflection.
re-planning (at the end of each phase This has in turn helped my understanding
(between 2002-2007). Quantitative data of foreign grammar. I think English people
(marks in the grammar project). would benefit if we were taught grammar at
Qualitative data: semi-structured a younger age, as people are in foreign
interviews, focus group interviews, countries. There was a lot of information
students’ reflections in reflective to learn and take in…Learning some terms
journal, in individual reports for grammar for certain words (nouns, adjectives,
project and on the VLE’s discussion adverbs, prepositions) was also helpful as
forums; staff’s reflections. Also: it is helping me with understanding both
comparison between the students’ personal English and the target languages I am
assessment of their level of proficiency studying. (Portfolio reflective entry
in grammar analysis (they were asked to about the grammar project, May 2004).
predict their grade and identify the 29Conclusion. The identification of
problems encountered) and their actual troublesome knowledge can underpin
marks for the grammar component of the student-centred curricular design via
project. action research across a course, not just
15ATLAS ti. ATLAS.ti is a workbench for for one module. A-R findings can inform
the qualitative analysis of large bodies teaching and learning strategies that are
of textual, graphical, audio, and video targeted at the troublesome knowledge
data. It offers a variety of tools for identified. With reference to the
accomplishing the tasks associated with findings, it might be time to re-think
any systematic approach to unstructured grammar teaching in the UK and have a
data, e.g., data that cannot be cross-sector exchange of ideas on this
meaningfully analyzed by formal, topic (with possible link with
statistical approaches. ATLAS.ti offers literacy/employability).
tools to manage, extract, compare, 30Any questions? For further details:
explore, and reassemble meaningful pieces Orsini-Jones, M. and Jones, D. (2007)
from large amounts of data in creative, ‘Supporting Collaborative Grammar Learning
flexible, yet systematic ways. via a Virtual Learning Environment’ Arts
16ATLAS ti: software for qualitative and Humanities in Higher Education. 6:(1)
analysis. 90-106.
17Troublesome grammar knowledge.
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