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Alex II and Alex III- revision
Alex II and Alex III- revision
Alex II and Alex III- revision
Alex II and Alex III- revision
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Alex II and Alex III- revision

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1Alex II and Alex III- revision. 8Govt– setting up of the ZEMSTVA – rural
2Sample Essay Titles. Compare and local councils – ‘local initiative- local
contrast the policies of Alexander II government for the people- but still
(1855-81) and Alexander III (1881-94) of dominated by the nobility. JUDICIARY-
Russia. For what reasons, and with what reforms dealt with various abuses of law-
results, did Alexander II try to reform dealt with corruption within justice
Russian institutions? Analyse the system. Trial by jury / Public trials. Pay
strengths and weaknesses of Russia in the for judges. Police / Judge role redefined.
second half of the nineteenth century. MILITARY- Milyutin’s reforms- training of
Alexander II tried to reform Russian officers / Military Code- response to
institutions only because the Crimean War Crimean defeat. Conscription / Education
showed that Russia was no longer a great of soliders- overall failure with defeats
military power.” Use specific examples of in 1904 / 1917 EDUCATION- zemstva
Alexander’s reforms to show to what extent controlled rather than the church-
you agree with this assertion. Last ‘liberalisation’ of education- women /
Specific focus on Foreign Policy question class / curriculum choice- university
was in 2001 Despite his apparently liberal independence. NOTE OVERALL INFLUENCE OF
policies, Alexander II was just as ARISTOCRACY WHICH LIMITS SCALE OF REFORMS.
conservative as Alexander III.” To what 9BUT…. To what extent was he a
extent do you agree with this statement? reformer? Autocracy- reforms made to
REFORM VS REACTION REFORM OF RUSSIAN ensure its survival. Nobility still had
INSTITUTIONS. great influence in Russian institutions.
3Aim for a thematic approach Make sure Radical in the context of Tsarism- but not
you know how much Alex II and Alex III enough. Reforms gave rise to political
reformed Russian institutions- this can consciousness. Ultimately Alex II reliant
then help you do compare / contrast or upon repression to uphold the regime.
success / failure. 10Alex III- the Reactionary.
4Alex II. Key phrase often used in exam Personality- assassination of Father- -
questions is the ‘reform of Russian western style govt not ‘Russian’. Wanted
institutions’ be sure to state what they to rule as an autocrat- ‘Black Tsar’. High
are- (army, judiciary, education, local levels of repression- formation of
government, serfdom) this then sets up a Okhrana. High levels of censorship.
thematic approach to the essay. Any essay Attempts to ‘turn back the clock’ on the
on Alex II domestic policy should deal reform of Russian institutions Controls on
with the Emancipation of the Serfs. Alex judiciary- justice of peace (volost)
II as ‘Tsar Liberator’- again use the abolished- replaced with Land Captains-
institutions and particularly the nobility influence again. ‘In camera’
Emancipation of the Serfs. “The trials allowed. Crimes against state
emancipation of the serfs in Russia was officials heard without a jury Zemstva
the only genuine reform introduced by came under the control of the Ministry of
Alexander II.” To what extent do you agree the Interior Education- women denied
with this assertion?- again you would access to higher courses. Fees increased.
start with Serfdom and then move onto Church influence over primary schools
other institutions. increased.
5Alex III. Key phrase often used is 11But…. there were reforms. 1883
‘reaction / counter reform’- be clear to Peasants Land Bank- loans to peasants.
explain this. How far was he a Abolition of poll tax 1886 1885 Nobles’
reactionary? He did make some reforms. Land Bank 1882 Child Labour Laws- working
6Tsar Liberator? Recognised that reform hours.
needed to come ‘from above’ to avoid 12Policy of Russification- key features.
forces of change from below. Impact of Emphasis on Russian language, culture,
defeat in the Crimean War. Serfdom was religion and identity. Use of the
inefficient- economic reasons for education system to support this.
emancipation (1861). Emancipation of the Conscription into the army. Closure of
Serfs- ‘state engineering’- broke the Jewish schools 1881- 1883 Pogroms- attacks
feudal contract- the Mir system was on Jewish businesses / property. 1882
strengthened- some local autonomy for ‘Provisional Rules’ measures to restrict
peasants- more freedom of movement for the civil rights of Jews- e.g. no right of
peasants/ rise of a new ‘class’ of appeal in court.
peasant- BUT redemption payments tied 13Task. Reasons and results of Alex II
peasants to the land- Mir exercised reform of Russian institutions Reasons and
control over the peasants in the same way results of Alex III’s counter reforms.
the gentry had/ Civil disturbances. 14Compare and contrast- thematic
7Emancipation- views. Moral improvement structure. Personality. Attitude towards
Great step forward for Russia Decline in autocracy. Attitude towards reform of
the overall size of peasants land holding Russian institutions. Attitude towards
Opportunity missed by Alex to reform opposition groups. Foreign Policy. Use of
further due to his commitment to repression / Russification.
Autocracy. 15Alex II and Alex II- compare and
8Other reforms – for revision. Admin / contrast. Comparison. Contrast.
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Alex II and Alex III- revision

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