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America’s Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter
America’s Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter
Music in Everyday Experience
Music in Everyday Experience
Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs
Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs
Early Bands: New Orleans
Early Bands: New Orleans
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1America’s Musical Landscape 5th 18denied colonial Americans Early centers of
edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter theatrical music activity included
Malamut Georgian Court University. Part 1: Charleston, North Carolina Williamsburg,
Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Virginia. Part 1: Music in Early North
Secular Music in the Colonial, America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. © 2006 Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights Periods. 18.
reserved. 19Early American Theater During Wartime.
2Secular Music in the Colonial, 1778: Continental Congress decreed that
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. Late “frequenting Play Houses and theatrical
1720s: Public concerts began to be entertainments has a fatal tendency to
performed in some of the larger American divert the minds of people from a due
cities Simple and popular pieces were attention to the means necessary for the
performed Consisted of marches, dance defense of their country and preservation
tunes, program music, folk songs, popular of their liberties” Congress banned all
songs from contemporary theater Program theatrical performances at that time. Part
music– Instrumental pieces purporting to 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4:
imitate sounds of nature or to “tell” a Secular Music in the Colonial,
story Programmatic battle pieces, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 19.
imitating the sounds of a battle, were 20Early American Theater: After the
popular Yet for most of the eighteenth American Revolution. 1786: The ban on
century, Americans showed little interest theatrical performances was lifted 1787:
in formal concert music. Part 1: Music in The first national copyright act Protected
Early North America Chapter 4: Secular printed materials including music for
Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and fourteen years with the possibility of
Federal Periods. 2. renewal for another fourteen This law
3Music in Everyday Experience. American encouraged foreign (mostly British)
music included home music work music music musicians to come to America, where they
for entertainment music for dancing In Performed onstage and in orchestra pits
rural areas work activities were social Taught music to aspiring amateurs Composed
gatherings with singing, music, dancing many pieces, including America’s first
barn raisings maple sugaring corn husking. popular songs. Part 1: Music in Early
Part 1: Music in Early North America North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in
Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 3. Periods. 20.
4Music in Everyday Experience: New 21Early American Musical Theater Grew in
Orleans. New Orleans music must have been Popularity… As interest in music and the
rich and varied due to the cultural theater moved north to New York and then
diversity of its inhabitants African Philadelphia Philadelphia dominated the
Native American Caribbean French Spanish. music scene Theater patrons included
Part 1: Music in Early North America George Washington Overruled the Quakers’
Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, disapproval of theater Declared that
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 4. theater elevated one’s manners Yet
5Music in Everyday Experience: Sheet audiences in cheaper seats (called the
Music and Instruments. Late 1700s: Music gallery) were rowdy, yelling at
publishing was an important business Sheet performers, demanding favorite songs,
music for amateur musicians was popular vocally criticizing the performance,
Simple vocal and piano pieces were called tossing bottles and fruit onstage and into
“household music” More Americans had the pit. Part 1: Music in Early North
violins, guitars, oboes, flutes, keyboard America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the
instruments including Harpsichords Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal
Virginals—Small and often elaborately Periods. 21.
decorated Fortepianos—The predecessor of 22Early American Musical Theater Offered
the piano, but smaller and more delicate; a Potpourri of Entertainment.
produced varied dynamics as its name Performances, often four to five hours,
implies Children and young women learned included A main drama Plus a shorter,
music by taking lessons from immigrant lighter, often comic piece Music was added
professional musicians. Part 1: Music in even into nonmusical plays Musical
Early North America Chapter 4: Secular entertainment occurred between the
Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and dramatic pieces and after the comedy A
Federal Periods. 5. march played at the end as the audience
6Music in Everyday Experience: The left to attend a nearby dance. Part 1:
Contributions of Servants. Talented Music in Early North America Chapter 4:
African American and white servants were Secular Music in the Colonial,
hired and expected to play music African Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 22.
Americans sometimes supplied music for 23Early American Musical Theater:
Social dancing Dancing schools Taverns Popular Types of Entertainment.
Formal balls The favored instrument to Eighteenth-century English plays were
accompany dancing was the fiddle—Smaller adapted for American taste Shorter and
and lighter than today’s violin, with a lighter than contemporary European works,
louder and more vibrant sound Fiddles: they included more comedy Ballad opera was
Used for the barnyard or ballroom. Part 1: the most popular type of performance A
Music in Early North America Chapter 4: simple unsophisticated musical play Spoken
Secular Music in the Colonial, dialogue replaced recitative (sung speech)
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 6. of opera Popular songs of the day appeared
7Music in Everyday Experience: throughout the show The first ballad opera
Prestigious Musical Amateurs. American (1728 in England) to become popular in
amateurs became increasingly active Many America was John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera.
joined musical societies in larger cities Part 1: Music in Early North America
Musical societies presented instrumental Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial,
or choral music mostly written by European Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 23.
composers. Professional foreign musicians 24Early American Musical Theater:
often joined with the amateur performers Composers in America. 1781: A short
for their concerts which lasted three or musical play credited to Francis Hopkinson
more hours. Part 1: Music in Early North may have been America’s earliest original
America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the musical theater work But Hopkinson
Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal probably just set new words to existing
Periods. 7. music Foreign professionals, such as
8Music in Everyday Experience: Alexander Reinagle, dominated the American
Prestigious Musical Amateurs. The first popular music stage, significantly
performances in America of important affecting the development of music in
European symphonic and choral works were America. Part 1: Music in Early North
given by Moravian musicians whose music America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the
and performances were of the highest Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal
quality who were amateurs only in the Periods. 24.
sense that they composed and performed for 25Early American Bands. 1777: Washington
enjoyment, not for money who attracted issued an order requiring military music
audiences from long distances including be provided to American troops The first
Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. American military bands were established
Part 1: Music in Early North America at that time Consisted of drums and small
Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, flutes called fifes Called fife and drum
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 8. corps Many of the members were African
9Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Thomas American These bands had uses including
Jefferson (1743-1826). Jefferson was an announcing Beginning and end of the day
amateur violinist who participated Mealtimes and activities Commands on the
enthusiastically in music activities and battlefield that could not otherwise be
believed that the arts were meaningful heard over musket fire. Part 1: Music in
only as they bore relevance to everyday Early North America Chapter 4: Secular
life; i.e., must be practical to be Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and
worthwhile (a common belief of early Federal Periods. 25.
Americans) Jefferson believed the musical 26Early Military Bands: History.
arts to be an essential part of the human Colonial military bands began to develop
experience Jefferson enjoyed playing duets to be like European bands 1792: American
with Patrick Henry. Part 1: Music in Early laws standardized the formation of
North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in American military bands to resemble
the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal European models Included woodwinds, brass
Periods. 9. and percussion 1798: President John Adams
10Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Benjamin signed into law the creation of the United
Franklin (1706-1790). Franklin played States Marine Corps Included thirty-two
guitar, harp, and his popular invention, drummers and fifers, drum major, fife
the armonica or glass harmonica; wrote major Added later: Two horns, two
verses for favorite tunes He warned clarinets, bassoon, bass drum 1801: This
Americans not to cultivate taste for the band performed for Jefferson’s
arts before they could produce arts with inauguration 1830: Brass instruments
European quality Considered the arts as became significant members of military
appropriate at times in America Thought bands due to improvements to these
that the American music scene was inferior instruments (valves added). Part 1: Music
to music in Europe. The glass harmonica in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular
consisted of a series of hollow, Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and
hemispheric glass bowls or bells, each Federal Periods. 26.
with a short neck. The glasses are mounted 27Early Bands: New Orleans.
on a horizontal spindle, each fitted Eighteenth-century New Orleans had its own
inside the next largest with a finger strong musical heritage Military bands
width of brim exposed on which to play. played a prominent role Black musicians,
The performer keeps the spindle turning slave and free, provided music for balls
through a trough of water by working a and parades Blacks dominated the
pedal, producing a delicate sound by transition of the military funeral parade
rubbing the wet rims of the glasses with to a civic custom First Battalion of Free
the fingers. Part 1: Music in Early North Men of Color’s band included people
America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the identified as Creole-of-Color = Partly
Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal European, active in French-dominated city
Periods. 10. culture. Part 1: Music in Early North
11Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Songs in America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the
Early America. The first secular songs Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal
published in America were by Europeans, Periods. 27.
many from England, and usually were 28Listening Example 17. Yankee Doodle
associated with theater But while the Anonymous Listening guide page 75 Tune:
singing school masters wrote religious Origin of tune and meaning of title are
songs to teach students, other amateur unknown Meter: Duple Form: Strophic Hear
Americans began to write secular music. the high-pitched fifes carry the tune,
Part 1: Music in Early North America while drums mark the rhythm with
Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, distinctive beats and rolls. “Yankee
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 11. Doodle” was a favorite tune played by
12Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Francis American military bands to entertain the
Hopkinson (1737-1791). Francis Hopkinson, public First appearing in print in 1792,
first secretary of the Navy, signer of the the British first sang the song to make
Declaration of Independence, was the first fun of the Yankees, who later adopted it
American to write art songs An art song is as their own, adding countless verses of
intended for concert or recital text. Part 1: Music in Early North America
performance The song text is a high Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial,
quality poem by a known poet The Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 28.
expressive music is to enhance the poem’s 29Part 1 Summary. The earliest North
meaning Performed in original language so American music was that of American
as not to mar translations American art Indians Ritual, dance, ceremony, work Most
songs were suitable for amateur musicians consists of songs sometimes accompanied
Hopkinson’s art songs were European in with percussion instruments Drums,
style But his songs had texts often based rattles, rasps, flute Contemporary Native
upon American subjects. Part 1: Music in American music reflects traditions and new
Early North America Chapter 4: Secular styles, some borrowed Even the new songs
Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and remain a potent source of power in
Federal Periods. 12. American Indian culture. Part 1: Music in
13Music in Everyday Experience: Early North America Chapter 4: Secular
Professional Composers. Talented and Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and
accomplished European musicians who Federal Periods. 29.
immigrated to the United States enriched 30Part 1 Summary: Beginning in the
the American concert experience before and Sixteenth Century. Europeans came to
after the turn of the nineteenth century, settle in the New World Native Americans
including Benjamin Carr Alexander in Florida and Southwest missions learned
Reinagle. Part 1: Music in Early North Roman Catholic music and European secular
America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the music German and English speaking
Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Protestants established permanent
Periods. 13. settlements in America Brought hymns,
14Professional Composers: Benjamin Carr psalm tunes, folk and other secular music
(1768-1831). Composer Singer Conductor The first book printed in America was a
Pianist and organist Music publisher Music psalter, the Bay Psalm Book Slaves sang
store owner Carr arrived in Philadelphia work songs and other songs of African
from England after the Revolution One of custom European Americans sang ballads and
the first to be active in the music played fiddle tunes. Part 1: Music in
business in the US Made lasting Early North America Chapter 4: Secular
contributions to music performance, Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and
business, and appreciation in North Federal Periods. 30.
America. Part 1: Music in Early North 31Part 1 Summary: Singing Schools. Early
America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the efforts to improve singing in New
Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal England’s churches led to the forming of
Periods. 14. singing schools Singing school masters
15Professional Composers: Alexander composed their own tunes Singing school
Reinagle (1756-1809). Raised in Edinburgh masters became the members of The First
by an Austrian father and Scottish mother, New England School of Composers Their
Carr taught music in New York City before music was uniquely American William
settling in Philadelphia as director of a Billings, Daniel Read, and others composed
theater company and director of a concert Psalm tunes, hymns, fuging tunes,
series Composed the Philadelphia Sonatas A patriotic songs for singing school,
set of piano pieces that includes the church, home. Part 1: Music in Early North
three movement Sonata II in E, the third America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the
example of which is Listening Example 16. Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal
Part 1: Music in Early North America Periods. 31.
Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, 32Part 1 Summary: Eighteenth Century
Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 15. Secular Music. Americans’ musical tastes
16Terms: Sonata: A large musical form became more secular and varied Music
for one or more solo instruments, supplied entertainment at home, at
consisting of several movements Rondo: The concerts, and theater People learned to
opening melodic material (A) returns to play instruments and sing Musical
alternate with the other material (B, C, societies formed to perform instrumental
etc.) The return of A lends balance and and choral music Amateurs performed in
unity Contrasting sections add interest recitals and composed songs and keyboard
The mood is typically bright, with fast music Moravians composed music of
tempo. Examples of Rondo Form: A B A C A A unprecedented complexity and quality among
B A B A B A A B A C A D A. Part 1: Music other early American compositions. Part 1:
in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in Early North America Chapter 4:
Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Secular Music in the Colonial,
Federal Periods. 16. Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 32.
17Listening Example 16. Sonata II in E 33Part 1 Summary Concluded. Public
third movement By Alexander Reinagle concerts and musical theater had become a
Listening Guide page 72 Form: Modified popular form of entertainment by the
rondo with longer and complex contrasting middle of the eighteenth century European
sections Tempo: Allegro Meter: Duple Key: musicians were involved with early
E Major (the uppercase “E” in the title is American theater European musicians
indicative of a major key). This sonata is adapted popular European plays and ballad
for the pianoforte, an early piano, operas to suit the less sophisticated
smaller and lighter than the modern grand American taste Band music became
piano “Sonata II in E” has three movements increasingly popular Fife and drum corps,
Notice the Alberti bass, the broken-chord as well as military bands Played public
pattern in the left hand; i.e., one note concerts Performed military functions.
of the chord is played at a time. A B A C Part 1: Music in Early North America
A D A. Part 1: Music in Early North Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial,
America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Revolutionary, and Federal Periods. 33.
Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal 34Image Credits. Slide 3: “Music is
Periods. 17. Contagious,” painted by William Sidney
18Early American Theater. Musical Mount (1808-1868) ©COREL Slide 7:
theater became popular in some areas “Eighteenth-century chamber music concert”
during the 1730s European professional ©CORBIS Slide 27: “Taylor, the Drummer Boy
musicians performed in concert halls and of the 78th United States Colored Infantry
theaters Theatrical performances made Regiment, Poses Proudly With His Drum”
these musician/composers’ music popular ©CORBIS. Part 1: Music in Early North
and provided them with a living These America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the
professionals provided performance and Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal
educational opportunities previously Periods. 34.
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