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educated Romans viewed Greek culture as superior to all others
educated Romans viewed Greek culture as superior to all others
The Roman World Takes Shapes
The Roman World Takes Shapes
Building a Republic in 509 B.C. the Roman state was founded where
Building a Republic in 509 B.C. the Roman state was founded where
Expansion: by about 270 B.C. Rome occupied all of Italy, their success
Expansion: by about 270 B.C. Rome occupied all of Italy, their success
Rivalry with Carthage Carthage was a city-state on the northern coast
Rivalry with Carthage Carthage was a city-state on the northern coast
for 15 years Hannibal moved across Italy winning battles in the,
for 15 years Hannibal moved across Italy winning battles in the,
Julius Caesar an ambitious commander who dominated politics in Pompey
Julius Caesar an ambitious commander who dominated politics in Pompey
Granted Roman citizenship to more people, and introduced a new
Granted Roman citizenship to more people, and introduced a new
Imperial Rome Augustus created an efficient, well-trained civil
Imperial Rome Augustus created an efficient, well-trained civil
The Roman Peace the 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended
The Roman Peace the 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended
Family and Religion: the family was the basic unit, under Roman law
Family and Religion: the family was the basic unit, under Roman law
Section III: Roman Accomplishments
Section III: Roman Accomplishments
Section III: Roman Accomplishments
Section III: Roman Accomplishments
Roman Law the greatest legacy of Rome was its commitment to the rule
Roman Law the greatest legacy of Rome was its commitment to the rule
Section IV: Christianity
Section IV: Christianity
Jews and the Roman Empire generally, Rome tolerated varied religions
Jews and the Roman Empire generally, Rome tolerated varied religions
Life of Jesus As turmoil engulfed the Jews of Palestine, a new
Life of Jesus As turmoil engulfed the Jews of Palestine, a new
Some Jews saw Jesus as dangerous; Jewish priests felt that he was
Some Jews saw Jesus as dangerous; Jewish priests felt that he was
Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats, blaming them for social or
Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats, blaming them for social or
as the church grew and evolved it imposed order and discipline on the
as the church grew and evolved it imposed order and discipline on the
Section V: The Decline
Section V: The Decline
in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to
in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to
in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to
in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to
Invasion: Rome had faced attacks from the Germanic peoples who lived
Invasion: Rome had faced attacks from the Germanic peoples who lived
he was known as the “scourge of God” because they believed his attacks
he was known as the “scourge of God” because they believed his attacks
Political and Economic Causes: the empire suffered as heavier taxes
Political and Economic Causes: the empire suffered as heavier taxes
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Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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1Ancient Rome and the Rise of 16civilization to distant lands. Greco-Roman
Christianity. Global 9 Chapter 5. Civilization Rome absorbed ideas from
2educated Romans viewed Greek culture Greek colonists, Greek art, literature,
as superior to all others. from a small philosophy, and scientific genius
village, Rome grew into a super state represented the height of cultural
(“Rome, the City and the World") achievement. the blending of Greek,
expanding across the Mediterranean world Hellenistic, and Roman traditions produced
to build a huge, ethnically diverse empire the Greco-Roman civilization. from England
ruled by law. to Spain to North Africa to the Middle
3The Roman World Takes Shapes. the East you can see Roman buildings that
virtues that the Romans admired; courage, combine both Greek and Roman elements and
loyalty, devotion to duty were the pillars ideas, using columns that emphasized
on which Romans would build an empire. grandeur. they improved on the arch and
Geography: Rome began as a small the dome, the most famous was the
city-state in Italy but ended up ruling Pantheon, a temple to all Roman gods.
the entire Mediterranean world. Italy is a engineering skills were also perfected
peninsula that looks like a boot jutting roads, bridges, and harbors, built
centrally into the Mediterranean Sea. aqueducts- bridgelike stone structures
Italy is not broken up into small, that brought water from the hills into
isolated valleys and had the advantage of Roman cities.
broad, fertile plains which supported a 17the availability of fresh water was
growing population. the Romans were an important, so wealthy homes had water
Indo-European people, their ancestors [the piped in, and most cities had public baths
Latins] had migrated into Italy by about where people gathered to exchange gossip.
800 B.C. settled along the Tiber River in left scientific research to the Greeks,
small villages where they herded and but Alexandria, Egypt remained a center of
farmed. learning. the astronomer-mathematician
4Building a Republic in 509 B.C. the Ptolemy proposed the theory that the Earth
Roman state was founded where officials was the center of the universe. advanced
were chosen by the people, called a the frontiers of medical science by
republic, and was meant to keep any insisting on experiments to prove a
individual from gaining too much power. conclusion.
between 509 B.C. and 133 B.C. they 18Roman Law the greatest legacy of Rome
developed the military power to conquer was its commitment to the rule of law and
the entire Mediterranean world. the most to justice. developed a system of law,
powerful governing body was the senate known as the civil law, that applied to
whose 300 members were all patricians its citizens, as Rome expanded it ruled
(members of the landholding upper class) many foreigners. led to a second system of
senators served for life and made the law, known as the law of nations which
laws. applied to all people, citizens or
5in the event of war, the senate might non-citizens.
choose a dictator who has complete control 19The rule of law fostered unity and
over a government, granted emergency stability. Certain basic principles
powers to rule. Rome elected other evolved: people of the same status are
officials to oversee finances, justice, equal before the law. An accused person is
city government, and religious matters. at presumed innocent until proven guilty. The
first, the Plebeians[farmers, merchants, accused should be allowed to face his or
artisans, and traders]made up the bulk of her accuser and defend against the charge.
the population but had little influence. Guilt must be established clearer than
in 450 B.C. the government had the laws of daylight through evidence Decisions should
Rome inscribed on 12 tablets(Law of the be based on fairness, allowing judges to
Twelve Tables) which made it possible for interpret the law.
plebeians to appeal a judgement handed 20Section IV: Christianity. early in the
down by a patrician judge. the plebeians Pax Romana, a new religion, Christianity,
gained the right to elect their own sprang up in a distant corner of the Roman
officials(tribunes) to protect their empire. the new faith grew and by A.D. 395
interests; they could veto, or block, it had been declared the official religion
those laws that they felt were harmful the of the Roman Empire. Christianity reshaped
common people gained access to power and Roman beliefs, when the Roman empire fell
won safeguards for their rights, and 2,000 the Christian Church took over.
years later the US Constitution would 21Jews and the Roman Empire generally,
adapt ideas like the senate, the veto, and Rome tolerated varied religions traditions
checks on governmental power. as long as citizens showed their loyalty.
6Expansion: by about 270 B.C. Rome among the peoples in the empire were the
occupied all of Italy, their success was Jews, by 69 B.C. the Romans had conquered
due to skillful diplomacy and its Palestine where many Jews lived. among the
efficient, well-disciplined army. armies Jews religious ferment was creating deep
consisted of citizen soldiers who fought divisions, reformers called for strict
without pay and supplied their own obedience to Jewish laws and traditions.
weapons, the basic unit was the legion of Jews, called zealots called on Jews to
about 5,000 men. Rome generally treated revolt against Rome and reestablish an
its defeated enemies with justice, independent Israel believed that a
conquered peoples had to acknowledge Roman messiah. or savior sent by God, would soon
leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers appear to lead the Jewish people to
for the Roman army. Rome let them keep freedom. in A.D. 66 rebellion flared and
their own customs, money, and local Roman forces crushed the rebels, captured
governments, and to a few privileged Jerusalem and destroyed the Jewish temple.
groups Rome gave the highly prized right in A.D. 135 they drove the Jews out of
of full citizenship. generous treatment their homeland and forbade them to return.
created support for Rome, to protect its (Ex. Masada @ right).
conquests Rome posted soldiers through the 22Life of Jesus As turmoil engulfed the
land, built a network of all-weather Jews of Palestine, a new religion rose
military roads to link distant provinces. which was founded by a Jew named Jesus.
7Rivalry with Carthage Carthage was a what little we know about him comes from
city-state on the northern coast of Rome the Gospel, he was born around 4 B.C. in
spread into the Mediterranean, conflict Bethlehem to a family descended from King
became inevitable. between 264 B.C. and David, an angel had told Jesus mother
146 B.C. Rome fought three wars against Mary, that she would give birth to the
Carthage, the Punic Wars in the First messiah. Jesus followed Jewish law and at
Punic War Rome defeated Carthage, but 23 the age of 30 he began preaching and word
years later, led by a general named spread that he had performed miracles of
Hannibal sought revenge. Hannibal healing. He and his disciples traveled to
dedicated his life to the destruction of Jerusalem to spread his belief in one God,
Rome after he was selected as leader of the Ten Commandments, and strict obedience
the Carthaginian army. in 218 B.C. to the law of Moses. he called himself the
Hannibal, setting out from Spain, led his Son of God and declared that he was the
troops with dozens of war elephants in a messiah, his mission was to bring
march across the Pyrenees through France spiritual salvation and eternal life. he
and over the Alps into Italy. the trek rejected the principle of "an eye for
across the Alps cost Hannibal nearly half an eye," he preached forgiveness
his army, but the Romans expected an instead.
invasion from the south and the bold 23Some Jews saw Jesus as dangerous;
attack caught them off guard. Jewish priests felt that he was
8for 15 years Hannibal moved across challenging their leadership, to Roman
Italy winning battles in the, Second Punic authorities Jesus was a revolutionary.
War, but was never able to capture Rome. Jesus was betrayed by one of his
the Romans outflanked Hannibal by sending disciples, arrested by the tried,
an army to attack Carthage, led Hannibal condemned, and executed Roman-style-
to return to Carthage to defend where he nailed to a cross and left to die. Jesus
was defeated. Carthage gave up all its had risen from the dead, commanded his
land, had to pay a huge tribute, or tax, Apostles to spread his teachings
to Rome. the Romans allowed Hannibal to Christianity remained a sect, or small
remain free and Carthage made a rapid group, within Judaism, until Paul began
recovery, but Romans still feared him and the wider spread. Paul spread Jesus'
accused of plotting. Hannibal fled and teachings beyond Jewish communities to
took poison, and Rome destroyed Carthage, gentiles, or non-Jews; explaining and
killed or sold survivors into slavery, expanding Christian teachings. he
poured salt on the land so nothing would emphasized the idea that Jesus had
grow. Rome expanded into the eastern sacrificed his life out of love for
Mediterranean and took Macedonia, Greece, humankind, those who believed Jesus would
and parts of Asia Minor, later allied with achieve salvation, or eternal life. Roman
Egypt. officials suspected Christians of
9Expansion victories put them in disloyalty to Rome because they refused to
control of busy trade routes, and riches honor Roman beliefs.
flooded in from loot, taxes, and commerce. 24Roman rulers used Christians as
a class of wealthy Romans emerged and they scapegoats, blaming them for social or
bought huge estates worked by slaves economic ills, many became martyrs- people
captured in war. Slave labor hurt small who suffer or die for their beliefs.
farmers who were unable to produce food as Christianity continued to spread because
cheaply, grain from the conquered lands Jesus welcomed all people, especially the
drove down grain prices. farmers fell into humble, poor, and oppressed. they found
debt and had to sell their land, flocked comfort in his message of love and of a
to Rome for jobs but found unemployment better life beyond the grave. even
instead, led to wider gap between rich and persecution brought new converts because
poor. wealth increased corruption, greed people were impressed by the strength of
and self interest replaced hard work and their beliefs early Christian communities
devotion to duty. began to organize a formal Church, with
10Reform: patrician brothers named its own priest under the authority of a
Tiberius and Gaius Grachus led a reform bishop. the church developed into a
movement which called for: the state to hierarchy, or organization in which
distribute land to poor farmers. the use officials are arranged according to rank,
of public funds to buy grain to feed the only men allowed. rivalry among the
poor. extension of full citizenship to bishops led to division in the Church; the
Rome's allies. The reforms angered the Latin speaking west accepted the bishop of
Senate which saw them as a threat to its Rome as pope, or head of the Roman
power, the brothers were eventually Catholic Church.
killed. this showed that the republic 25as the church grew and evolved it
couldn't resolve its problems led to civil imposed order and discipline on the
wars for the next 100 year. scattered Christian communities. put
11Julius Caesar an ambitious commander together the New Testament the 27 books of
who dominated politics in Pompey and a the Bible that contain the life and
brilliant general, set out in 59 B.C. to teachings of Jesus. they battled heresies
make new conquests. eventually led his or beliefs said to be contrary to official
army into Rome, as civil war erupted he Church teaching, by sending out
swept around the Mediterranean proclaiming missionaries to convert people.
"Veni, Vidi, Vici" - "I Persecution of Christians ended in A.D.
came, I saw, I conquered." forced the 313 when the emperor Constantine issued
senate to make him dictator, absolute the Edict of Milan granting freedom to
ruler of Rome. Reforms from 48 B.C.-44 worship. 80 years later the emperor
B.C. he pushed through reforms including a Theodosius made Christianity the official
program of public works to employ the religion of the Roman empire.
jobless and gave public land to the poor. 26Section V: The Decline. 1,500 years
12Granted Roman citizenship to more ago the western half of the Roman empire
people, and introduced a new calendar stumbled into ruin, the end was
based on Egyptian science, the Julian catastrophic, but it did not happen
calendar, which is still used today. overnight. Signs of Decline: After the
Caesar's enemies worried that he planned death of emperor Marcus Aurelius in 180,
to make himself king so they plotted the Pax Romana ended, led to 100 years of
against him. in 44 B.C. a fortune-teller turmoil. Ambitious generals seized power,
warned Caesar to "beware the ides of ruled and then were overthrown by rival
March” [March 15], and his enemies stabbed military leaders. High taxes to support
him to death this plunged Rome into civil the army and the bureaucracy placed heavy
war where- Mark Antony [Caesar's chief burdens on business people and farmers,
general] and Octavian [Caesar's many left their land and worked on huge
grandnephew] joined forces to hunt down estates.
the murderers. the men soon came to odds 27in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in
until, in 31 B.C., Octavian finally order to make the empire easier to govern,
defeated Antony and his powerful ally divided it into two parts, he kept the
Queen Cleopatra of Egypt the triumphant wealthier eastern part tried to increase
Octavian Augustus, or exalted one, the prestige of the emperor by surrounding
declared himself priceps, or first citizen himself with elaborate ceremonies. to slow
and exercised absolute power and named a the rapid rise of prices, he fixed prices
successor. under Augustus, who ruled from for goods and services; forced farmers to
31 B.C.-A.D. 14 the 500 year old republic remain on the land to ensure a steady
came to an end, but he helped Rome recover production of food and other foods. in 312
from civil war and laid the foundation for Emperor Constantine granted toleration to
a stable government. Christians and encouraged the growth of
13Imperial Rome Augustus created an the religion, he built a new capital,
efficient, well-trained civil service Constantinople, on the Bosporus, the
charged with enforcing the laws. He strait connects the Black and
cemented the allegiance of cities and Mediterranean seas. this made the eastern
provinces to Rome by allowing them a large portion of the empire the center of power.
measure of self-government. To make the these reforms revived the economy and
tax system more fair, he ordered a census, helped hold the empire together, but
or population count, to be taken in the failed to stop the long-term decline.
empire, set up a postal system and issued 28Invasion: Rome had faced attacks from
new coins to make trade easier. he put the the Germanic peoples who lived along its
jobless to work building roads and temples northern borders. as the empire declined
and to farm the land. Two early emperors, it was forced to give up its territories
Caligula and Nero, were evil and insane; to Britain, Spain, and France. wars in
Caligula appointed his favorite horse as East Asia set off a chain of events that
consul, Nero viciously persecuted would overwhelm Rome, as the Huns [a
Christians. between A.D. 96 and A.D. 180 nomadic people] migrated across Central
there was a series of good emperors; Asia. by 350 these skilled riders fought
Hadrian codified Roman law, making it the fierce battles to dislodge the Germanic
same in all provinces. he had soldiers peoples, Visigoths sought safety by
build a wall across Britain to hold back crossing into Roman territory. in 378 a
attackers, known as Hadrian's Wall. Roman army tried to turn back the
14The Roman Peace the 200-year span that Visigoths but suffered a stunning defeat,
began with Augustus and ended with Marcus and in 410 the Visigoths overran Italy and
Aurelius is known as the Pax Romana or plundered Rome. in 434 the Hun leader
"Roman Peace" characterized by Attila embarked on a savage campaign of
peace, order, unity, and prosperity. trade conquest across much of Europe.
flowed freely to and from distant lands in 29he was known as the “scourge of God”
Africa, India, and China, from India came because they believed his attacks were
spices, cotton, and precious stones, as punishment for the sins of humanity. in
silk came down the Silk Road. 476 Odoacer, a Germanic leader, ousted the
15Family and Religion: the family was emperor in Rome, the event that signaled
the basic unit, under Roman law the male the fall of Rome. The End Why did Rome
head of the household, the father, had “fall”? Military Causes: the Germanic
absolute power. he enforced strict invasions succeeded because the Roman
discipline and demanded total respect, his legions lacked discipline and training to
wife to his authority. The ideal woman was meet its need for soldiers, Rome hired
loving, dutiful, dignified, and strong; mercenaries, or foreign soldiers serving
most worked at home raising a family, for pay, to defend its borders, felt
spinning, and weaving. Girls and boys little loyalty to Rome. as the government
learned to read and write, even became more oppressive and authoritarian
lower-class Romans, many wealthy Romans it lost the support of the people, corrupt
were hiring private tutor. Roman gods and officials undermined loyalty.
goddesses resembled those of the Greeks, 30Political and Economic Causes: the
like the Greek god Zeus and the Roman god empire suffered as heavier taxes were
Jupiter. Neptune god of the sea, was the required to support the vast government
same as the Greek god the calendar was bureaucracy and huge military the wealth
full of feasts and other celebration which of the empire dwindled as farmers
inspired a sense of community. abandoned their land, population declined
Entertainment The Circus Maximus, Rome's due to war and epidemic diseases. Social
largest racecourse, saw fans betting on Causes the upper class, which once
chariot races, also hosted gladiator provided leaders, devoted itself to luxury
contests the amusement was a way to and self interest; providing "bread
control the city's restless mobs, and circuses” undermined self-reliance. an
government provided free grain to feed the emperor ruled the eastern Roman empire
poor, thus the policy of bread and which later became known as the Byzantine
circuses. empire. the fall of Rome was a long, slow
16Section III: Roman Accomplishments. process of change from one way of life to
Through war and conquest Caesar spread the another, and the Christian Church
Latin language and carried Roman preserved elements of Roman civilization.
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