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Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture
Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture
Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture
Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture
The Getty Villa Is
The Getty Villa Is
The Villa dei Papiri
The Villa dei Papiri
A Roman Villa: Then and Now
A Roman Villa: Then and Now
A Roman Villa: Then and Now
A Roman Villa: Then and Now
Model of an Ancient Roman Villa
Model of an Ancient Roman Villa
Peristyle
Peristyle
Peristyles at the Getty Villa
Peristyles at the Getty Villa
Peristyles at the Getty Villa
Peristyles at the Getty Villa
An Ancient Antefix
An Ancient Antefix
roof!
roof!
An Ancient Greek Waterspout
An Ancient Greek Waterspout
Where to find waterspouts at the Getty Villa
Where to find waterspouts at the Getty Villa
An Ancient Roman Fresco
An Ancient Roman Fresco
Where to find frescoes at the Getty Villa
Where to find frescoes at the Getty Villa
Mosaic
Mosaic
An Ancient Roman Mosaic
An Ancient Roman Mosaic
Where to find mosaics at the Getty Villa
Where to find mosaics at the Getty Villa
Where to find mosaics at the Getty Villa
Where to find mosaics at the Getty Villa
Other Mosaics at the Getty Villa
Other Mosaics at the Getty Villa
Other Mosaics at the Getty Villa
Other Mosaics at the Getty Villa
Plants in the Getty Villa gardens include:
Plants in the Getty Villa gardens include:
Where to find apples at the Getty Villa
Where to find apples at the Getty Villa
Where to find apples at the Getty Villa
Where to find apples at the Getty Villa
Where to find apples at the Getty Villa
Where to find apples at the Getty Villa
Where to find olives at the Getty Villa
Where to find olives at the Getty Villa
Where to find olives at the Getty Villa
Where to find olives at the Getty Villa
Olives and Victory
Olives and Victory
Grapes in Ancient Myth
Grapes in Ancient Myth
Where to find grapes at the Getty Villa
Where to find grapes at the Getty Villa
Where to find grapes at the Getty Villa
Where to find grapes at the Getty Villa
Where to find ivy at the Getty Villa
Where to find ivy at the Getty Villa
Where to find ivy at the Getty Villa
Where to find ivy at the Getty Villa
Acanthus in Ancient Art and Myth
Acanthus in Ancient Art and Myth
Where to find acanthus at the Getty Villa
Where to find acanthus at the Getty Villa
Where to find acanthus at the Getty Villa
Where to find acanthus at the Getty Villa
Where to find date palms at the Getty Villa
Where to find date palms at the Getty Villa
Where to find date palms at the Getty Villa
Where to find date palms at the Getty Villa
Where to find date palms at the Getty Villa
Where to find date palms at the Getty Villa
Where to find roses at the Getty Villa
Where to find roses at the Getty Villa
Where to find roses at the Getty Villa
Where to find roses at the Getty Villa
Where to find pomegranates at the Getty Villa
Where to find pomegranates at the Getty Villa
Herb Garden
Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb Garden
Sculpture in the Getty Villas Gardens
Sculpture in the Getty Villas Gardens
Sculpture in the Getty Villas Gardens
Sculpture in the Getty Villas Gardens
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Now that youve seen them in the art
Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture

: ibenzoniclark. , . , Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture.ppt zip- 4158 .

Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture

Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture.ppt
1Architecture and Gardens at the Getty 40Villa? In the Museum: The palm became a
Villa Architecture. 1. 2009 J. Paul popular motif known as the palmette.
Getty Trust. Youll find them on several works of art.
2What is a villa? 2. 2009 J. Paul Outdoors: You can see live date palms in
Getty Trust. the Outer Peristyle. 41. 2009 J. Paul
3The Getty Villa Is It is a modern Getty Trust.
reconstruction of an ancient Roman villa. 41Roses in Ancient Art and Myth. Roses
Its design was inspired by the Villa dei were found everywhere in the ancient
Papiri, an ancient Roman villa located in world. Where have you seen roses before?
Herculaneum, Italy. It is also a museum What do roses represent? What happens with
dedicated to ancient Greek, Etruscan, and a rose in the story of Sleeping Beauty?
Roman art. 3. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. 41. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust.
http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/me 42Where to find roses at the Getty
idian/2005/images/pompeii_map.gif. Villa? In the Museum: Stylized roses are
4The Villa dei Papiri. A drawing of the used to decoratively fill the empty spaces
Villa dei Papiris floor plan by Karl between the lions and panthers on this
Weber, the Swiss engineer who discovered pot. Outdoors: You can see live rose
the ruins of the ancient villa in the 18th bushes in the Outer Peristyle. 42. Pitcher
century. 4. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. with Lions and Panthers Attributed to the
5A Roman Villa: Then and Now. then. Painter of Vatican 73 Greek, Corinth,
now. 5. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. 650625 B.C. Terracotta. 2009 J. Paul
6Model of an Ancient Roman Villa. 6. Getty Trust.
2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. 43Pomegranates in Ancient Art and Myth.
http://romanum.historicus.pl/Zdj/planosdom Persephone ate pomegranate seeds while
jpg. imprisoned by Hades, god of the
7Like us, Romans decorated their houses Underworld. For every seed she ate, she
on the inside and outside. What kind of must spend a month each year in the
decorations do you think the Romans used? Underworld with him. During this period
Think about your own house and make a list each year, Persephones mother
of its decorations. What decorations are Demetergoddess of the earthkills the
inside? Outside? 7. 2009 J. Paul Getty earths plants in anger. This is how the
Trust. ancients explained winter. Pomegranates
8Peristyle Antefix Waterspout Fresco were also a symbol of fertility. 43.
Mosaic Lets learn more about these... 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust.
Architectural elements at the Getty Villa 44Where to find pomegranates at the
include: 8. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Villa? In the Museum: On this pot, a
9Peristyle. A peristyle is a courtyard mortal, Triptolemos, sits on a chariot to
with a covered walkway all around it. The bring the secrets of agriculture to
courtyard that a peristyle surrounds often mortals. He is surrounded by Demeter and
contains a garden. How many peristyles do Hades, a goddess and god central to the
you see on the map of the Getty Villa? 9. myth of Persephone. Outdoors: You can see
2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. live pomegranate trees in the Outer
10Peristyles at the Getty Villa. Outer Peristyle. 45. Mixing Vessel with
Peristyle. Inner Peristyle. 10. 2009 J. Triptolemos Attributed to the Syleus
Paul Getty Trust. Painter Greek, Athens, about 470 B.C.
11Antefix. An antefix is a decorative Terracotta. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust.
tile used on ancient buildings to cover 45Herb Garden. Most Roman houses had a
the end of the roof tiles. Antefixes kept household herb garden. The Herb Garden at
birds from building their nests in the the Getty Villa contains plants that also
eaves (edge of the roof) and also grew in ancient times, including fruit
protected the area from rain and other trees, and medicinal and cooking herbs.
elements. 11. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. 45. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust.
12An Ancient Antefix. Here is an example 46Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb
of an ancient antefix. It is more than Garden. Spearmint. Lemon-scented thyme.
2,500 years old! Do you remember... What 46. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust.
is an antefix and where can you find it? 47Herbs in the Getty Villas Herb
12. Antefix Unknown artist Etruscan, Garden. Lovage. Basil. 47. 2009 J. Paul
Caere, 510500 B.C. Terracotta and slip. Getty Trust.
2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. 48Sculpture in the Getty Villas
13roof! Where to find antefixes at the Gardens. Bronze and marble statues were
Getty Villa? When you visit the Getty placed in the gardens of Roman Villas.
Villa, point your nose to the sky, and you These statues were meant to spark
will be see many antefixes. They are on conversation amongst the owner of the
the... 13. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. villa and his guests. The gardens at the
14Waterspout. A waterspout is a hole or Getty Villa are filled replicas of bronze
a pipe that directs water out of a statues found in the gardens of the Villa
fountain, or off a roof. In ancient times, dei Papyri. 48. Replica of a Bust Getty
some waterspouts had scary creatures on Villa, Inner Peristyle Garden. Replica of
them. People believed these creatures a Bronze Statue Getty Villa, Inner
protected the water that people drank from Peristyle Garden. 2009 J. Paul Getty
the spouts. 14. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust.
Trust. 49Now that youve seen them in the
15An Ancient Greek Waterspout. Do you art... see them alive in the gardens!
remember... what is a waterspout, and Rose. Pomegranate. Olive. Ivy. Grape. Date
where can you find it? Why would a lions palm. Apple. Acanthus. 49. 2009 J. Paul
head be used to decorate a waterspout? 15. Getty Trust.
Lion's-Head Waterspout Unknown artist 50Find Works of Art in this Slideshow at
Greek, South Italy, about 450 B.C. the Getty Villa. 50. Slide 12: Antefix,
Limestone. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. Etruscan, from Caere, 510 500 B.C.
16Where to find waterspouts at the Getty (usually not on view)
Villa? Explore the Villa gardens and look http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
around... You will find waterspouts like ctDetails?artobj=12376 Slide 15:
this! 16. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. Lions-Head Waterspout, Greek, from South
17Fresco. A fresco is a painting that is Italy, about 450 B.C. (Animals in
made on a wall of wet plaster using Antiquity galleryGallery 201C)
pigments (finely ground mineral powders http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
from the earth). 17. 2009 J. Paul Getty ctDetails?artobj=35537 Slide 18: Wall
Trust. Fragment with a Scene of Meal Preparation,
18An Ancient Roman Fresco. What is Roman, from Italy, A.D. 5075. (Silver
happening in this scene? What are the men Treasures galleryGallery 101D)
holding? Where in an ancient villa might http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
this fresco have been found? 18. Wall ctDetails?artobj=9887 Slide 21: Mosaic
Fragment with a Scene of Meal Preparation Floor with a Boxing Scene, Gallo-Roman,
Unknown artist Roman, Italy, A.D. 5075 from present-day Villelaure, France, about
Plaster and pigment. 2009 J. Paul Getty A.D. 175 (Athletes and Competition
Trust. galleryGallery 211)
19Where to find frescoes at the Getty http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
Villa? Walk around the Outer Peristyle and ctDetails?artobj=7662 Slide 29: Aphrodite,
you will find frescoes like this Greek, 200150 B.C. (Gods and Goddesses
decorating the walls. Where else might you galleryGallery 104)
find frescoes? On the ceilings! 19. 2009 http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
J. Paul Getty Trust. ctDetails?artobj=35423 Slide 31: Water Jar
20Mosaic. A mosaic is a picture or with an Owl, Greek, from Athens, 480470
decoration made of small, usually colored, B.C. (Gods and Goddesses galleryGallery
pieces of material such as stone, tile, or 104).
glasscalled tesserae. 20. 2009 J. Paul http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
Getty Trust. ctDetails?artobj=14085 Slide 32:
21An Ancient Roman Mosaic. Have you seen Victorious Youth, Greek, 300100 B.C. (The
a mosaic before? If so, where did you see Victorious Youth galleryGallery 210)
it? If not, in what kind of buildings do http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
you imagine youd find mosaics? 21. Mosaic ctDetails?artobj=8912 Slide 34: Cup with
Floor with a Boxing Scene Unknown artist Grapevine Reliefs, Roman, from Smyrna in
Gallo-Roman, present-day Villelaure, present-day Turkey, 501B.C. (Terracotta
France, about A.D. 175 Stone and glass. and Marble Vessels galleryGallery 101C)
2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
22Where to find mosaics at the Getty ctDetails?artobj=35627 Slide 36: Head of
Villa? Look at your feet while you walk the Young Bacchus, Roman, A.D. 150
around the Getty Villa. You will find a (Dionysos and the Theater gallery Gallery
lot a mosaics on the... floors! 22. 2005 114)
J. Paul Getty Trust. 2009 J. Paul Getty http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
Trust. 2005 J. Paul Getty Trust. ctDetails?artobj=35429 Slide 38: Handle in
23Other Mosaics at the Getty Villa. the Shape of Triton, Greek, from Macedonia
Hint: You will not find these mosaics on or Illyria, 10050 B.C. (Luxury Vessels
the floors! 24. 2009 J. Paul Getty galleryGallery 105)
Trust. http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
24Architecture and Gardens at the Villa ctDetails?artobj=12944 Slide 40: Crowning
Gardens. 24. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. Decoration for a Grave Monument, Greek
25What is a garden? Do you have a garden from Athens, about 320 B.C. (Funerary
at your home? What kinds of plants are in Sculpture galleryGallery 201B)
your garden? Are plants only used in a http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
garden? 25. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. ctDetails?artobj=9726 Slide 42: Pitcher
26Plants in the Getty Villa gardens with Lions and Panthers, Greek, from
include: Apple trees Olive trees Grape Corinth, 650625 B.C. (Animals in
vines Ivy Acanthus Date palms Pomegranate Antiquity galleryGallery 201C)
trees Herbs. 26. 2009 J. Paul Getty http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
Trust. ctDetails?artobj=12923 Slide 44: Mixing
27The Nature of Art: Plants in the Vessel with Triptolemos, Greek, Athens,
Ancient World. What do you think of when about 470 B.C. (Gods and Goddesses
you think about apples? Have you heard gallery Gallery 104)
about or read any fairy tales that have http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
apples in them? 27. 2009 J. Paul Getty ctDetails?artobj=15110. 2009 J. Paul
Trust. Getty Trust.
28Apples in Ancient Myth. Is the apple a 51Image Credits. Slide 3: John. P. Pratt
good or bad object in the story of Snow http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/me
White? Can you think of myths from other idian/2005/images/pompeii_map.gif Slide 4:
cultures with apples in them? Do apples Norman Neuerburg papers in the
seem to bring about good or bad things? Institutional Archives in Special
The ancients told myths in which apples Collections, Los Angeles, Research
were symbols both of love and suffering. Library, the Getty research Institute, no.
28. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. BU1 (10001). Guide to the Getty Villa. Los
29Where to find apples at the Getty Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Trust, 2005, p.
Villa? In the Museum: A bronze statue of 43. Slide 5: both images, De Franciscis,
Aphrodite depicts the goddess holding an A. Pompeii: Monuments Past and Present.
apple. Outdoors: You can see live apple Rome: Vision s.r.l., 1995, p. 27. Slide 6:
trees in the Herb Garden. 29. Aphrodite Imperium Romanum web site.
Unknown Artist Greek, 200 150 B.C. http://romanum.historicus.pl/Zdj/planosdom
Bronze. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. jpg Slide 9: J. Paul Getty Trust Slide
30Olives in Ancient Art and Myth. The 10: both images, Cynthia Querio, J. Paul
olive was a sacred attribute of the Getty Museum Slide 12: Gift of Leon Levy.
goddess Athena. Olives were one of the The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa
most valuable substances available to the Collection, Malibu, California
ancients. Olives were also believed to http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
have several medicinal properties that ctDetails?artobj=12376 Slide 13: Cynthia
could cure both colds and fevers. 30. Querio, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide 15: The
2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa Collection,
31Where to find olives at the Getty Malibu, California
Villa? In the Museum: An Attic vase http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
depicts an owlthe animal associated with ctDetails?artobj=35537 Slide 16: Cynthia
Athenabetween two olive branches. Querio, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide 18: The
Outdoors: You can see live olive trees in J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa Collection,
the Herb Garden. 31. Water Jar with an Malibu, California
Owl: Shoulder Attributed to the Group of http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
the Floral Nolans Greek, Athens, about ctDetails?artobj=9887 Slide 19: Cynthia
480470 B.C. Terracotta. 2009 J. Paul Querio, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide 20:
Getty Trust. Cynthia Querio, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide
32Olives and Victory. Wreaths of olive 21: The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa
branches were bestowed to athletic Collection, Malibu, California
champions of the Olympic games and the http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
Heraia games (games for women only). 32. ctDetails?artobj=7662 Slide 22: both
Victorious Youth Unknown artist Greek, images, 2005 J. Paul Getty Trust Slide
300100 B.C. Bronze. 2009 J. Paul Getty 23: both images, Cynthia Querio, J. Paul
Trust. Getty Museum Slide 26: Cynthia Querio, J.
33Grapes in Ancient Myth. What is made Paul Getty Museum Slide 29: left, The J.
from grapes? WINE! Wine was believed to Paul Getty Museum, Villa Collection,
have the ability to lift magic spells and Malibu, California
to reveal liars. Romans also used wine to http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
cure several medical ailments including ctDetails?artobj=35423 Slide 29: right,
chest pain and cough. 33. 2009 J. Paul Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide
Getty Trust. 31: left, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa
34Where to find grapes at the Getty Collection, Malibu, California
Villa? In the Museum: Images of grape http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
vines wrap around this terracotta cup. ctDetails?artobj=14085. 2009 J. Paul
Outdoors: You can see live grape vines in Getty Trust.
the Herb Garden and the Outer Peristyle 52Image Credits, continued. Slide 31:
Garden. 34. Cup with Grapevine Reliefs right, Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum
Unknown artist Roman, Smyrna, 501 B.C. Slide 32: The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa
Lead-glazed terracotta. 2009 J. Paul Collection, Malibu, California
Getty Trust. http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
35Ivy in Ancient Art and Myth. The ctDetails?artobj=8912 Slide 33: Kristen
Romans believed that ivys evergreen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide 34: left,
nature linked it to immortality. They also The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa
believed that the mere presence of the Collection, Malibu, California
plant could inspire profound thoughts. It http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
was a favorite plant in gardens and was ctDetails?artobj=35627 Slide 34: right,
often a decorative pattern in works of Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide
art. 35. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. 36: left, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa
36Where to find ivy at the Getty Villa? Collection, Malibu, California
In the Museum: This image of Bacchus http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
depicts him with his signature crown of ctDetails?artobj=35429 Slide 36: right,
grape vines and ivy. Outdoors: You can see Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide
live ivy in the Outer Peristyle. 36. Head 37: Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum
of the Young Bacchus Unknown artist Roman, Slide 38: left, The J. Paul Getty Museum,
A.D. 150 Bronze and silver. 2009 J. Villa Collection, Malibu, California
Paul Getty Trust. http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
37Acanthus in Ancient Art and Myth. The ctDetails?artobj=12944 Slide 38: right,
acanthus plant was depicted on the Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide
capitals of Corinthian columns. It was a 40: top left, The J. Paul Getty Museum,
symbol of hope and eternal life. Boiled Villa Collection, Malibu, California
acanthus roots were used to treat burns, http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
sprains, and gout. 37. 2009 J. Paul ctDetails?artobj=9726 Slide 40: top right,
Getty Trust. Cynthia Querio, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide
38Where to find acanthus at the Getty 40: bottom, Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty
Villa? In the Museum: On the Handle in the Museum Slide 42: left, The J. Paul Getty
Shape of a Triton, acanthus leaves echo Museum, Villa Collection, Malibu,
the splashing of the waves. Outdoors: You California
can see live acanthus in the Outer http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
Peristyle. Its also represented on the ctDetails?artobj=12923 Slide 42: right,
Corinthian columns in the Outer Peristyle. Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide
38. Handle in the Shape of a Triton 44: The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa
Unknown artist Greek, Macedonia or Collection, Malibu, California
Illyria, 10050 B.C. Silver and gold. http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObj
2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. ctDetails?artobj=15110 Slide 45: Cynthia
39Date Palms in Ancient Art and Myth. Querio, J. Paul Getty Museum Slide 46:
Palms held a special place in ceremonies both images, Jeanette LaVere, J. Paul
and rituals because of their rarity in Getty Museum Slide 47: both images,
Greece. Palms referred to both life and Jeanette LaVere, J. Paul Getty Museum
death, and more importantly, the triumph Slide 48: both images, Cynthia Querio, J.
of life over death. They provided hope in Paul Getty Museum Slide 49: all
the afterlife, and often appear on burial photographs, Kristen Kido, J. Paul Getty
monuments. 39. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust. Museum. 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust.
40Where to find date palms at the Getty
Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture.ppt
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Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture

Architecture and Gardens at the Getty Villa Architecture

The animals - GORILLA. BEAR. LIZARD. SQUIRREL. KOALA. CAMEL. SEAL. SNAKE. FLAMINGO. PARROT. KANGAROO. TIGER. SCORPIO. FOX. The ANIMALS of our planet. The animals which live in Australia. The animals which live in the rainforest and tropics. FISH. BOBCAT. The animals which live in the desert. GRIFFIN. LION. ELEPHANT.

The green movement - Several active workers managed to steal up on a raft to a platform and to chain themselves to it. Green color which is used by participants of movement as the general emblem, serves as a symbol of the nature, hope and updating. National offices Green Peace are opened in 43 countries of the world as the independent units working over achievement of the purposes of the national projects.

the woman - , , . = . As great a pity to see a woman cry as a goose go barefoot. 9 , : . Un homme- . A man - . - , - ; - . .

The english-speaking countries - Disneyland. Australia. USA. The English-speaking countries. Scotland. Great Britain.

Youth subcultures - punk. hippie. goth. hacker. biker. raver. mod. skinhead. subculture. rocker.

- (.). : , . . , . . , . () .

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