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Basics of the grammar of English

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1Basics of the grammar of English. 16moods: declarative I will buy it.
Words, phrases, clauses Words Open interrogative Will I buy it? What will I
classes; nouns and verbs Distribution buy? imperative Buy it! A clause has a
patterns Nouns, pronouns, verbs, tenses tense — the same as the verb. Finally,
Inflection Noun phrases Simple clauses, some clauses can be active or passive:
categories Questions Roles Prepositional John hit Jim ? Jim was hit [by John] John
phrases Clausal subjects / complements felt sick ? * Sick was felt [by John] John
Verb phrases Modifiers Compound clauses slept ? ???
Relative clauses. 17Questions. There are two types of
2Words, phrases, clauses. The building interrogative clauses. They are, in a
blocks of expressions in natural languages sense, derived from declarative clauses.
are words, phrases, clauses. There is a He bought two books today. He did buy two
semantic motivation for some of these books today. Yes/no questions Did he buy
fundamental constructions: noun phrases two books today? Wh-questions [Who] ?
correspond to entities that have bought two books today? [What] did he buy
properties (expressed by adjective ? today? [When] did he buy two books ??
phrases, relative clauses,and so on); verb 18Roles. A clause consists of a verb
phrases correspond to situations with group surrounded by noun phrases that
roles (noun phrases, prepositional serve as role descriptors. One syntactic
phrases) and qualities (adverbial role that is always present in an English
phrases). clause is the subject. It may not be the
3Words, phrases, clauses (2). The agent or the experiencer (see conceptual
clause level Simple and compound clauses. graphs). Yesterday John gave Mary a book.
Coordinate clause. Major and subordinate subject Yesterday John gave Mary a book.
clauses. The word level Morphology: book ? indirect object Yesterday John gave Mary a
books, make ? making. Derivation: white ? book. direct object Yesterday John gave
whiteness, quick ? quickly. We bought him Mary a book. modifier.
a book because he likes to read. simple 19Roles (2). The number of roles depends
clause. simple clause. major clause. on the verb. Intransitive verbs have one
subordinate clause. compound clause. role [subject]: Jim has laughed. The child
4Words. Criteria for distinguishing is sleeping. Transitive verbs have two
words are quite arbitrary, though the roles [subject, direct object]: The man
simplest test (groups of letters between rode a pony. He should wash his face.
non-letters) works okay. Words are not the Bi-transitive verbs have a subject, direct
lowest level of description. Morphemes, object, indirect object: Tom gave Mary
e.g., pre+book+ing, un+glue+d. flowers. Tom gave flowers to Mary. Verbs
antidisestablishmentarianism There are with ? 4 roles: move [who what from-where
four open classes of words (noun, verb, to-where]. A verb may have several role
adjective, adverb) and closed classes patterns: Tom bought flowers. Tom bought
(including articles, conjunctions, flowers for Mary. Examples of incorrect
prepositions, numerals, pronouns). clauses (too many / too few roles): * Jim
5There are two criteria for word sold. * Jim slept a book.
classification. Semantics: situations - 20Roles (3). Four most common syntactic
roles - properties. Distribution: words in forms of roles Noun phrase in a specific
the same class can often be interchanged. position: subject direct object indirect
Distribution can be tested by diagnostic object Prepositional phrase Embedded
contexts, positive and negative. Example: clause Modifier Examples of the last three
adjectives. Words (2). +. This is a follow shortly. All “role-fillers” are
________ book. +. The book is very jointly called complements.
________. -. This ________ is new. -. I 21Prepositional phrases. The syntax is
want to ________ it to you. very simple: a preposition followed by a
6Words (3). A word may fit more than noun phrase. The meaning tends to be quite
one pattern. This happens quite often, complex, and there are many roles, jointly
because word classes are not disjoint. determined by the preposition and the noun
Examples: compound is an adjective, a phrase. Examples of relations between
noun, a verb; bar is a noun, a verb, a roles and prepositions: with instrument,
preposition. (The verb-noun ambiguity is accompaniment He ate cake with a spoon. He
frequent in English.) Classify various ? went home with them. by agent, location He
in these sentences: John decided to ? a was hit by a stranger. He sat by the door.
big, ? and juicy ?. Put your ? ? the 22Prepositional phrases (2). More
table. examples: in ??? at ??? on ??? for ???
7Words (4). Nouns Proper nouns: Jimmy, (there are many more prepositions, but not
Greece, IBM Common nouns: • mass nouns all that many roles). Prepositional
(sand, milk, ...) • count nouns (all phrases also qualify nouns: I met a man
others) Pronouns Personal (I, him, ...) with a dog. I met a man in a coat.
Possessive (its, hers, ...) 23Embedded clauses. Clausal subjects
Interrogative/relative (whom, which, that, Honour means much to him. To jump over the
...) Demonstrative (this, those, ...). lazy dog means much to him. Jumping over
8Words (5). Nouns and personal pronouns the lazy dog means much to him. Clausal
have clear distributional differences (* direct objects John wants peace. John
marks incorrect expressions). a man is wants to give Mary a book. John wants Jim
running ? * a Jim is running a box of sand to give Mary a book. John considers the
? * a box of book the book is mine ? * the consequences. John considers giving Mary a
book is which a white elephant ? * a white book. Clausal indirect objects John sent a
he. note to Mary. John sent a note to whom it
9Beyond words. Verb groups In English, may concern.
there are five basic forms: infinitive 24Verb phrases. Verb phrases also have a
eat, drink, walk present 3rd person eats, deceptively simple top-level syntax: a
drinks, walks simple past ate, drank, verb with complements. The complexity
walked progressive (present participle) arises from the richness of the structure
eating, drinking, walking perfective (past of complements. We can now define the
participle) eaten, drunk, walked In syntax of a declarative clause. (In the
French, there are about sixty forms. There example grammars, we will call them
also are at least 48 English tenses, most “sentences”.) We keep the noun phrase in
of them expressed analytically, that is, the subject position separate. clause ??
using auxiliary verbs (all forms of be, nounPhrase, verbPhrase. All other noun
have, do, plus will, would and so on). phrases, prepositional phrases and so on
10Beyond words (2). Selected English are part of the verb phrase. verbPhrase ??
tenses. How would we add negation? Tense. verb, complements.
Example. Example—continuous. present. go / 25Modifiers. Much of the interesting
goes. am / are / is going. past. went. was complexity comes from modifiers —
/ were going. future. will go. will be expressions that introduce place, time,
going. present perfect. have / has gone. manner and many other additional elements
have / has been going. past perfect. had of a situation. Here are examples of
gone. had been going. future perfect. will structures and their meaning. Adverb
have gone. will have been going. Obviously, he wants to go. Prepositional
11Inflection. Words usually have forms phrase He wants to go for a walk. Embedded
with the same meaning and different -ing clause He wants to go whistling a
functions in a sentence. Examples: he — tune. Noun phrase He wants to go tomorrow.
him was — were long — longer book — books 26Modifiers (2). Ordinal First, he wants
Such forms have different inflectional to go. A comparative construction He wants
categories. Nouns can be inflected by case to go as soon as possible. Another
and number; adjectives by case, number, embedded clause He wants to go as if he
gender and degree; verbs by person, danced. In theory, we can have as many
number, gender and tense. Inflection in modifiers as we please, but there are
English is quite simple, compared with practical limits. This is an almost
such languages as Russian, and even unrealistic example: More than ever,
French. tomorrow he wants to go quickly for a walk
12Inflection (2). French English whistling a tune.
donnais, donnais, donnait gave, gave, gave 27Modifiers (3). Examples of simple
donnions, donniez, donnaient gave, gave, clauses with subjects, qualifiers and
gave dernier, derniers last, last modifiers: A man is walking. A man with a
derni?re, derni?res last, last English cane is walking down the lane. A man who
cases Russian cases Water is good. ... seems tired is walking slowly. A man is
voda ... There is no water. ... vody ... I walking and whistling a tune. A man with a
wonder at water. ... vode ... I see water. cane who seems tired is slowly walking
... vodu ... I wash with water. ... vodoy down the lane and whistling a tune. In the
... last two examples there is the
13Inflection (3). Case: nouns and complication of “and”, but it is still a
pronouns The mansubjective spoke. simple clause — it has one subject and
Hesubjective spoke. We saw the one, though far from elementary, verb
manobjective. We saw himobjective. Person phrase.
and number: verbs I walk/walked1st, sg I 28Compound clauses. There are
am/was1st, sg yousg walk/walked2nd, sg co-ordinate clauses and subordinate
yousg are/were2nd, sg he walks/walked3rd, clauses, constructed using conjunctions. X
sg he is/was3rd, sg we walk/walked1st, pl and Y are simple clauses. Subordinate
we are/were1st, pl youpl walk/walked2nd, conjunctions — a few examples “X if Y” “X
pl youpl are/were2nd, pl they when Y” “X because Y” Co-ordinate
walk/walked3d, pl they are/were3d, pl. sg conjunctions “X and Y” “X or Y” “either X
= singular, pl = plural. or Y” “neither X nor Y”.
14Noun phrases. Segment. Function. 29Compound clauses (2). Co-ordination is
Examples. Determiner. Pre-determiner. a difficult construct, expensive to
half; both; all. sequence. Determiner. recognize, because a conjunction may
the; a; those; every. Ordinal. first; appear between any two constituents.
second; last. Cardinal. one; three; many. Hansel saw the witch. Hansel and Gretel
Modifiers. Describers. big; blue; saw the witch. Hansel and Gretel saw the
enchanted. Classifiers. stone; singing. witch and her house. Hansel and Gretel saw
Head. Head. walls; people; ones. and killed the witch. Hansel and Gretel
Qualifiers. Restrictive qualifier. in saw the witch and killed her. Hansel and
town; who fly. Nonrestrictive qualifier. , Gretel saw the witch and ran. Hansel and
which you know. ------------------. Gretel saw the witch and her house and
Possessive marker. ‘s. Terry Winograd, ran.
Language as a Cognitive Process: Syntax, 30Relative clauses. the man who ? went
Addison-Wesley, 1983. for a walk the man he knows ? best the
15Noun phrases (2). Examples, short and book that you gave ? to Mary the book that
long, with head marked he Jimmy a man all you gave Mary ? the fair everybody went to
the first three big stone walls in town, ? the book that Bill promised he would
which you know all those many enchanted tell John to remember to give ? to Mary.
blue singing people who fly Elements that Note how similar this is to questions.
precede the head Specifiers describe 31Relative clauses (2). But not
definiteness, cardinality, and so on. everything is possible. We cannot “lift” a
Modifiers (adjectives, nouns) narrow down noun phrase just from anywhere. These are
the meaning. Elements that follow the head examples of incorrect “lifting”. * the
Postmodifiers: relative clauses, book John gave ? and the golden magic ring
prepositional phrases. to Mary * the book I read a note that John
16Simple clauses. A “simple” clause is gave ? to Mary Relative clauses are hard
not really simple. It is, however, usually to analyze, especially if we want to
built around a single verb, though with reject such incorrect structures. Not to
many additional elements — more in a worry: we will manage, at least partially.
while. A clause can be in one of three Stay tuned.
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Basics of the grammar of English

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