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NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH

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BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH

BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH.ppt
1BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH. NO CHILD LEFT 41BOOK; SCRILLA; CAKE MONEY BOUNCE LEAVE
BEHIND 2003 MAURICE M. MARTINEZ, Ph.D. [LETS BOUNCE] WE OUT-TEE WE ARE LEAVING
WATSON SCHOOL OF EDUCATION UNC WILMINGTON JETTIN; DIPPIN LEAVING QUICKLY SCRUB A
martinezm@uncw.edu (910)962-4279. BUM; NOT GOOD IN SPORTS OR ANYTHING STEP
2TO SUCCEED IS TO BE UNDERSTOOD. IN OFF BACK OFF; BEAT IT; LAY OFF; CROKE YO A
MAINSTREAM AMERICA, TO BE UNDERSTOOD IS TO CALL TO SOMEBODY FRESH NEW AIGHT or I-GHT
BE ABLE TO SPEAK AND TO USE STANDARD OK, ALL RIGHT SICK GOOD LOOKING SNEAKERS
ENGLISH. WHAT IS STANDARD ENGLISH [SE]? TYPE VERY [IM TYPE HUNGRY!].
STANDARD ENGLISH IS THE ENGLISH SPOKEN ON 42WORDS ARE WORDS. IF THE BLACK ENGLISH
THE MAJOR NATIONAL TV NETWORKS: NBC, CBS, SPEAKER LACKS A STANDARD ENGLISH WORD, HE
ABC, CNN, etc. IN A MIDWESTERN (MINNESOTA HAS A REPERTOIRE OF SLANG WORDS IN HIS
TO MICHIGAN) DIALECT KNOWN AS AMERICAN VOCABULARY AVAILABLE FOR USE. IN THE
STANDARD ENGLISH [ASE]. STANDARD ENGLISH AVOIDANCE OF PENDING CONFLICTS, ARGUMENTS,
IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE LANGUAGE OF WIDER OR FIGHTS, TEACHERS SHOULD TUNE IN TO
COMMUNICATION [LWC] BECAUSE OF ITS ADDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS LIKE: [BE] [SE] WHY
WIDESPREAD USE IN THE MEDIA. YOU ALWAYS GRILLIN ME? WHY ARE YOU
3THERE ARE TWO SETS OF NORMS IN [SE]: STARING AT ME? WHY YOU TRIPPIN WHY ARE
INFORMAL STANDARD [USUALLY SPOKEN, YOU GETTING UPSET? WHY YOU ALWAYS IN MY
SOMETIMES IN A REGIONAL DIALECT, WITH GRILL? WHY ARE YOU IN MY BUSINESS? NONE OF
DISTINCTIVE PRONUNCIATION PATTERNS YO BEESWACK? NONE OF YOUR BUSINESS SEE ME
PREFERRED BY A GROUP OF SPEAKERS WHO ARE FIVE TAKE IT OUTSIDE; LATER ON WERE GOING
SET OFF FROM OTHERS GEOGRAPHICALLY, TO FIGHT AFTER SCHOOL. AIGHT, IM DOWN.
SOCIALLY, AND CULTURALLY] (Wolfram, et al, ALL RIGHT, ILL BE THERE. TALK TO THE HAND
1999) THE FORMAL STANDARD [WRITTEN [A WOMAN WAVES HER HAND IN THE FACE OF
LANGUAGE TAUGHT IN SCHOOL ACCORDING TO ANOTHER WOMAN] I DONT WANT TO HEAR IT!
NORMS IN GRAMMAR BOOKS AND EVALUATED IN IM NOT LISTENING. SHUT UP FO I SPAZ ON
STANDARDIZED TESTS], MORE RECENTLY YOU! SHUT UP BEFORE I BEAT YOU UP!
REFERRED TO AS ENGLISH USED IN A FORMAL 43[PS] PERSONAL STORY: A WORD A DAY
REGISTER. (Ruby Payne, 2001). KEEPS IGNORANCE AWAY.. TO EXPAND
4BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH. MANY AFRICAN STUDENTS VOCABULARY IN STANDARD ENGLISH,
AMERICANS SPEAK AND USE A FORM OF ENGLISH HAVE THEM CREATE A BOOK OF NEW WORDS.
THAT IS SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT FROM STANDARD HERES HOW IT WORKS: UPON ENTERING THE
ENGLISH. EVERY LANGUAGE SYSTEM CONTAINS ROOM, THE STUDENT FINDS A NEW WORD ON THE
RULES. THE RULES OF BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH CHALKBOARD, A DEFINITION OF THE WORD, AND
[BE] ARE FUNCTIONAL TO THOSE WHO USE THEM. ITS USE IN A SENTENCE. e.g.: Eloquent
THESE RULES ARE SYSTEMATIC AND ARE APPLIED (adj): marked by forceful and fluent
OVER AND OVER AGAIN IN EXACTLY THE SAME expression; vivid and moving
WAY. MORE RECENTLY, BLACK ENGLISH HAS BEEN persuasiveness. THAT WAS AN ELOQUENT
REFERRED TO AS ENGLISH USED IN A CASUAL SPEECH. THE STUDENT COPIES THE NEW WORD
REGISTER. (Payne). UNDER THE CORRESPONDING ALPHABET FILE PAGE
5UNAWARENESS OF THE RULES. OFTEN, THE IN HIS/HER PERSONAL BOOK OF NEW WORDS.
STUDENT WHO SPEAKS BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH THE TEACHER AND STUDENTS READ THE CORRECT
IS UNAWARE OF THE RULES OF STANDARD PRONUNCIATION OF THE NEW WORD THREE TIMES.
ENGLISH LIKEWISE, MANY TEACHERS ARE STUDENTS ARE ASKED TO CREATE NEW SENTENCES
UNAWARE OF THE RULES OF BLACK AMERICAN AND TO SPEAK TO 20 PERSONS DURING THE DAY
ENGLISH THE BLAME SHOULD NOT BE PLACED USING THE WORD ELOQUENT. ADDITIONAL
UPON THE STUDENT OR THE TEACHER, BUT UPON RETENTION STRATEGIES CAN BE FOUND IN
UNAWARENESS.. Phyllis Nobiles AGGRESSIVE LEARNING..
6BECOMING AWARE. THE PURPOSE OF THIS 44INTONATION VARIATIONS. BLACK ENGLISH
PRESENTATION IS TO PROVIDE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HAS ITS ROOTS IN ANCESTRAL TONAL-RHYTHMIC
SOME OF THE RULES AND FEATURES OF BLACK LANGUAGES THAT CAME FROM AFRICA. IT IS NOT
ENGLISH AS SPOKEN IN AMERICA. HOW CAN WE, JUST THE WHAT [THE CONTENT THAT IS
AS TEACHERS, BEST SUCCEED IN OUR NO CHILD CONTAINED IN THE SPOKEN MESSAGE] BUT HOW
LEFT BEHIND EFFORTS? WE CAN BEGIN BY THAT MESSAGE IS DELIVERED. THIS INVOLVES
TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN THE USE OF A WIDE RESERVOIR OF TONES AND
BY AFRICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN. INFLECTIONS IN THE VOICE, RANGING FROM A
7WHY MUST WE UNDERSTAND BLACK ENGLISH? HIGH FALSETTO TO A LOW BASS, INCLUDING
ALL STUDENTS ARE TESTED ON THEIR KNOWLEDGE TONES IN BETWEEN. BLACK SPEECH IS A
AND USE OF STANDARD ENGLISH [SE] [LWC]. DEPARTURE FROM A MAINSTREAM MONOTONE.
THESE TESTS DO NOT VALUE OR REWARD OTHER 45INTONATION AND FEELINGS. VOICE QUALITY
STRUCTURES OR FEATURES OF ENGLISH, AS IS AFFECTED BY THE PSYCHOLOGICAL OR
FOUND IN BLACK ENGLISH. SUCCESS IN SCHOOL EMOTIONAL STATE OF THE SPEAKER. IF THE
IS MEASURED BY HOW WELL THE STUDENT USES TOPIC IS EXCITING OR JOYFUL, THE VOICE MAY
STANDARD ENGLISH. MANY AFRICAN AMERICAN RISE TO A FALSETTO LEVEL. WHEN IT IS TIME
STUDENTS ARE LEFT BEHIND BECAUSE OF TO BE CALM, COOL AND COLLECTED, THE VOICE
THEIR LOW SCORES ON STANDARDIZED TESTS IN DESCENDS INTO A BASS LEVEL. OFTEN, ONE CAN
READING AND WRITING. HEAR BLACK SPEECH IN A SLUR OF INDEFINITE
8TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING. PITCH AS FOUND ON THE SOUNDTRACK OF THE TV
SOCIOLINGUISTS [ABRAHAMS, DILLARD, BARATZ DANCE SHOW, SOUL TRAIN, AS THE VOICE
AND SHUY, LABOV, JOHNSON, WOLFRAM, DANDY, MOVES FROM A HIGH FALSETTO TO A LOW BASS
SMITHERMAN, ETC.] HAVE PROVIDED US WITH IN ONE CONTINUOUS NOTE OR SOUND. WHEN
TOOLS TO BETTER UNDERSTANDRATHER THAN READING A STORY TO AFRICAN AMERICAN
CONDEMNBLACK SPEECH. CHILDREN, TEACHERS SHOULD MAXIMIZE THE
9TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING. THEY HAVE RANGE OF TONAL INFLECTIONS IN THE VOICE,
LONG CONTENDED THAT BLACK ENGLISH GIVING EACH CHARACTER A DIFFERENT VOICE
CONTAINS: PHONOLOGY [SPEECH SOUNDS, LEVEL OR QUALITY [AS IN THE STORY OF THE
PRONUNCIATION PATTERNS] LEXICON THREE BEARS].
[VOCABULARY, TERMS, CODES, WORDSETS] 46CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING SCENARIO: AT A
GRAMMAR [WORDS, INFLECTIONS, SYNTAX, SOCIAL GATHERING, THREE YOUNG AFRICAN
RULES] VERBS, AND OTHER FEATURES THAT ARE AMERICAN WOMEN ARE TALKING ABOUT THE MEN
DIFFERENT FROM STANDARD ENGLISH. IN THE ROOM. THINK/PAIR/SHARE ACTIVITY:
10TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING. TEACHERS WHO HAVE SOMEONE READ THE DIALOGUE. PAIR UP
ARE AWARE OF THESE DIFFERENCES ARE BETTER WITH SOMEONE TO DISCUSS THE MEANINGS SHARE
PREPARED TO TEACH STANDARD ENGLISH TO THOUGHTS WITH EVERYONE IN THE ROOM.
AFRICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN. 47DIALOGUE3 YOUNG WOMEN: --SUP GIRL?
11WHAT IS BLACK ENGLISH? BLACK ENGLISH --SAP NIN? --DIS PARTY BE KRUNK. --CHECK
IS THE LANGUAGE OF BLACK AMERICA. CAUTION: OUT HOMES! --YO, BLING BLING? --ICED OUT
NOT ALL 36 MILLION AFRICAN AMERICANS FOR DAYS! --GIMMIE THE 411. HE THUGGIN?
CHOOSE TO SPEAK BLACK ENGLISH, ESPECIALLY --NAW, HE COOL! --YEAH, HE PACKIN --WORD!
THE EDUCATED MIDDLE AND UPPER INCOME STEPPIN CRIP, DEF! --AN HE HEAVY IN
BLACKS. BLACK ENGLISH HAS BEEN CALLED: CLASS --OFF THE DAMN CHAIN (laughter)
NONSTANDARD BLACK DIALECT BLACK ENGLISH --WHO DAT BRUTHA? (looking at another man)
VERNACULAR [BEV] AFRICAN AMERICAN ENGLISH --A SCRUB; HE NUTTIN --WORD? --HE BE
[AAE] AFRICAN AMERICAN VERNACULAR ENGLISH DOIN WET. --THAS WACK! --AN HE
[AAVE] EBONICS [USEB] BLACK COMMUNICATIONS ALL-UH-TIME BE BLOWIN YO SPOT. --I HEAR
[BC] BLACK POVERTY LANGUAGE CASUAL THAT. --WORD!
REGISTER ENGLISH RAP. 48TRANSLATION: 3 YOUNG WOMEN [BE] [SE].
12WHERE DOES [BE] COME FROM? BLACK --WHATS UP GIRLFRIEND? --WHATS
ENGLISH IS A FUNCTIONAL FORM OF HAPPENING? --THIS PARTY IS EXCITING, UP!
COMMUNICATION THAT EVOLVED FROM THE HOT! --LOOK, A LOCAL GUY --HEY, YOU MEAN
CREOLIZATION OF PLANTATION ENGLISH AND THE THE GUY WEARING SHINING JEWELRY --HE WEARS
TRANSPORTED LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY ENSLAVED A LOT OF DIAMOND JEWELRY --TELL ME ABOUT
AFRICANS. BLACK ENGLISH REPRESENTS A HIM. IS HE A THUG? --NO, HE LOOKS
CROSS-FERTILIZATION OF LANGUAGES NURTURED TOGETHER --YES, HE IS WELL-ENDOWED
AND PASSED DOWN FROM ONE GENERATION TO THE --GOOD! HE SURE CAN DANCE THE CRIP.
NEXT IN AN ORAL AND AURAL TRADITIONAL --AND HES SMART IN SCHOOL --AMAZING!
CLIMATE, SINCE LAWS [BLACK CODES] MANDATED BREATHTAKING! --WHOS THAT GUY? --A BUM;
THAT ANY PERSON CAUGHT TEACHING A SLAVE TO HES A GOOD-FOR-NOTHING --WHY? --HE SMOKES
READ OR WRITE COULD BE FINED AND PUT IN MARAJUANA LACED WITH PCP (ANGEL DUST) AND
JAIL. EMBALMING FLUID --THATS NOT GOOD; THATS
13CONTACT BETWEEN LANGUAGES. ENCOUNTERS OUT OF IT --AND HES ALWAYS REVEALING YOUR
BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT SPOKEN LANGUAGES, PERSONAL BUSINESS IN PUBLIC. HE CANT KEEP
BETWEEN THE COLONIZED AND THE COLONIZER, A SECRET. --OH, YES --REALLY! FORGET ABOUT
HAVE PRODUCED VARIANT FORMS OF EXPRESSION HIM! --SUP GIRL? --SAP NIN? --DIS PARTY
IN FIVE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT FROM THE BE KRUNK. --CHECK OUT HOMES! --YO, BLING
ORIGINAL NATIVE LANGUAGE OF THE BLING? --ICED OUT FOR DAYS! --GIMMIE THE
COLONIZED TO THE DOMINANT ACADEMY 411. HE THUGGIN? --NAW, HE COOL! --YEAH,
MAINSTREAM STANDARD LANGUAGE OF THE HE PACKIN --WORD! STEPPIN CRIP, DEF!
COLONIZER. --AN HE HEAVY IN CLASS --OFF THE DAMN
14STAGES OF CONTACT BETWEEN TWO CHAIN! (laughter) --WHO DAT BRUTHA?
LANGUAGES: ORIGINAL PIDGIN CREOLE (looking at another man) --A SCRUB; HE
DECREOLIZATION DOMINANT. NUTTIN --WORD? --HE BE DOIN WET. --THAS
15ORIGINAL. INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE OF WACK! --AN HE ALL-UH-TIME BE BLOWIN YO
PRIMAL [FIRST NOT PRIMITIVE] PEOPLE WHO SPOT. --I HEAR THAT. --WORD!
WERE DISCOVERED BY OUTSIDE EXPLORERS AND 49GRAMMAR AND OTHER FEATURES. THE
SUBSEQUENTLY COLONIZED. MOTHER TONGUE TEACHER ASKS: DID YOU DO YOUR HOMEWORK?
NATIVE LANGUAGE LANGUAGE EXISTING AMONG [BE] CHILD REPLIES: TEACHER, I BEEN DONE
A GROUP OF PEOPLE LIVING IN ISOLATION WITH DID DAT! MANY TEACHERS CRINGE UPON
NO CONTACT WITH ANOTHER OUTSIDE LANGUAGE HEARING THE ABOVE AND SIMILAR BLACK
GROUP e.g. AFRICANS; AMERINDIANS ENGLISH EXPRESSIONS. THEY SHUDDER IN A
PRE-COLUMBIAN SOCIETIES [BEFORE COLUMBUS]. BELIEF THAT THE CHILD USES SLOPPY OR POOR
16PIDGIN. FIRST CONTACT LANGUAGE LINGUA ENGLISH. EVEN WORSE ARE TEACHERS WHO REFER
FRANCA, COMMON JARGON MEDIUM OF DIVERSE TO THE CHILD AS COMING TO SCHOOL WITHOUT
LANGUAGE GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE NO LANGUAGE.
FIRST LANGUAGE IN COMMON LANGUAGE OF TRADE 50GRAMMAR AND OTHER FEATURES. NOTHING
AND COMMERCE SIMPLFIED USE OF DESCRIPTIVE COULD BE FARTHER FROM THE TRUTH! IN EVERY
NOUNS, VERBS, AND ADVERBS e.g. GO SMALL COUNTRY IN THE WORLD, CHILDREN GROW UP
SMALL! [GO SLOWLY] COMMON CORE WITH SPEAKING THE LANGUAGE OF THE SURROUNDING
REGULAR PRINCIPLES OF SENTENCE COMMUNITY WITH ITS NUANCES OF DIALECT,
CONSTRUCTION [Dillard, 1972, P. 75], STRUCTURE, AND VOCABULARY. THE BLACK
SHARED SOUND FEATURES AND PATTERNS OF ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILD IS FOLLOWING THE
SPEECH INTONATION VARIATIONS. RULES OF THE BLACK ENGLISH SPEAKING
17CREOLE. WHEN PIDGIN BECOMES THE ONLY COMMUNITY.
OR PRINCIPAL LANGUAGE OF A SPEECH 51VERB CONJUGATION: [BE] RULE: A
COMMUNITY (DILLARD, 1972, P. 300) e.g. REVERSAL: THE PAST TENSE IS INTERCHANGED
PLANTATION CREOLE (SPOKEN BY SLAVES), WITH THE PAST PARTICIPLE e.g.: PRESENT
HAITIAN CREOLE, LOUISIANA FRENCH CREOLE. PAST PAST PARTICIPLE [SE] DO DID HAVE DONE
ETC. PATOIS [PROVINCIAL/RURAL FORM OF [BE] DO DONE DONE DID [DONE=HAVE].
SPEECH] A MIXTURE OF FEATURES FROM BOTH 52VERB CONJUGATION: [SE] [BE] TAKE,
ORIGINAL AND DOMINANT LANGUAGES e.g. DID TOOK, HAVE TAKEN TAKE, TAKEN, DONE TOOK
YOU HEARD WHAT I SAW? IM NOT PLAYIN SING, SANG, HAVE SUNG SING, SUNG, DONE
WITH YOU, NO! YOU GONNA PAY ME, FOR SANG WRITE, WROTE, WRITE, WRITTEN, HAVE
TRUE? (NEW ORLEANS CREOLE ENGLISH) USE OF WRITTEN DONE WROTE [BE]
ME INSTEAD OF I e.g. : ME BE BORN AT RULE:"DONE" IS SUBSTITUTED FOR
JAMAICA. ME ASK (AXE, OX) ME MUDDER. "HAVE" [SE] [BE] "I HAVE
[ALSO IN FRENCH]: MOI ALLER [ME GO] DONE" becomes "I DONE DID"
INSTEAD OF JE VAIS [I GO]. "I HAVE TAKEN" becomes "I
18DECREOLIZATION. BIDIALECTICAL MOVEMENT DONE TOOK" "I DONE GOT OVER
AWAY FROM THE USE OF SPOKEN CREOLE WITH AN IT" (SONG LYRIC) [BE] RULE: BEEN
INCREASING USE OF THE MAINSTREAM STANDARD DONE IS USED FOR THE FAR DISTANT PAST,
DOMINANT LANGUAGE STYLE CHANGE, A [PAST COMPLETIVE], IT HAPPENED A LONG,
VARIATION IN TERMS OF FORMALITY [Dillard, LONG TIME AGO. THUS:"I BEEN DONE DID
1973, P. 304] PROGRESSING FROM THE DAT!" [DAT= THAT].
INTIMATE TO THE FORMAL AND SOMETIMES TO A 53SYNTAX [WORD ORDER]. TO BE OR NOT TO
BOOGY [BOURGEOISIE] STILTED UNNATURAL BE According to E. Dandy (1991,p.69), The
STYLE: INTIMATEA SERIES OF (UNSPELLABLE) verb to be has forms: AM, IS, ARE, WAS,
NASAL SOUNDS, USUALLY ACCOMPANIED BY WERE, WILL BE, BEEN that vary according to
SHOULDER SHRUGS, UNDERSTOOD ONLY BY tense and number. DANDY STATES THAT: Black
IN-GROUP MEMBERS CASUALI DUNNO communicators omit be to show temporary
SEMI-FORMALI DONT KNOW FORMALI DO condition: SHE TIRED. They use be to show
NOT KNOW BOOGY STILTED -INDEED, I KNOW repeated action: SHE (ALWAYS) BE TIRED.
NOT. 54THE USE OF BE. BE INCLUSION HE BE
19DOMINANT. ACADEMY ENGLISH STANDARD THERE! HE BE ALL UP IN YO FACE MEANS: HE
FORM, MAINSTREAM LANGUAGE USED BY HOLDERS WAS THERE OR HE USUALLY IS THERE BE IS
OF POWER AND WEALTH LANGUAGE OF EUROPEAN OMITTED HE THERE MEANS: HE IS THERE NOW.
COLONIZERS THE RATE OF MOVEMENT FROM THE AGAIN, TIME IS AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE. IN
ORIGINAL LANGUAGE OF THE COLONIZED TO THE TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE, BE MAY BE:
DOMINANT LANGUAGE OF THE COLONIZER IS OMITTED: HE RUN TOMORROW OR INCLUDED: HE
OFTEN DETERMINED BY THE AMOUNT OF SOCIAL BE RUNNING TOMORROW.
CONTACT AND FREEDOM ALLOWED TO THE 55PRONOUN POWER. THERE IS ANOTHER
COLONIZED. SOCIAL ISOLATION AND FEATURE ID LIKE TO CALL PRONOUN
SEGREGATION SLOWS DOWN STANDARD ENGLISH EMPOWERMENT, WHERE THERE IS A FUSION
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. BETWEEN THE SUBJECT PRONOUN AND THE VERB.
20IN THE SECTIONS THAT FOLLOW ARE IN SPOKEN BLACK ENGLISH, BE AND DO ARE
EXAMPLES OF FEATURES OF [BE]. I HAVE OFTEN OMITTED BECAUSE THE LOCUS OF
INSERTED A FEW [PS]PERSONAL STORIES OF IMPORTANCE IS UPON THE PERSON IN THE FORM
MY EXPERIENCES AS A TEACHER IN ALL BLACK OF THE PRONOUN:
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS IN NEW ORLEANS. 56EXAMPLES OF PRONOUN EMPOWERMENT. YOU A
21FEATURES OF BLACK ENGLISH. PHONOLOGY STORY (YOURE A LIAR) [THE ARE IS NOT
SOUNDS MEAN MORE TO ME THAN PLAYING A LOT NEEDED BECAUSE ALL ATTENTION IS IN THE
OF NOTES BB KING (Bluesman) TEACHERS PRONOUN YOU.] WE NOT TREATED RIGHT.
WHO USE A PHONICS APPROACH TO TEACH [BEFORE NEGATIVES] HOW HE KNOW? [THE VERB
READING SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE REPERTOIRE DO IS IN THE HE] HE THE ONE! [BEFORE
OF SOUNDS IN BLACK ENGLISH. KENNETH R. NOUN PHRASES] WE IN IT. [BEFORE
JOHNSON, WALT WOLFMAN, BARATZ, AND OTHERS PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES].
HAVE PRESENTED SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS, 57OTHER FEATURES OF BLACK ENGLISH.
PHONOLOGICAL AND GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES, COMPRESSED PHONETICS [CONTINUOUS SOUND IN
AND FEATURES OF BLACK ENGLISH. HERE ARE ONE WORD]: WASWRONWITCHOO? [WHAT IS WRONG
SOME OF THEIR RESEARCH FINDINGS: WITH YOU?] ADDED PREPOSITION FOR BALANCE:
22KENNETH R. JOHNSON: LANGUAGE CONSISTS HE UPPED AND DIED. SHE DONE DRANK UP ALL
OF SYSTEMATIC SOUNDS THAT PEOPLE MAKE WITH THE WINE. WHO YOU WAITIN ON? [INSTEAD OF
THEIR VOCAL CORDS THERE ARE TWO SOUNDS: FOR] ADDED DOUBLE PREPOSITION: IM GONNA
1.VOICED (A BUZZ OCCURS IN THE VOCAL MAKE IT ON TO THE CRIB.
CORDS) 2.VOICELESS (NO BUZZING SOUND IN 58DOUBLE NEGATIVES = STRONG POSITIVES HE
THE VOCAL CORDS). AINT GON LAY NUTHIN ON NOBODY NO MORE!
23Sounds occur in a word in 3 ways: [HOW YOU SAY SOMETHING IS MORE IMPORTANT
Beginning (Initial) sound Middle (Medial) THAN USING ANYTHING OR ANYBODY OR
sound Ending (Terminal) sound e.g. The ANYMORE.] THE AFOREMENTIONED
sound TH [SE] speakers have 2 sounds for CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES OF BLACK
TH [BE] speakers have 5 sounds for TH AMERICAN ENGLISH ARE BUT A FEW EXAMPLES OF
depending on whether they are voiced or A LANGUAGE SYSTEM THAT IS SYSTEMATIC AND
voiceless and where they occur in a word FUNCTIONAL. SOMETIMES YOU HAVE TO SPEAK
(Initial, Medial or Terminal). TWO LANGUAGES JUST TO SURVIVE IN AMERICA,
24Some examples of the TH sound in [SE] AND YOU KNOW HOW THAT ARE. --Julian
and [BE]: VOICELESS/INITIAL POSITION: [SE] CannonballAdderley, Jazzman.
= Thing, thank, thigh, thought [BE]= 59CONCLUSION. ANY PERSON WHO SPEAKS
Thing, thank, thigh, thought (NO ENGLISH IN AMERICA SPEAKS A DIALECT
DEVIATION) VOICED/INITIAL POSITION: [SE] = [ACCENT] OF ENGLISH. [e.g., BOSTON TO
This, that, them, these, those [BE] = Dis, MISSISSIPPI, BROOKLYN TO NEW ORLEANS,
dat, dem, dese, dose THERE IS A DUH CALIFORNIA TO ALABAMA, OREGON TO NORTH
SOUND SUBSTITUTED FOR THE TH SOUND IN CAROLINA.ETC.] E PLURIBUS UNUM (ONE
THE BEGINNING OF THE WORD. COMPOSED OF MANY): EACH DIALECT IS
25THE TH SOUND. VOICELESS/MEDIAL: [SE] IMPORTANT AND ADDS TO THE CULTURAL
= Bathroom, birthday [BE] = Bafroom, ENRICHMENT OF AMERICA. WE CAN TEACH ALL
burfday THERE IS AN F SOUND SUBSTITUTION CHILDREN STANDARD ENGLISH AS WELL AS ALLOW
VOICED/MEDIAL: [SE] = Mother, brother [BE] FOR CULTURAL LINGUISTIC DIFFERENCES. THE
= Muvah, bruvah [MY MUVAH COOK GRITS.] FUNDAMENTAL QUESTION HERE IS: HOW DOES
THERE IS A FRICATIVE V SUBSTITUTION KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE
NOTE: WHEN USING PROFANITY IN COMBINATION DIFFERENCES ENABLE A TEACHER TO HELP
WITH THE F WORD [AS IN M.F.], [BE] STUDENTS SUCCEED IN SCHOOL?
SPEAKERS PRONOUNCE MOTHER F_ _ _ _ _ 60NO MATTER WHAT THE LANGUAGE: WHAT
CORRECTLY IN [SE]. CHILDREN CAN THINK ABOUT THEY TALK ABOUT.
26THE TH SOUND. VOICELESS/TERMINAL: WHAT THEY TALK ABOUT THEY CAN WRITE. WHAT
[SE] = With, mouth, path, both, South THEY CAN WRITE, THEY CAN READ. WHAT THEY
[BE]= Wif, mouf, paf, bof, Souf THERE IS CAN READ, OTHERS CAN ALSO READ. --(Allen,
AN F SUBSTITUTION AT THE END [BE] 1976).
SPEAKERS ENTER KINDERGARTEN SAYING WIF 61LANGUAGE IS POWER. CULTURALLY
AND GO THROUGH GRADUATE SCHOOL SAYING SENSITIVE TEACHERS CAN TEACH BLACK ENGLISH
WIF. IN SPITE OF GOOD INTENTIONS, THE SPEAKERS TO USE STANDARD ENGLISH, THE
SCHOOLS HAVE NOT CHANGED MANY FEATURES OF LANGUAGE OF SUCCESS IN MAINSTREAM
BLACK SPEECH. AMERICA. THIS PRESENTATION IS ONLY THE
27PS: [PERSONAL STORY]. I TAUGHT MATH TIP OF THE ICEBERG, A FRESH BEGINNING, A
FOR 8 YEARS IN ALL BLACK PUBLIC HIGH RENEWED LOOK AT BLACK ENGLISH. THERE IS
SCHOOLS IN NEW ORLEANS. ON THE BOARD I HAD MUCH MORE.
WRITTEN THE FOLLOWING EQUATION: 3A + 3B = 62HOW THEN TO PROCEED? SOME TEACHING
33. AN AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENT READ: TECHNIQUES: BE NOT AFRAID TO CORRECT--IN A
TREE AEY PLUS TREE BEE EQUAL TOITY-TREE. CARING WAYCHILDREN WHO SPEAK OR WRITE IN
I REALIZED THAT THERE WAS A COMPLETE NONSTANDARD ENGLISH. START WITH THE
ABSENCE OF THE USE OF THE TH SOUND. CHILDS HOME LANGUAGE. NEVER BELITTLE OR
REMEDY: THE NEXT DAY, I WROTE ON THE MAKE FUN OF A CHILDS HOME LANGUAGE
BOARD: THE THINKER THREW THREE THOUSAND (MOTHER TONGUE). HELP CHILDREN UNDERSTAND
THINKING THOUGHTS TO THEM, THESE, THEY AND THE PURPOSE FOR LEARNING STANDARD ENGLISH.
THOSE. STUDENTS WERE ASKED, IN A CARING BE FRANK! LET STUDENTS KNOW THAT IN MOST
WAY, TO IMAGINE THAT THEY HAD CANDY STUCK OF THE JOB MARKETS IN AMERICA, THE USE OF
ON THE FRONT OF THEIR TEETH AND HAD TO STANDARD ENGLISH IS A REQUIREMENT.
REMOVE IT BY STICKING THE TIP OF THE 63SOME TEACHING TECHNIQUES. EXPLAIN THAT
TONGUE OUT BEYOND THEIR FRONT ROW OF STANDARD ENGLISH IS ANOTHER WAY OF
TEETH, AS THEY SAID THE ABOVE EXPRESSION SPEAKING. IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE,
AT LEAST 20 TIMES DURING THE DAY. THERE ELIMINATE OR EXTINGUISH THE CHILDS
WERE NO MORE TREES OR TOITYS MENTIONED HOME LANGUAGE. A BLACK ENGLISH SPEAKING
IN MATH. IN ADDITION, STUDENTS WERE TAUGHT CHILD ONCE TOLD A TEACHER: BUT MY MOMMA
THAT IN THIS MATH EQUATION, THE SYMBOL = SAY IT THAT WAY. THE TEACHER REPLIED:
IS PRONOUNCED EQUALS [WITH AN S AT THE YES, YOURE RIGHT, YOUR MOTHERS WAY IS
END], NOT EQUAL.. ONE WAY OF SAYING THIS. NOW, IM GOING TO
28[BE] RULE. PLURAL ENDINGS: If in the SHOW YOU ANOTHER WAY TO SAY THE SAME THING
context of the sentence one finds a IN STANDARD ENGLISH. FOR YOUNG CHILDREN,
reference to more than one (plural), it ALLOW THEM TO COPY PORTIONS OF
is not necessary to add an s to the noun BOOKS-OF-THEIR-CHOICE WRITTEN IN
e.g. 50 cents = 50 cent THE CONTEXT STANDARD ENGLISH. ALSO, EXPOSE CHILDREN TO
CLARIFIES THE MEANING. e.g. HE HAD A BOOKS WRITTEN BY AND ABOUT AFRICAN
SECOND HAR TRANSPLANT. AMERICANS THAT MAY CONTAIN BLACK ENGLISH.
29CONSONANT REDUCTION. B. D. G. K. P. T. 64SOME TEACHING TECHNIQUES. USE TAPE
(Consonant sounds in these letters are RECORDERS: ENCOURAGE CHILDREN TO READ
often not spoken or omitted) e.g. [SE] STANDARD ENGLISH LITERATURE WHILE
[BE] NUMBER = NUMMER [GIMMIE YO RECORDING THEIR VOICES. WHENEVER POSSIBLE,
NUMMER.] COMB = COM [SHE COM HER DO THE SAME THING WITH A VIDEOCAMERA. USE
HAIR.] COLD = COL [I WENT AN GOT ME A TECHNOLOGY: WIRELESS COMPUTERS, WORD
COL.] GOING = GOIN [YOU GOIN OR GAMES, PROGRAMS THAT REINFORCE LANGUAGE.
NOT?] MASK = MAS [ZORRO WOE A MAS.] INSIST THAT CHILDREN USE COMPLETE
HAPPEN = HAHUM [DAS DA WAY IT HAHUM] SENTENCES AT ALL TIMES: WHEN ASKING A
HEART = HAR also HARD = HAR [DAS HAR.] QUESTION, WHEN ANSWERING A QUESTION, AND
TEST = TES [TEACHER, WHEN WE GON HAVE A WHEN CONVERSING IN SMALL GROUPS. EMPHASIZE
TES?] TES PRESENTS ANOTHER PROBLEM. WITH THE USE OF STANDARD ENGLISH THROUGH
THE OMISSION OF THE ENDING T, TES NOW READERS THEATER WITHIN THE CLASSROOM IN
ENDS IN A SIBILANT SOUND. WORDS THAT END A RELAXED, NON-THREATENING ATMOSPHERE.
IN S WHEN PLURALIZED, WE ADD ES TO THE 65SOME TEACHING TECHNIQUES. INCREASE THE
WORD: e.g., KISS-KISSES; BOSS-BOSSES; RETENTION OF STANDARD ENGLISH VOCABULARY
HENCE: TES-TESSES. USING AGGRESSIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES:
30FEATURES OF BLACK ENGLISH. [TEACHER, (SEE RECOMMENDED READING LIST) DAP THE
HOW MANY TESSES WE GON HAVE?] THE WORD (DEFINE, ASSOCIATE, DRAW A PICTURE
TEACHER MAY RESPOND: [DONT SAY TESSES, SHOWING THAT YOU UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF
SAY TESTS!]. THE [BE] SPEAKER MOST OFTEN THE WORD). CONTINUE TO TEACH STANDARD
CANT HEAR THE DIFFERENCE. THE SAME IS ENGLISH RULES OF GRAMMAR AND
TRUE FOR MASK: MASS-MASSES; FLASK-FLASSES PRONUNCIATION. REINFORCE LANGUAGE
[HOW MANY FLASSES YOU BROKE IN THE LAB ACQUISITION WITH CHORAL READING, CALL AND
THIS YEAR?] THE SIZ PLURAL ENDING (I RESPONSE ACTIVITIES, PARTNER READING,
FOUND IN NEW ORLEANS) e.g. ANTS = ANTSIZ MOVEMENT AND MUSIC, SONG LYRICS, HUMOR
[LOOK AT ALL DEM ANTSIZ?] ARTISTS = (JOKE BOOKS, RIDDLES), APPROPRIATE
ARTISIZ [WHERE THE ARTISIZ IS AT?] A MAGAZINES AND COMIC BOOKS REFLECTING THEIR
COMMOM USAGE: [SE] [BE] ASK = AXE. INTERESTS. USE DRAMA: PUT EM ON THE
31LET US COMPARE ANOTHER FORM OF [BE] STAGE! PRESENT SCHOOL PLAYS WHERE CHILDREN
FROM CARIBBEAN CREOLE IN JAMAICA [JE] IN READ OR MEMORIZE STANDARD ENGLISH
THE PRONUNCIATION OF ASK IN THE DIALOGUE. PARENTS LOVE IT! EXCITE, WRITE
FOLLOWING SCENARIO: The teacher asks each AND RECITE: USE POETRY AND THE SPOKEN
pupil to get permission from his/her WORD. ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO WRITE AND
mother to go on a field trip. The next RECITE (PERFORM) ORIGINAL POEMS.
day, in response to the question: Did you 66AFFECTIVE DOMAIN: FEELINGS ARE
ask your mother? the teacher heard: [SE] IMPORTANT. REMEMBER TO CONSIDER THE
I asked my mother and she said that it was FEELINGS OF THE CHILD. IMAGINE THIS:
o.k. [BE] Ah axe ma mama n she say it be SUPPOSE YOU WERE ASKED TO SPEAK AND WRITE
cool. [JE] Me ox me muddah (ormoomain EXCLUSIVELY IN BLACK ENGLISH. HOW WOULD
rural Jamaica) n she say dat be fine mon YOU FEEL?
fo go onna trip, long as yo teacher 67SUGGESTED READINGS. SINCE THE LEGAL
member me mine run pon you. SMALL GROUP OUTCRIES IN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, IN THE
DISCUSSION: TRANSLATE [JE] & SHARE EARLY 1970s, AND AGAIN IN OAKLAND,
[JE] TRANSLATION: I ASKED MY MOTHER AND CALIFORNIA, IN THE MID-1990s, MUCH HAS
SHE SAID THAT IT WOULD BE FINE, MAN, FOR BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT BLACK ENGLISH AND
ME TO GO ON A TRIP, AS LONG AS YOUR EBONICS. TO BETTER UNDERSTAND HOW TO MEET
TEACHER REMEMBERS THAT I HAVE YOU THE CHALLENGES OF TEACHING STANDARD
CONSTANTLY ON MY MIND, (THAT I AM ENGLISH, THE FOLLOWING LIST OF READINGS IS
CONCERNED ABOUT YOUR SAFETY.). RECOMMENDED. A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY
32[PS] PERSONAL STORY. I TAUGHT THE IS INCLUDED.
STANDARD ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION OF ASK AS 68RECOMMENDED READINGS. Dandy, Evelyn B.
FOLLOWS: FIRST YOU HAVE TO SAY ASS AS (1991). Black Communications: Breaking
IN JACKASS. THEN YOU ADD A SOFT KUH Down the Barriers. Chicago: African
SOUND. WE REPEATED IT TOGETHER SEVERAL American Images. Dillard, J. L. (1973).
TIMES: ASS-KUH. Black English: Its History and Usage in
****************************************** the United States. New York: Vintage
**************** OTHER FORMS OF OMISSION Books. Labov, William (1995). Can reading
L-lessness (The letter L is omitted) failure be reversed: a linguistic approach
e.g. HELP=HEP; SCHOOL=SCHOO; MYSELF=MASEF to the question. In V. L. Gadsden & D.
R-lessness (The letter R is omitted) A. Wagner (Eds.), Literacy Among
e.g. CAROL=CAL; HAROLD=HAL DOOR = DOE; African-American Youth (pp. 39-68).
FLOOR = FLO; MORE = MO. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. Major,
33[SE] [BE] OUT HERE OUT CHERE LIBRARY Clarence (1971). Black Slang: A Dictionary
LIBERRY SUPPOSED POSED SINK ZINK FRIEND of Afro- American Talk. London: Routledge
FRIEN PIN PEN WANT TO WANNA GOT TO GOTTA & Kegan Paul, Ltd. Major, Clarence
USE TO GO USE-DA GO CHILDREN CHILRUN (1994). From Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of
OFTEN CAME USE-TA COME. A SAMPLE OF SOME African-American Slang. New York: Penguin
OTHER PRONUNCIATION FEATURES. Books. Martinez, Maurice M. (2000). The
34[SE] [BE] ABOUT BOUT BEFORE FO BIRTH Use of Call and Response Pedagogy to
CERTIFICATE BURF SUSTIFICUT FIFTY FITTY Reinforce Mathematics Concepts and Skills
DOESNT HAVE ANY AINT GOT NO OIL WELL ALL Taught to African American Kindergartners.
WHEEL CORNER CORNAH or CORNDA SINCE CENTS In Changing the Face of Mathematics.
SURE SHO or SHORE TIN TEN FISH FEESH. A Reston, Virginia: National Council of
SAMPLE OF SOME OTHER PRONUNCIATION Teachers of Mathematics. McKissack,
FEATURES. Patricia C. (1986). Flossie and The Fox.
35LEXICON (VOCABULARY, CODES, WORDSETS). New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
BLACK ENGLISH SPEAKERS HAVE A LARGE 69RECOMMENDED READINGS. Nobile, Phyllis
REPERTOIRE OF SLANG WORDS UNCOMMON TO E. (2000). Aggressive Learning. Pelham,
STANDARD ENGLISH. MOST OF THE SLANG WORDS NY:The Reading Company, P.O. Box 11,
WE FIND IN AMERICA WERE COINED BY JAZZ Pelham, N.Y. 10803, 1-888-889-READ. Payne,
MUSICIANS AND INNER CITY RAPPERS. AS SOON Ruby K. (2001). A Framework for
AS A SLANG WORD ENTERS THE MAINSTREAM AND Understanding Poverty. aha! Process, Inc.,
IS USED BY STANDARD ENGLISH SPEAKERS, P.O. Box 727, Highlands, TX 77562-0727.
BLACK ENGLISH SPEAKERS OFTEN STOP USING Smitherman, Geneva (2000). Talkin That
THE WORD AND INVENT A NEW WORD. HOWEVER, Talk: Language, Culture and Education in
SOME WORDS LIKE COOL AND CRIB REMAIN African America. London and New York:
IN PERENNIAL USE FOR DECADES. Routledge. Wolfram, Walt (1997). The Myth
36[BE] RULE. INVERSION = When the of the Verbally Deprived Black Child, in
Standard English word takes on the Bauer L. and Trudgill. P. (eds) Language
opposite meaning (bad = good). [YOU N Myths. Wolfram, Walt (1998, June).
YO BAD SELF!] Words that indicate the Language Ideology and Dialect:
possessive: THEY for THEIR [SE] THEIR[The Understanding the Oakland Ebonics
boys put their hats..] [BE] THEY [The boys Controversy, Journal of English
put they hats...]. Linguistics, 26(2). Wolfram, Walt, Adger,
37[BE] RULE. One can judge the Carolyn, & Christian, Donna (1999).
importance of a concept in a culture Dialects in Schools and Communities.
(group) by counting the number of labels Mahwah, J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
(words) that the people in the culture Publishers.
have for the concept. (K.R. Johnson)(e.g., 70BIBLIOGRAPHY. Abrahams, Roger D.
Alaskan Indians have 26 words for snow: (1964). Deep Down in the Jungle. Chicago:
wet snow, dry snow, slushy snow, melting Aldine Publishing Co. Abrahams, Roger D.
snow, hard snow, etc., because snow is a (1970). Positively Black. Englewood
very important concept to Alaskan Native Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Allen,
Americans.) SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY: How many R.V. (1976). Language Experiences in
words can you think of for Money? [PAUSE Communication. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
1 MINUTE BEFORE CONTINUING] ANSWERS: Book, Baratz, Joan C., and Roger W. Shuy (eds.)
Bread, Cake, Cash, Cheddar, Cheese, Chump (1969). Teaching Black Children To Read.
Change, Coins, Crumbs, Dough, Eagle, Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied
Fitty, Green, Jingle, Loot, Moola, Linguistics. Bentley, Robert H. &
Scrilla, The Benjamin, etc. Crawford, Samuel D. (eds.) (1973). Black
38PSYCHOLOGICAL INTENT OF A WORD: KEN Language Reader. Glenview, Illinois:
JOHNSON STATED THAT A WORD MAY HAVE THREE Scott, Foresman and Company. Kochman, T.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS: POSITIVE (ed.) (1972). Rappin and Stylin
(COMPLIMENTARY, PRAISING, ETC.) NEGATIVE Out:Communication in Urban Black America.
(OFFENSIVE, DEROGATORY, INSULTING) NEUTRAL Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
(CARRIES NO VALUE JUDGEMENT) SOME WORDS Johnson, Kenneth R. (1966). Improving
CAN HAVE ALL THREE INTENTS ABOVE, Language Skills of Culturally
DEPENDING UPON THE CONTEXT IN WHICH THE Disadvantaged Pupils. Teaching
WORDS ARE USED. VOCABULARY: [BE] LEXICON Culturallly Disadvantaged Pupils. Chicago.
WITH [SE] MEANINGS (2003) [BE] [SE] KRUNK Johnson, Kenneth R. (1970). The
HYPER, EXCITING, ENERGETIC, UP TIME, HOT Vocabulary of Race. In Language and
BLING BLING BEJEWELED; GOLD CHAINS; Expressive Behavior in the Black Inner
SPARKLING SICK WID [WITH] IT IMPASSIONED City, edited by Kochman. Champaign,
WITH SOMETHING GOOD DIS TO INSULT, PUT Illinois.
DOWN SOMEONE ROLL THROUGH PASSING THROUGH; 71BIBLIOGRAPHY (CONT.). Johnson, Kenneth
SHORT VISIT. R. (1970). The Language of Black
39VOCABULARY: [BE] LEXICON WITH [SE] Children: Instructional Implications. In
MEANINGS [BE] [SE]. 411 DETAILS; GIVE ME Racial Crisis in American Education. by
THE DETAILS OR FACTS CRIP, C-STEP A DANCE Green. Chicago. Johnson, Kenneth R.
SHINE JEWELRY ICE DIAMONDS ICED OUT (1970). A Strategy for Teaching Standard
WEARING A LOT OF DIAMOND JEWELRY JIGGED, English to Disadvantaged Black Children
JIGGED OUT LOOKING GOOD WACK SOMETHING Who Speak a Nonstandard Dialect. In
CRAZY; OUT OF IT; NORMLESS WORD!?. REALLY! Teaching Language Arts to Culturally
WHAT? AGREEMENT; YES. TUDE A POOR OR BAD Different Children, edited by Joyce.
ATTITUDE TIGHT UPSET, ANGRY PHAT FINE, Johnson, Kenneth R. (1971). Black
GOOD, BEAUTIFUL WILDIN [WHILE-LIN] ACTING English, lecture, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
CRAZY; BRAGGING; LOST CONTROL ROLLIN HIGH Labov, William (1970). The Logic of
ON ECSTACY (DRUGS) HYPNOTIC ALCOHOL [BLUE Non-Standard English, Urbana: National
DRINK] BEASTIN YELLING AT SOMEONE; AN Council of Teachers. Labov, William
AUTHORITARIAN TEACHER WHO IS MAKING A (1982). Objectivity and Commitment in
STUDENT DO A HARD TASK RAP TALK; Linguistic Science: The Case of the Black
RHYMES-TO-A-MUSICAL-RHYTHM-PATTERN MAD; English Trial in Ann Arbor, Language in
COOL GOOD; THE BEST DIG TO UNDERSTAND Society, 11, pp. 165-201. Rose, T. (1994).
SMOOVE CALM, MELLOW, NICE PERSON WHIP CAR Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture
SHOES; DUBS RIMS ON A CAR HIP SMART, in Contemporary America. Hanover, NH:
AWARE, WITH IT. Wesleyan University Press.
40VOCABULARY: [BE] LEXICON WITH [SE] 72BIBLIOGRAPHY (CONT.). Websites:
MEANINGS [BE] [SE]. THE TRUTH THE REAL http://privateww.essex.ac.uk/~patrickp/aav
DEAL, BEST THING GOING DUMB EXCELLENT; sem/Biblio.html Patrick, Peter L. (2003).
VERY SATISFYING SHORTIE A GOOD LOOKING A Bibliography of works on African
GIRL WIFEY MAIN GIRLFRIEND DADDY MAIN American English (27 pages). TO GET A COPY
BOYFRIEND GRUB FOOD GEAR CLOTHES KICKS, OF THIS POWERPOINT:
BUNNIES SNEAKERS AIR FORCE ONES, G-NIKES http://people.uncw.edu/martinezm [See:
GANGSTER NIKE SNEAKERS AIR JORDAN 18 Black American English].
SNEAKERS WORN BY MICHAEL JORDAN SOLDIERS 73SPECIAL THANKS TO: ROJ SMOOVE CHARLES
REBOK CLASSICS IN SNEAKERS CRIB HOME THE HONEYBOY OTIS BLAZE, MICHAEL AND AMELIA,
HOOD THE (HOUSING) PROJECT COP BUY or GET JAVIER, BEVRON, BEVERLY AND MILES TORIN J.
WEAK A SUCKER 5-0; PO-PO COPS, POLICE, MARTINEZ THE NEW YORK CREW BEN You know
AUTHORITY BLITZED ALL PARTIED OUT, STONED what Im sayin THOMPSON Dr. PERCY HEATH
SCRED SCARED BAGGED ARRESTED BOB; GAT; And my wife, MARJORIE FOR THEIR INSIGHTFUL
HEAT GUN BODIED KILLED CELLY CELL PHONE COMMENTS. ANGELA EDWARDS FOR HER
O.G. ORIGINAL GANGSTER [LEADER]. TECHNOLOGICAL EXPERTISE DEAN CATHY L.
41VOCABULARY: [BE] LEXICON WITH [SE] BARLOW FOR HER GRANT SUPPORT, PROVIDED BY
MEANINGS [BE] [SE]. THE CAN JAIL SMOKE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FUNDS, WATSON
WEED (MARIJUANA) BLUNT GETTING HIGH JACK SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNCW #P342AO10114.
PHONE CHILL OUT TO STOP ACTION OR HANG OUT 74MUSIC SOUNDTRACK. MUSICAL SELECTIONS:
HOMES; HOME A PERSON FROM THE SAME TOWN INTRODUCTION MOSQUITO HAWK STOMP ENDING
DOG; GOD FRIEND HOMEBOY, HOMIE A GOOD FRENCH FRY SANDWICH CD: MARTY MOST, JAZZ
FRIEND HOMESLICE BEST FRIEND SPORTIN TO POET, presents: DRUMSCUSSION AVAILABLE AT:
WEAR A NEW STYLE; SHOW OFF FRONT or AMAZON.COM.
FRONTIN TURNING ON A FRIEND; BACKSTABBING 75NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND.
BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH.ppt
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BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH

BLACK AMERICAN ENGLISH

Happy English - . , . : . . . Worry, worry keeps me awake: Hurry, hurry, dont make mistakes! It is three oclock. Happy english.Ru 4 . .

English speaking countries - WHAT IS THE MAIN PLACE OF INTEREST IN NORTHERN IRELAND? WHAT ARE THE LEADING IRISH INDUSTRIES? Ireland: Great Britain. Northern Ireland The Irish Republic. IRISH. WHAT IS IRELAND FAMOUS FOR? MUSIC, WHISKEY, BUTTER, HORSES. English-speaking countries. PATRICK`S CATHEDRAL. Ireland. WELCOME TO IRELAND!

English for you - . . . ? ( ). . :

English words - 1) FALSE watch 2) FALSE disco 3) TRUE 4) TRUE 5) FALSE sightseeing 6) FALSE friend 7) TRUE 8) FALSE terrible 9) TRUE 10) FALSE meal. Translate into English. Is it True or False? Words. Translate into Russian. Match the expressions to others with similar meanings. That is all! 1) Go and wotch a match 2) Go to a disko 3) Go shopping 4) Go for a picnic 5) Go sightseeng 6) Go and see a frend 7) Go to a party 8)I had a terible time 9) Go skiing 10) Go for a meel in a restaurant.

Success English - Success English. Success English. . . Success English. . , . . . . .

The english-speaking countries - Disneyland. The English-speaking countries. USA. Scotland. Australia. Great Britain.

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