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Cities of South America
Cities of South America
Lima, Peru
Lima, Peru
Life in Lima
Life in Lima
Government and Economy
Government and Economy
Things to see
Things to see
Things to see
Things to see
Rio De Janeiro
Rio De Janeiro
Rio De Janeiro
Rio De Janeiro
Demographics (continued)
Demographics (continued)
Significant Monuments/Markers
Significant Monuments/Markers
Significant Monuments/Markers(contd)
Significant Monuments/Markers(contd)
Santiago, Chile
Santiago, Chile
Santiago, Chile
Santiago, Chile
Santiagos Location
Santiagos Location
History - settlement
History - settlement
City Sprawl
City Sprawl
Some Architecture
Some Architecture
Some Architecture
Some Architecture
Some Architecture
Some Architecture
More buildings
More buildings
More buildings
More buildings
More buildings
More buildings
More buildings
More buildings
Santiagos biggest problems
Santiagos biggest problems
Smog and Decentralization
Smog and Decentralization
Brasilia
Brasilia
Facts:
Facts:
Demographics
Demographics
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
Monuments
There are two major roadways in the city running east and west
There are two major roadways in the city running east and west
Economics
Economics
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin, Antioquia
Medellin
Medellin
Important Information
Important Information
Important Information
Important Information
Transportation
Transportation
Transportation
Transportation
Medellin and Pablo Escobar
Medellin and Pablo Escobar
Medellin and Pablo Escobar
Medellin and Pablo Escobar
Medellin Today
Medellin Today
Medellin Today
Medellin Today
Salvador, Brazil
Salvador, Brazil
Cities of South America
Cities of South America
Cities of South America
Cities of South America
Salvador - History
Salvador - History
Salvador - Geography
Salvador - Geography
Salvador - Geography
Salvador - Geography
Salvador - Geography
Salvador - Geography
Salvador  Geography (continued)
Salvador Geography (continued)
Salvador - Economy
Salvador - Economy
Salvador  Economy (continued)
Salvador Economy (continued)
Salvador - Culture
Salvador - Culture
Salvador - Culture
Salvador - Culture
Salvador - Culture
Salvador - Culture
Salvador  Culture (continued)
Salvador Culture (continued)
Salvador  Culture (continued)
Salvador Culture (continued)
Salvador - People and Places
Salvador - People and Places
Salvador - People and Places
Salvador - People and Places
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Economic and Political Systems
Economic and Political Systems
Demographics
Demographics
Poverty in Sao Paulo
Poverty in Sao Paulo
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Where is it
Where is it
Pictures
Pictures
Pictures
Pictures
Pictures
Pictures
Pictures
Pictures
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Buenos Aires, Argentina
About Argentina
About Argentina
Brief History
Brief History
Important Factors
Important Factors
Important Factors
Important Factors
Maps
Maps
Maps
Maps
Demographics
Demographics
Economy
Economy
Government
Government
Population Reference Bureau
Population Reference Bureau
Thank you very much, thats all for me
Thank you very much, thats all for me
Cities of South America

: Talon. , . , Cities of South America.ppt zip- 6911 .

Cities of South America

Cities of South America.ppt
1Cities of South America. 48heart of Reconcavo Baiano metropolitan
2Lima, Peru. region. One of the distinct features of
3Odds n Ends. Population in the city is that it is separated into two
metropolitan area: 6.4 million (accounts parts, an upper city (cidade alta) and a
for 1/3 of the nations population and lower city (cidade baixa). This is due
workforce) Total population (2003): 7.9 to an actual difference in elevation. The
million growing over 4% annually 90% upper city is located on a bluff 230 ft
Mestizo (mixed European and Native above the lower city.
American) with small minorities of whites, 49Salvador Geography (continued). The
blacks, and Asians Capital and largest lower city is on the waterfront and
city of Peru (actually 10 times larger therefore is the commercial and financial
than its second largest city) It is the sector of the city. There are docks and
second oldest capital in South America warehouses and also a naval base located
City accounts for 2/3 of entire nations there. The upper city is the historic
GDP, tax collections, bank deposits, sector of the city, containing
private investments, physicians, and administrative buildings, cathedrals and
university students. colonial architecture. Passage between the
4Life in Lima. Mass migration of two is made by cable railways, winding
Peruvians (campesinos) from the rural roads, and a vertical pedestrian lift
areas of the Andes to the city in search known as the Lacerda Elevator.
of a better life Most of the city is 50Salvador - Economy. Before the
occupied by residential areas Citys core Brazilian Independence in 1823, Salvador
is filled with high density apartments, was a major industrial and port city. In
tenements, and pueblos jovenes or Brazil it was the center for trading sugar
barriadas (shantytowns) Middle and upper and tobacco, and also the slave trade
class live farther from the citys core during the Portuguese colonial era. Today
Continuous population increase has led too the port still plays a major role in the
much overcrowding and a serious gap economy, exporting cacao, sisal, soybeans,
between the rich and poor Overpopulation and petrochemical products. Also its role
in these poor squatter settlements has led as an industrial city has declined, the
to a shortage of basic necessities such as local industries still include fishing,
running water and electricity. oil and gas extraction, cigar manufacture,
5Government and Economy. Divided into an oil refinery, and tourism. Ford Motor
33 municipal districts each with an Company has a plant in the metro area.
elected mayor and city council Currency: 51Salvador Economy (continued).
Nuevo Sol (1 US Dollar=3.35 Nuevo Sol) Salvador today is attracting increasing
Lima dominates the nations service numbers of tourists because of its
sectors in trade, finance, and retail setting. Also, in the 1990s, the Bahian
Majority of imports and exports move state government restored the Pelourinho
through citys Port of Callao (west coast district, which is located in the historic
of South America) industries produce sector of the city in efforts to increase
textiles, clothing, processed foods, and tourism further. Northeast Brazil is an
some machinery and vehicles Has 2 major impoverished area with high birth rates
highways which connect Lima with the rest and infant fatality rates. Salvador is no
of the country. exception. Salvador had high crime and
6How it came to be. Founded January 18, unemployment rates. The average monthly
1535 by Francisco Pizarro after he income in the 1990s was equivalent to 447
conquered the great Incan Empire dollars. Sanitation had also been a
Originally was named La Ciudad de los problem in the poorer neighborhoods of
Reyes (The City of Kings) after the Salvador. 1/3 of people have no sewage
Christian Feast of the Epiphany where the hookups or septic systems. Markets are
Three Kings visited the Christ Child A also tourist attractions in Salvador, such
massive earthquake struck the city in 1746 as Sete Portas and Mercado Modela.
nearly destroying the city completely In 52Salvador - Culture. One of Salvadors
1821 General Jose de San Martin, leader of distinguishing characteristics is its
the independence movement of Latin America presence of colonial architecture in the
from Spain, took over the city and 5 years Upper City. One of the buildings located
later Lima became the capital of the there is a cathedral, still standing from
independent nation of Peru. the year 1572. Many other Baroque-style
7Things to see.. Beaches were once the churches are also located there.
main attraction in the summer; however, 53Salvador Culture (continued). 15
the coastline has become increasingly Forts from the colonial period are also
polluted by untreated sewage Plaza de still standing in Salvador. Salvador is
Armas is the focal point of city life also known for the influence of African
Limas cathedral (1746) glass coffin culture on the city. Candomble is an
which is said to contain Pizarros remains Afro-Brazilian religion practiced in
Government Palace was built on the site of Salvador. The city has over 1000 Candomble
Pizarros house and is home to the temples called terreiros. The
countrys president Limas City Walls Afro-Brazilian martial dance of capoeira
some of which are still standing that were is also popular in Salvador. Salvador has
originally built to defend from Pirate over 350 churches and has been called
attacks in the 16th and 17th centuries Black Rome. The Carnaval celebration in
Universidad Nacional de San Marcos (1551) Salvador is also a tourist attraction.
oldest standing university in entire Many visit to experience the circus and
western hemisphere. public street parades and parties that
8Few more facts: Lima is not known for happen before Lent. Distinct areas of
having much open green space or parks as Salvador are also tourist attractions such
it has mostly been taken over by buildings as Pelourinho, and the tourist market
and residential growth pre-incan ruins Mercado Modela. Pelourinho district was
still standing Pachacamac (earthmaker) built when the city was the economic
Transportation includes: Taxis/Automobiles powerhouse of South America, and the
Inner city busses Lima Metro above buildings reflect the wealth of the city
ground mass transit system Transportation at the time.
has been a major cause of pollution since 54Salvador - People and Places. Dorival
leaded petroleum is still widely used and Caymnil Gal Costa Gilberto Gil
there are no restrictions placed on equivalent in Brazil to John Lennon or
automobile efficiency. Paul McCartney in the U.S. He is a Grammy
9Rio De Janeiro. Brazil. Winner and the current Minister of Culture
10Demographics. Population: 6,051,399 in Salvador. All MPB (Musica Popular
Ethnic Mix: 70% white, 20% black, 10% Brasileira) stars. Ruy Barbosa Antonia de
other Religion: 75% Catholic, 25% other. Castro Alves, a poet Jorge Amado, a
11Demographics (continued). Although Rio novelist. Jorge Amado, a novelist State
de Janeiro occupies a setting of University of Bahia Catholic University of
magnificent natural beauty, poverty and Salvador Lacerda Elevator vertical
urban sprawl have spawned the favelas, pedestrian lift built in 1873. Replaced in
densely crowded neighborhoods of flimsy 1928 and now transports 50,000 people
shacks. In contrast to the more affluent daily between the upper and lower cities.
neighborhoods along the citys southern Church of St. Francis Church of Third
beaches, favelas cover many of the citys Order of St. Francis Afro-Brazilian
northern hills. Museum. Fort of St. Anthony of Barra
12Economics. Rios harbor is deep enough built in 1580.
for the largest vessels to come alongside 55Salvador Important Facts. Also known
the wharves, which lie near the city as Bahia for a long time. 4th largest city
center. Through the port flows the major in Brazil Salvador had a population of
portion of Brazils imports and exports. 2,631,831 people in 2004. Major religions
Rio is also a distribution center for the are Catholicism, Candomble, Protestantism,
coastal trade. Espiritism, and recently Mormons. It is
13Economy (continued). The citys common for individuals to practice pieces
manufactures include textiles, foodstuffs, of more than one religion. Salvadors
household appliances, cigarettes, population has been growing as
chemicals, leather goods, metal products, country-side dwellers move into the city.
and printed material. There are also two Brazils oldest city. 450th Birthday in
major airports. Rios climate is warm and 2000. Gross Domestic Product per capita:
humid and is a success by being a major 4,309 Reals. Gross Domestic Product:
tourist center. 10,738,802 thousand Reals. Making up most
14History. Rio De Janeiro is a city of of the GPD is services with 8,229,247
southeast Brazil on Guanabara Bay, an arm thousand Reals.
of the Atlantic Ocean. According to 56Sao Paulo, Brazil.
tradition, it was first visited in January 57History of Sao Paulo. The city was
1502 by Portuguese explorers who believed founded in 1554 by Jesuit Missionaries
Guanabara Bay to be the mouth of a river. Later was established as a simple urban
Therefore named the city Rio De Janeiro outpost for coffee barons up until the
River of January. 20th century Officially became a city in
15History (continued). It became capital 1711 Many immigrants from Japan, Germany,
of the colony of Brazil in 1763. The Italy, Arabia, and Spain came to work at
Brazilian empire in 1822. And of the the large coffee plantations scattered
independent country in 1889. In 1960 the through the city Sao Paulo grew in
capital was transferred to Brasilia. industrial strength around the turn of the
16Significant Monuments/Markers. The century which caused the city to expand
Statue of Christ the Redeemer. Located at rapidly due to immigration.
the top of Corcovado Mountain in Tijuca 58Economic and Political Systems. Sao
National Park. This great statue stands Paulo has a diverse economy centered
2330 feet tall, holding the city of Rio in around its large industrial and commercial
his arms. This is one of the most famous center Close to one half of the countrys
and most visited monuments in the world. industrial output comes from the city of
17Significant Monuments/Markers(contd). Sao Paulo Sao Paulo State accounts for
Sugar Loaf Mountain is one of the more over ? of the countrys output of
spectacular tourist attractions in Rio de machinery, electrical goods, and rubber
Janeiro. The two mountains of Sugar Loaf Democratic government with one president,
are located between Guanabara Bay and very similar to the United States
Copacabana beach in Rio de Janeiro. The Political system Luiz In?cio da Silva is
view from the peak of Sugar Loaf, 1,296 ft the current president.
(395m) above sea-level. 59Demographics. The city has an area of
18Santiago, Chile. 575 sq. miles A population of 10.9 Million
19Santiagos Location. Largest city in Brazil (near second
20History - settlement. Santiago began largest in the world based on population)
as a fortified encampment known as 20 million people live in the greater
Santiago de La Nueva Extremadura., it was metropolitan area of Sao Paulo.
the furthest outpost in the Spanish empire 60Social Aspects. Sao Paulo is home to
at the time. Founded in 1541 by the University of Sao Paulo Has a major
conquistador Pedro de Valdivia Araucanian art museum known as MASP Major symphonic
Indians destroyed the settlement and the orchestra known as OSESP Grand Prix race
Spaniards were besieged for two years. The track called Interlagos Worlds largest
eventual arrival of reinforcements from private-owned sports stadium Sao Paulo
Peru enabled the city to be re-founded and also takes part in the Carnival
Santiago settled. celebrations that go on all throughout
21Population growth. Late 1600 South America (much like Mardi Gras).
settlement of 200 houses, with about 700 61Entertainment. Many shopping malls
Spaniards Early 1900s had a population of such as Shopping Morumbi, Sao Paulo
30,000 1950 1.33 million 1970 2.84 million Marketplace, Shopping Eldorado, and Jardin
2005 6.2 million (40% of Chiles do Sul Embu is a nearby city with many
population). street vendors who sell a diverse array of
22City Growth. In the beginning art Chohoscorias are famous for their
Haciendas or great farms were the barbeque type menu and unique setting.
background of the city After independence 62Poverty in Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo has a
from Spain in 1818, Santiago became major problem with Poverty Approximately
capital of Chile and emerged as the most 1,500,000 people now live in favelas
economically dynamic City of the new South (shanty towns) in Sao Paulo and
American republics Growth of the country's surrounding areas Crime has suddenly
agriculture and mining industries served increased, and kidnappings and robbery are
to boost Santiago's status and, throughout relatively common in the city.
the 19th and 20th centuries, the city 63Ethnic Groups in Sao Paulo. Of the
experienced large-scale immigration from approx. 11 million people in Sao Paulo the
Europe. breakdown is as Follows: 3 million
23City Sprawl. descendents of the Portuguese 3 million
24Economy. Leading producing and descendents of Italian 3 million
exporter of Copper. Accounts for ? of descendents of African heritage 1 million
countrys exports One of three big Japanese (largest pop. Outside of Japan) 1
financial centers in South America along million German.
with Buenos Aires and S?o Paulo Some 64Rapid Population Growth. From a
Companies that have South American population of merely 32,000 people in
headquarters in Santiago: HP, Reuters, JP 1880, Sao Paulo has grown considerably in
Morgan, Coca Cola, Intel, Motorola, Kodak, the last century In 1980, the population
Nestle, and IBM. was at 8.5 million Today, the population
25Some Architecture. is close to 11 million Urban sprawl is
26More buildings evident in the first slide with the
27Santiagos biggest problems. Because picture of Sao Paulo taken by satellite.
of being located in a valley its 65Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
geographic location is Unfavorable for air 66Where is it? Santa Cruz lies 416
dispersal. To reduce air pollution the meters above sea level and is located in
city has restricted the operation of motor central Bolivia near the Piray River, in
vehicles, keeping 1/5th of all vehicles in the tropical llanos (plains) region east
Santiago off the street each day. of the Andes Mountains.
Government has also Offered incentives for 67History of Santa Cruz. The land where
heavy industry to move out of the city. Santa Cruz was founded on was inhabited by
28Smog and Decentralization. The the ancient Aymar? civilization, who lived
government is now decentralizing Santiago on Lake Titicaca. Later, this civilization
due to its rapid and high growth rates. It was conquered by the Incas, who were
is promoting out-migration to neighboring themselves conquered by the Spanish in
townships, the countryside, other cities 1538. Throughout the countrys colonial
and reducing in-migration to the city. It history, it was known as Upper Peru. Simon
also has some of the best mass-transit Bolivar led the country to independence in
systems to help reduce pollution. It has a 1825. In its early years, independent
clean and safe subway system, one of the Bolivia was ruled by a succession of
most extensive Bus services, and plenty of caudillos (military dictators) who tried,
taxicabs. All of these systems are being with mixed success, to integrate the
upgraded and improved to help with growth. countrys three disparate regions the
29Demographics. Population growth rate: central region, the eastern Andes and the
1.27% 6.2 million *1.27 = 75,000 peeps per Altiplano into a national entity. The
year Economic Growth Rate: 6% GDP increase city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra was
projected for 2005 and 2006 Age structure: founded by ?uflo de Ch?vez on February 26,
0-14 years: 28% 15-64 years: 65% 65 years 1560.
and over: 7% Ethnic groups: white and 68Important Facts. Total Population:
white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 1,364,389 Full Name of the city is Santa
2% Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Cruz de la Sierra It is the Capital of the
Protestant 11%, Jewish Literacy: Total Santa Cruz Department(or State) Is
population: 95.2% Those in Poverty: around considered the fastest growing city in
17%, down from recent years, but very Bolivia.
high. 69Economy. Santa Cruz is a trade and
30Brasilia. The capital of Brazil and processing center for sugar, rice, cotton,
model of urban planning. fruit, soy, and corn. Has a strategic and
31Facts: Brasilia was planned for only commercial importance because of its
500,000 inhabitants, its population has central location. There are also
grown much more than expected. Due to natural-gas reserves and an oil refinery
zoning laws and the basic layout, the nearby. Important industries are leather
majority of the population lives outside crafting, sugar refining, and alcohol
the city limits in the 9 lower income production. A rail line gives the city
satellite cities. Brasilia was the most access to both the Atlantic and Pacific
famous new capital cite of the twentieth oceans.
century. It is a land mark in the history 70Culture. The predominant religion is
of town planning. The government Roman Catholic, but there is a scattering
constructed the city on an undeveloped of other Christian faiths. Indigenous
site during the late 1950s and the early Bolivians, however, have blended
1960s to encourage settlement in the Catholicism and their traditional beliefs.
inland regions of Brazil. Ranked the 17th An example is the near synonymous
largest metropolitan area in 1996. association of Pacha Mama (Mother Earth)
32Demographics. Ethnic Division: and the Virgin Mary. Spanish is the
Caucasian = 55% Mixed Caucasian & official language throughout Bolivia,
Africans = 38% Africans = 6% Other = 1% although only 60-70% of the population
Population: In 2005= 2,176,000 Population speaks it, and then often as a second
Growth Rate: 1.28% Religion: Roman language. The indigenous languages of
Catholic =70% Languages: Portuguese Quechua and Aymara are the preferred
(official), Spanish, English, and French languages. When bargaining in rural
Male to Female Ratio: Males = 52% Females markets, a Quechua word or two will not
= 48%. only endear you to the vendors, but
33Monuments. The Cathedral Metropolitan. usually get you an extra orange or more
JK Memorial. The Congress. Juselino juice! Several other small indigenous
Kubitschek Bridge. The head of Brazilian groups speak their own languages. English
president Juselino Kubitschek. is understood in the best hotels and in
34History. In the 18th century, Brazils airline offices and travel agencies, but
governing authorities decided to transfer it's of little use elsewhere. Bolivian
the capital from Rio de Janeiro to an food consists mainly of meat, corn
empty inland area safe from naval attacks. pancakes, rice, eggs and vegetables. Local
They agreed to move the capital to specialties include pique a lo macho,
Brasilia, which is a plateau carved out of grilled beef and sausage; lech?n, suckling
the state of Goias. Construction began in pig; and cuy, whole roasted guinea
1956 by landscape architecture Lucio Costa pig-however, some delicacies may only be
and was completed on April 21st, 1960. He for the most adventurous stomachs.
used a Pilot Plan, which features two Religious Affiliations of the population
great intersecting axes. One for of Santa Cruz Catholic: 1,046,463 - 76.6%
governmental and the other for of the citys population Evangelical:
residential, together they form a rough 136,993 Others: 14,505 None: 28,564 Not
outline of an airplane. East = Federal Specified: 100,512.
government buildings. The central 71Major Landmarks/Attractions. Pira?
intersection of important boulevards = Bus River: The riverbanks are often the spot
terminals and hotels. West = More hotels, for weekend picnics. Municipal Zoo: One of
a sports arena, and a recreational the best zoos in South America, features
facility. North and South = Residential birds, reptiles, mammals, from the region
areas, composed of six storied apartment as well as endangered and exotic species.
buildings. Every fourth block there is a Plaza 24 de Septiembre: Ideal for relaxing
school, playground, shops, theaters, and and watching sloths hanging in the tall
more. trees. The Cathedral: Located on the Plaza
35There are two major roadways in the 14 de Septiembre, the cathedral dates back
city running east and west. The monuments to the early 1600's. The cathedral museum
and public buildings are located along the displays religious art work, gold and
roadways. The railroad runs north and silver artifact from the Jesuit missions.
south in a curving line, intersecting the Museo de Historia Natural: Display a
bus terminal. The goal was to use modern collection of flora and fauna of the
design and lots of land to contrast region.
earlier cities, seen to be plagued by 72Landmarks (Continued). Lomas de Arena
chaotic urban growth. The city was seen to de El Palmar: Located 16 Km south of Santa
be sterile and overly controlled. Cruz these large sand dunes and fresh
36Economics. Driven by the Federal water lagoons are ideal for weekend
Government, which employs most of the picnics and swimming. Parque Nacional Noel
cities workers, with 42% in services, 31% Kempff Mercado: Really worth seeing, this
in agriculture, and 27% in the industry. spectacular natural park, about 440 Km
Small scale industry, food services, and northeast of Santa Cruz, has an incredible
construction are also important. scenery of waterfalls, rivers, rainforests
Agricultural products include coffee, and a wide variety of flora and fauna
soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, (alligators, pink dolphins, caimans, river
cocoa, citrus, and beef. otters, tapirs, spider monkeys, etc.).
37Positive Aspects: The city is not Jesuit Missions: From Santa Cruz, east
threatened by any kind of natural across the R?o Grande, this circuit of
disaster. Good climate and sunny days are Jesuit missions. founded between 1696 and
very common. Many and large green areas in 1760, composed by the mission of San
the pilot plan. Virtually no air Javier, San Ram?n, San Ignacio,
pollution. Negative Aspects: It is not a Concepci?n, San Rafael, Santa Ana, and San
walking city, the distance between Jos? de Chiquitos were declared
building and sectors require a vehicle. "World Heritage" by the UNESCO
Housing prices are very high, compared to World Heritage Committee on December 12,
other Brazilian cities. Public 1990 in Alberta, Canada. El Fuerte de
transportation is inefficient. Very few Samaipata: (Fortress) 120 Km southwest
people are found on the streets. The newer from Santa Cruz, the entire Inca ruins
satellite towns have very few green areas. complex of around 40 hectares was declared
Many of the famous buildings are beautiful "World Heritage" by the UNESCO
but not functional. World Heritage Committee on December, 2nd
38Medellin, Antioquia. 1998 in Kyoto, Japan.
39Medellin. Capital of Antioquia, a 73Pictures.
province of northeastern Colombia, 74Buenos Aires, Argentina.
bordering Panama and the Caribbean Sea. 75About Argentina. 21 Provinces
Located in the Aburra Valley, at an 4,466,896 sq. mi. Population of 37 Million
altitude of about 1,500 meters. The Rio 11 Million of which are in Buenos Aires
Medellin River flowing northward, bisects Pampas fertile farming ground.
the city. The San Lucas Mts. and the 76Brief History. 1536- Founded by
Caucas River are located to the East of Spaniards looking for Gold 1580- Permanent
Medellin. Medellin has an average annual Spanish Settlement 1617- Given its own
temp. of 24 degrees C. Governor in and had provincial status
40Brief History. 1675: Medellin was 1776- Capital of New Viceroy controlled
founded. 1862: Medellin became the capital Territory 1810- Severed from Spanish
of Antioquia. 1951-1973: Population of Empire, establishes its own government
Medellin nearly quadrupled due to 1862- Capital of Argentina 1880-
immigration from the countryside. Federalization, Beginnings of
1970-1980: Economy began to deteriorate. Urbanization.
Urban planning was unable to control urban 77Important Factors. Most European of
growth and city expanded onto the slopes all Latin American Cities Known as the
of the surrounding Aburra mountains. Paris of South America Wide Boulevards,
Ongoing process of de-industrialization Leafy Parks, Grand Architecture, and lots
led to accelerated process of urban decay. of Monuments 47 barrios, each one with its
1980-1990: Medellin became headquarters own distinct flavor and culture.
for Colombian drug cartel led by Pablo 78Porte?os Population. Population Area
Escobar. The drug cartels were tolerated Sq. Mi. Pop. Per Sq. Mi. Capital Federal-
by government because it helped attenuate 2,904,000 77 37,638 Inner Suburbs
economic crisis. The huge influx of money 5,202,000 360 14,436 Outer Suburbs
generated expectations of quick 3,094,000 633 4,886 Urbanized Area
improvement in living conditions. New 11,200,000 1,070 10,467 Buenos Aires is
migration pattern developed. Gated ranked 4th in the worlds highest urban
communities were built on the flat terrain populations, behind only Shanghai, Bombay,
in the city by rich. Poor moved out higher and Karachi. When considering metropolitan
into the Aburra mountains. 1990-2000: area however, it falls to 17th.
Crime and assassinations grew to an all 79Maps.
time high. The state finally made efforts 80Demographics. Only .05% inhabitants of
to cut the power of the Medellin cartel. Buenos Aires are of Native Decent Most
Led to civil war, government vs. drug Porte?os are of Spanish or Italian Decent,
cartel. Reputation of city suffered though there are also sizeable percentages
internationally, it became known for of German, Arab, Jewish, Armenian,
uncontrollable drugs and violence. War Anglo-Irish, Korean, Japanese, and Chinese
ended with assassination of Pablo Escobar Italian and German names outnumber Spanish
in 1993. The city began to recover and ones 96% Catholic.
rebuild itself. 81Economy. Buenos Aires is the
41Important Information. Medellin is the financial, industrial, commercial, and
second largest city in Colombia. It has a cultural hub of Argentina. Its port is one
population of almost 2 million people. of the busiest in the world; navigable
Ethnic groups: Mestizo 58%, white 20%, rivers connect it to the Argentine
mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed North-East, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay.
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%. Major As a result, it serves as the distribution
exports: coffee, cut flowers,petroleum, hub for a vast area of the south-eastern
coal, apparel, and bananas. Medellin has a region of the continent. Agricultural
literacy rate of 91.3%. Spanish is the products such as meat, grain, dairy,
dominant language, and Roman Catholic is tobacco, wool, and hide from pampas.
the main religion. Best known event is the Industries include automobile
Flower Festival, where citizens celebrate manufacturing, oil refining, metalworking,
the cut flower business, which supplies machine building, and the production of
around 70% of the flowers imported by the textiles, chemicals, clothing, and
U.S. beverages.
42Transportation. One of the major 82Government. Political Instability from
improvements for transportation in 1945-1983 La Guerra Sucia and the
Medellin was the addition of the Medellin 10,000-30,000 Disaparecidos Distrust in
Metro. Built in 1995, it was actually the National Government Today Three Branch
first subway to be built in Colombia. The style similar to US Gobernador Felipe Sol?
main airport serving Medellin, is the Jose 83Population Reference Bureau.
Mario Cordoba International Airport. 84Thank you very much, thats all for
43Medellin and Pablo Escobar. Pablo me.
Escobar is one of the most notorious names 85Bogot?, Colombia.
associated with Medellin. His drug cartel 86Origins. Founded in 1538 by Jimenez de
penetrated the economic, socio-cultural, Quesada as capital of New Granada Was
and political spheres of the city. He known as the Athens of America Jose
practically owned Medellin in the 80s. Acevedo y Gomez led the first successful
Estimates are that his drug cartel was revolt in 1810. After Bolivars decisive
taking in an estimated $25 billion victory in 1819, Bogot? became the capital
annually in the 80s. Seen as a type of of Greater Colombia.
Robin Hood to the people of Medellin. He 87Origins, cont. When the country
built stadiums and gave money to the poor. divided in 1830, Bogot? became the capital
In return they served as lookouts and hid of what we know today as Colombia. Much of
information from the authorities. Once the city was damaged by rioting in 1948,
estimated by Forbes magazine to be the after the assassination of radial leader
seventh-richest man in the world, with Jorge Eliecer Gaitan. In 1955 Bogot? and
Medellin cartel controlling 80% of the the surrounding area were organized as a
worlds cocaine market. In 1991, Escobar Special District, which became the
turned himself in for fear of extradition Capital District in 1991.
to the U.S. Escobar was killed in 1993 88Demographics. Population of roughly
after he escaped from prison. 7.8 million people Located at altitude of
44Medellin Today. Today, Medellin is 8660 feet above sea level at the base of
experiencing an urban and economic two mountains in the Northern Andean
renaissance. In 2003, 1.2 million square Range. Population is currently increasing
meters of property were developed into at rate of 5% per year, mostly due to
hotels, new housing, and office buildings. rural residents flocking to the city.
The citys transportation network is a Currently, the urban area covers 384.3
model for the rest of the Andes. square kilometers.
Universities and hospitals are top tier, 89Religions. 97% Christian Other
with doctors being credited for such religions observed include: Islam Judaism
triumphs as the first kidney transplant in Primal/Indigenous Secular.
Latin America. The city still experiences 90Economy. Bogot? is Columbias largest
crime, but nowhere near as bad as past economic center, and its residents refer
decades. The 2 million residents of to Bogot? as Colombias first city. It
Medellin have never been more prosperous, is home to most foreign companies doing
with profits from exports triple what it business in Colombia, as well as
was in the 90s. Colombias main stock market. Three
45Salvador, Brazil. largest sectors of Bogot?s economy are
46 the export of coffee, emeralds, and
47Salvador - History. Founded in 1549 by flowers.
Portuguese settlers led by Thome de Souza. 91More on the Economy Colombias coffee
Salvador was the major port of Brazil is prized as the finest in the world, and
during the Portuguese colonial rule, it is the worlds largest producer of the
leading in sugar export and slave trade. product. In downtown Bogot?, millions of
Salvador was the first capital of Brazil dollars of domestically produced rough and
until 1763 when Rio de Janeiro took its cut emeralds are bought and sold daily As
place. Seat of the 1st Catholic Bishop of much as 55% of all flowers sold in the
Brazil in 1552, and is still an United States are imported from Colombia.
ecclesiastical center of power for 92Culture. Bogot? is home to several
Brazilian Catholicism. 1583 Salvadors universities: Universidad del Rosario, the
population was at 1600, making it one of oldest in Colombia National University of
the largest cites of the New World at the Colombia Los Andes University Pontifical
time. Even at the time of the American Javerian University Universidad Externado
Revolution in 1776 Salvadors population de Colombia University of Santo Tomas.
was greater than any American colonial 93Festivals. Festival Iberoamericano de
city. 1624 Salvador was taken by the Teatro Most important theatre festival in
Dutch, but soon recaptured by the Latin America and Spain. Bogot?s
Portuguese the next year. Salvador was Half-Marathon International marathon that
also the center for the Brazilian takes place between June and August, with
independence movement. On September 7th, 200 million pesos in prizes La Candelaria
1882, liberation was attained. 1948 A neighborhood of Bogot? where a great
population was 340,000 1991 population was number of cultural events occur. It is
2.08 million. The Church of Saint Francis. home to several of Bogot?s universities.
48Salvador - Geography. Salvador is 94Transportation. Bogot? is a modern
located on a Peninsula on the Atlantic in city with a modern transportation system
northeast Brazil. The city is on the Baia consisting of: Airlines Busses Taxis The
de Todos os Santos, or The Bay of All Transmilenio A train that serves the
Saints. The topography is predominately outskirts of the city.
hill and valley. Salvador is also at the
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Cities of South America

Cities of South America

Russian revolution - Northwest Europe. Stages of the russian Civil War. Imperial Russia. Alexander Kerensky. Pavel Miliukov. Land Reform. Russian imperial officers. Czar Nicholas II. Red Guards. V. I. Lenin. Nestor Makhno. Soviet of workers and soldiers deputies. Petrograd demonstration. Russian rout. Red army armored train.

Russia - Dvortsovo-park ensemble "Peterhof " on the bank of a southern Finnish gulf. At present the president is-Medvedev Dmitry Anatolievich. Russia democratic federal prezidentsko-parliamentary Capital the city of Moscow. Russia is located in Northern hemisphere, in the north of continent Eurasia.

- : . It is 17 feet long and has a caliber of 35 inches. . This gun was never fired. . The Kremlin was ordered to be built by Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156. Weighing 200 tons, it is 20 feet high and about 22 feet in diameter.

Russian games - It is played ball basketball. Basketball appeared in the Russia in 1901. Country of basketball is the USA. England is the home of football. Many children are playing football. Football is very popular in Russia. In Russia football appeared at the end 19th century. Sports and games popular in Russia.

Moscow sights - St Basils Cathedral. . A Famous Sight of Moscow. Hospitable. The founder of the Tretyakov Gallery. . Game. Choose the right answer. Read the sentence. Insert the articles where necessary.

About Russia - Where is Russia? www.russia.com/photos/. Picture Window Books. 2004. www.galenfrysinger.com. Go to these websites for some Russian recipes: Famous Sights in Russia. Sarah DeCapua. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 2004. A Ticket to Russia. Lets Learn About Russia. More Good Websites. www.euratlas.com/Atlas/ russia/peterhof_palace.jpg.

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