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Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of
Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of
The dialects of North American English
The dialects of North American English
Divergence in North American Dialects
Divergence in North American Dialects
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Relationships among America’s Most Populous Metropolitan Areas
Relationships among America’s Most Populous Metropolitan Areas
Mean number of out of 33 ducks in front of experimenter 1 as a
Mean number of out of 33 ducks in front of experimenter 1 as a
/?h/
/?h/
An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /
An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /
A model of requirements for divergence
A model of requirements for divergence
Bidirectional micro-evolution
Bidirectional micro-evolution
Beak evolution
Beak evolution
The U.S. at night
The U.S. at night
The Inland North
The Inland North
Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004 Presidential election
Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004 Presidential election
The Northern dialect region mapped on to Red States and Blue States in
The Northern dialect region mapped on to Red States and Blue States in
short o fronting short a raising oh lowering
short o fronting short a raising oh lowering
The Northern Cities Shift of Sabrina K., 37 [1994], Detroit MI, TS 176
The Northern Cities Shift of Sabrina K., 37 [1994], Detroit MI, TS 176
IN /e/
IN /e/
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Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of Language

содержание презентации «Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of Language.ppt»
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1Conditions for Divergence and 32intelligence; their technological skills
Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of are underwhelming. . .Although innovation,
Language. William Labov, University of tool use, and technological invention may
Pennsylvania. Penn Linguistics Colloquium have played a crucial role in the
March 27, 2009. evolution of ape and human brains, these
2No scientific theory is worth anything skills were probably built upon mental
unless it enables us to predict something computations that had their origins and
which is actually going on. . J.B.S. foundations in social interactions.
Haldane, cited by P. & R. Grant. --Cheney and Seyfarth 2007:283.
3When two groups are separated so that 33Social factors as adaptive forces in
communication between them is reduced, linguistic behavior. . . Biological
then divergence is expected, and any terminology Sociolinguistic terminology.
degree of convergence requires an Territoriality Local identity Dominance
explanation. When two groups are in and submission Style shifting and
continuous communication, linguistic accommodation Sexual selection The social
convergence is expected and any degree of construction of gender.
divergence requires an explanation. 34? ? Gender and social category
4Growing divergence in North American determination of five elements of the
English. Recent studies of linguistic Northern City Shift in a Detroit suburban
change in progress in North American high school. Source: Eckert 2000.
English show increasing diversity on a 35“Acts of identity”. The individual
regional scale, along with some degree of creates his systems of verbal behavior so
local convergence. as to resemble those common to the group
5The dialects of North American or groups with which he wishes from time
English. to time to be identified, to the extent
6Divergence in North American Dialects. that: (a) he is able to identify those
7Word Phrase Sentence 1. _________ groups (b) his motives are sufficiently
________________ clear-cut and powerful (c) his
___________________________ 2. _________ opportunities for learning are adequate
________________ (d) his ability to learn -- that is, to
___________________________ 3. _________ changes his habits where necessary -- is
________________ unimpaired. --R. Le Page & A.
___________________________ 4. _________ Tabouret-Keller, Acts of Identity (1985).
________________ 36Social correlates of four measures of
___________________________ 5. _________ the Northern Cities Shift [N=71]. Age
________________ Female Years of 25 yrs Gender Education
___________________________ 6. _________ AE1 34* 8.6* EAEQ 34* 26* EOD 112*** H.S.
________________ -68* UOD 37 -16*.
___________________________. The Northern 37A consideration on large-scale social
Cities Shift: from the Project on factors. African-Americans in Memphis
Cross-Dialectal Comprehension: Gating appear to be moving toward forms which
Experiment 2. symbolize involvement in the Southern
8Percent correct in Gating Experiment community and its associated heritage. . .
for Chicago “busses with the antennas on While social unity was a part of the
top”. communities of practice explored by
9Age distribution of F2 of /?/ in the Eckert, I would expand her framework to
North. suggest that these shared practices do not
10Age distribution of F2 of /?/ in the necessarily require individuals’ social
Midland. cohesion but merely require shared
11Age distribution of F2 of /?/ in the historical experience and a strongly
North and the Midland. North. Midland. age circumscribing environment that places
coefficient = - 2.05 p = .026. age speakers in a similar social position
coefficient = 1.39 p = .033. relative to the external social world.
12Divergence in North American Dialects. ----Fridland 2000.
13Relationships among America’s Most 38A large scale phenomenon. The Northern
Populous Metropolitan Areas. Cities Shift is found throughout the
14Three suggested parallels of Inland North, an area of 88,000 square
linguistic and biological evolution. miles. A population of over 34,000,000
Probability matching (Gallistel 1990) ? speakers of American English are
the mechanism of chain shifting participating in this shift.
Microevolution (P. & R. Grant 1993) ? 39The U.S. at night.
the mechanism of divergence Animal 40The Inland North. U.S. at Night.
communication systems (Cheyney & Flint. Detroit. Grand Rapids. Milwaukee.
Seyfarth 200 ? the social motivation of Syracuse. Chicago. Rochester. Buffalo.
linguistic change. Cleveland. Kenoshat. Joliet. Toledo.
15The Canadian Shift. Omaha. Columbus. St. Louis. CIncinnati.
16Probability matching. Indianapolis. Kansas City.
17Mean number of out of 33 ducks in 41Red States and Blue States in U.S.
front of experimenter 1 as a function of 2004 Presidential election.
time and rate of throwing food (Gallistel 42The Northern dialect region mapped on
1990). Experimenter 1: every 5 seconds to Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004
every 10 seconds Experimenter 2: every 5 Presidential election.
seconds every 5 seconds. 43Presidential elections in which the
18Phonemes co-existing in a language Northern States [NY, MI, WI, IA, MN] have
tend naturally to optimize the been opposed to the Southern States [TX,
possibilities that are available from the AK, LA, MI, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC, KY,TN,
speech organs; they tend to be as distant VA].
from their neighbors as possible while 44Democratic vs. Republican vote for
remaining easy to articulate and easy to counties surveyed by dialect in
perceive. . . Martinet 1955:62 (tr. WL), presidential election of 2004. Inland
attributed to de Groot TCLP 1931:121. North Midland New North England Kerry
Martinet on maximal dispersion. majority 20 15 8 12 Bush majority 6 7 13
19/?h/. /o/. /oh/. A stable distribution 2.
of English low vowels: an outlier not 45County vote for Kerry 2004 by county
recognized as a member of the /o/ vote and dialect. Kerry. Bush.
distribution. 46Regression analyses of county percent
20An unstable distribution of English vote for Kerry in 2004 by dialect groups
low vowels: /?h/ shifted up and front so with and without total votes as
that the /o/ outlier affects the central independent variable. Residual group:
tendency of /o/. /?h/. /o/. /oh/. Midland.
21Northern Cities Shift. Southern Shift. 47County vote for Obama 2008 by county
Opposing chain shifts in North America. vote and dialect.
22Model of divergence. The divergence of 48Regression analysis of 2008 Obama vote
neighboring dialects requires alternating by county. Variable. Coefficient. prob.
states of bidirectional changes followed Constant. 57.25. ? 0.0001. Inland North.
by unidirectional changes in the form of 3.21. 0.056. Mid-Atlantic. 7.75. 0.021.
mergers or chain shifts. New England. 4.44. 0.071. r2 = .065.
23A model of requirements for 49short o fronting short a raising oh
divergence. lowering. The--the way I got hired for
24Micro-evolution. The fluctuations of this one job was really weird, ‘cause I
bidirectional changes resemble the went in for a . . . secretarial position
micro-evolution of finch beaks in the is what I went in for, and they had hired.
Grants' study of the Galapagos, although . .ah-- somebody else that didn’t know
no correlate of fitness or natural anything, but it was a buyer’s daughter,
selection has yet been identified for the so then she got the job. And uh--they
linguistic changes. called me because I had done shipping and
25Bidirectional micro-evolution. The receiving as far as--the paper work, and
population of medium ground finches, they had asked me if I‘d help out ‘cause
Geospiza fortis, experienced their--shipper had just had a heart attack
size-selective mortality during a drought and she wasn’ comin’ back for a while.
in 1976-77; large birds with deep beaks Passage 1 in Experiment 1 (from Sabrina
survived better than small birds. During K., 37, Detroit MI, TS 176).
another drought, 1984-1986, the population 50The Northern Cities Shift of Sabrina
experienced selection in the opposite K., 37 [1994], Detroit MI, TS 176.
direction on beak traits. Changes in food Short-i. Short-u. Short-a. Short-e. Long
supply were the apparent causes of open o. Short-o.
selection on beak traits in both episodes. 51short o back of center tense a before
--Grant, Peter R. and B. Rosemary Grant nasals; lax a, e in that aw fronting ^
1994. Predicting microevolutionary fronting. I read, a-n-nd like most women,
responses to directional selection on I like to go shopping and play card games
heritable variation. Evolution 49:241-251. with family and friends and that kind of
26a1, a2. The initiation of divergence. thing, nothing really exciting. We used to
Equally likely resolution of an unstable go camping quite a bit on the weekends,
linguistic situation. but our lives have shifted enough that we
27a1, a2. The initiation of divergence. don’t do that much right now, but uh
Nasal system: tense all /?/ before nasals. that’s what we do. Passage 2 in Experiment
General tensing and raising of all 1 (from Mimi P., 45 [2000], Indianapolis
/?/-> /?h/. Reversible. Inconsistent IN, TS 775).
mixture of short-a tensing patterns. 52Dialect area of listeners. N. Inland
28a1, a2. The initiation of divergence. North. 9. Chicago 9. North (outside of
Northern Cities Shift blocked. Northern IN). 1. Transitional (Ft. Wayne). 3.
Cities Shift. Nasal system: tense all /?/ Midland. 58. Indianapolis 4. Indiana 50.
before nasals. General tensing and raising Other Midland 4. Mid-Atlantic. 6. Canada.
of all /?/-> /?h/. Inconsistent mixture 1. South. 4. West. 6. Mixed. 2. 90.
of short-a tensing patterns. Dialect areas in which U. of Indiana
29) ) ). /o/ ~ /oh/. The development of subjects were raised [4-13 yrs of age].
divergence. Northern Cities Shift. 53Cities assigned to Detroit and
Canadian Shift. Irreversible. Inland Indianapolis speakers by student listeners
North: front /o/. Back vowel shift. at Indiana University [N=90].
Irreversible. Low back merger. Increase 54Political opinions ascribed to an
phonetic distance. Eastern seaboard: raise Inland North (Detroit) and Midland
/oh/. Pittsburgh chain shift. South: add (Indianapolis) speaker by students at U.
upglide. Irreversible. Reversible. Back of Indiana, Bloomington [N=90]. No
upglide chain shift. Skewed opposition significant difference in judgments of
depending on length. intelligence, trustworthiness, education;
30Natural selection ( ? ). To summarize, Midland speaker judged more friendly (p
the co-existence of finch species is < .00001).
facilitated by divergence in beak 55Ideological, political and linguistic
morphology and song. Beaks diverge under developments, 1817-2008. Party of racial
natural selection, but why songs diverge equality. Yankee ideology. Yankee
is less clear. Cultural drift, a process settlement. No’n Cities Shift. Expansion
of random change in culturally transmitted in western NY. 1817-1825. 1825-50 Raising
(learned) traits, is probably involved, of short-a. Evangelical movement. Westward
and sexual selection may be learned as expansion. Perfectionism. 1830-1860.
well. What Darwin's Finches Can Teach Us Opposition to racial inequality. 1856
about the Evolutionary Origin and Republican. 1860-1956. 1967 Fronting of
Regulation of Biodiversity B. Rosemary /o/ first reported. 1960-1995. 1960
Grant and Peter R. Grant, Bioscience, Vol. Democratic. Switch of political
53, No. 10 (Oct., 2003), pp. 965-975. allegiance. 1986 Backing of /?/ first
31Beak evolution. Evolution of beak reported. 2000-2008. Blue States /Red
depth of Geospiza fortis for survivors of States redefined.
1976 drought, for 1976 offspring and 1978 56IN /e/. Means of 14 vowels in
offspring. --B. & P. Grant 2003. peripheral/nonperipheral phonological
32Cheney and Seyfarth on the role of space. IN = Inland North. IN /?/. IN /?/.
social intelligence. Baboons’ adaptive IN /o/.
specialization is their social
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