Курсы английского
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Design Considerations for Directly Imaging Earth-like Exoplanets
Design Considerations for Directly Imaging Earth-like Exoplanets
Design Considerations for Directly Imaging Earth-like Exoplanets
Design Considerations for Directly Imaging Earth-like Exoplanets
History of Direct Imaging
History of Direct Imaging
History of Direct Imaging
History of Direct Imaging
Beta Pictoris b (2008)
Beta Pictoris b (2008)
HR 8799 (2008/2010)
HR 8799 (2008/2010)
HR 8799 (2008/2010)
HR 8799 (2008/2010)
LkCa 15 b (2011)
LkCa 15 b (2011)
Contrast
Contrast
Inner Working Angle
Inner Working Angle
High-contrast imaging technology
High-contrast imaging technology
High-contrast imaging technology
High-contrast imaging technology
Instruments in use
Instruments in use
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
Next generation technology
“Habitable” Zone
“Habitable” Zone
Size of habitable zone
Size of habitable zone
Habitable Zone
Habitable Zone
Habitable Zone
Habitable Zone
Habitable Zone
Habitable Zone
Can we resolve planets in the HZ
Can we resolve planets in the HZ
Can we resolve planets in the HZ
Can we resolve planets in the HZ
Planet-Star Contrast
Planet-Star Contrast
Luminosity Ratio of Earth-like planet
Luminosity Ratio of Earth-like planet
Aperture Flux
Aperture Flux
Aperture Flux of an Earth-like planet
Aperture Flux of an Earth-like planet
Detector Signal
Detector Signal
Noise Sources
Noise Sources
Noise Sources
Noise Sources
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Integration Time
Integration Time
Integration Time
Integration Time
Mission design
Mission design
Future missions
Future missions
Future missions
Future missions
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Design Considerations for Directly Imaging Earth-like Exoplanets

содержание презентации «Design Considerations for Directly Imaging Earth-like Exoplanets.pptx»
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1Design Considerations for Directly 34terrestrial planet in the HZ of HabCat
Imaging Earth-like Exoplanets. Garreth stars.
Ruane gjr8334@rit.edu Chester F. Carlson 35Detector Signal. . [Lyon and Clampin
Center for Imaging Science Rochester 2012].
Institute of Technology. 36Noise Sources. Noise sources: Shot
2Question: What telescope noise of planet and star Zodiacal light
specifications are necessary to directly Exozodiacal light Background Dark current
image and characterize planets in the Read noise.
“habitable zone” of nearby stars? 37Noise Sources. . [Lyon and Clampin
3Outline. Introduction Exoplanetary 2012].
Science Short history of direct imaging 38Noise Sources. Exozodiacal Light
High-contrast imaging technology Candidate Subtraction will be necessary. Preliminary
stars Hipparcos Design specification studies will allow better subtraction.
Conclusions. Subtraction may cause significant noise.
4Exoplanetary Science. Detections. May be important for orbital
Methods. 770 confirmed More than 2300 determination. [Lyon and Clampin 2012].
candidates. Radial velocities Planetary 39Background Sources. Photometric
transits Transit timing variation measurements rule out background sources.
Gravitational microlensing Astrometry 40Signal-to-Noise Ratio. . [Lyon and
Pulsar timing Features in circumstellar Clampin 2012].
disks Direct imaging. Missions. Current 41Integration Time. . Many HZ planets
MOST (Canada) COROT (France) Kepler (NASA) could be imaged at SNR = 5 under ideal
Under Development Gaia (ESA) JWST (NASA). conditions and minimal noise.
5History of Direct imaging. 42Other performance considerations.
6History of Direct Imaging. 2004: First Aperture obstructions Optical surface
direct image, 2M1207b 27 planetary systems quality Polychromatic effects Pointing
have been imaged since 2004. VLT NACO (8 Postprocessing.
m) J-band image of 2M1207 [Mohanty et. al. 43Mission specifications.
2006]. VLT NACO (8 m) NIR image of 2M1207 44Mission design. .
[ESO]. 45Future missions. Photometric
7Beta Pictoris b (2008). [ESO/A.-M. measurements Broadband (Spitzer: HD
Lagrange et al. 2009]. 189733b) Spectroscopy Atmosphere,
8HR 8799 (2008/2010). Keck L’-band biomarkers Polarimetry Oceans? Image
image of HR 8799 [Marois et. al. 2010]. credit: (left)Turnbull et. al. 2006
9LkCa 15 b (2011). [Kraus and Ireland (right) ESO.
2011]. 46Conclusions. It is possible to design
10What do these systems have in common? a mission with current technology that is
Large planets Large separation Low likely to directly image at least one
contrast Hot Jupiters/Young? Emit in earth-like planet. With state-of-the-art
infrared High contrast astronomical starlight suppression JWST would have over
imaging seeks to resolve cool planets very 200 viable HZ targets. Such a mission
close to bright stars. would be capable of imaging most planets
11High contrast imaging. outside of the HZ. Later spectral types
12High-contrast imaging terminology. are favored for contrast. These types have
Contrast Inner working angle Outer working very small HZs. Direct imaging opens doors
angle Discovery space. to photometric, spectroscopic,
13Contrast. [Lyon and Clampin 2012]. polarimetric studies of exoplanets.
14Inner Working Angle. . [Lyon and 47References. Kenworthy, M.A., Quanz,
Clampin 2012]. S.P., Meyer, M.R., Kasper, M.E., Lenzen,
15Outer Working Angle. Limited by the R., Codona, J.L., Girard, J.H.V., Hinz,
field of view of the optics Can be limited P.M., 2010. An apodizing phase plate
by actuators. coronagraph for VLT/NACO. arXiv:1007.3448.
16Discovery Space. Field of view. IWA. Kraus, A.L., Ireland, M.J., 2011. LkCa 15:
Sky Angle. OWA. A Young Exoplanet Caught at Formation?
17High-contrast imaging technology. Lyot arXiv:1110.3808. Lafreni?re, D.,
coronagraph. [Sivaramakrishnan et al. Jayawardhana, R., van Kerkwijk, M.H.,
2001]. 2008. Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of a
18High-contrast imaging technology. Planetary-Mass Candidate Companion to a
Apodizing phase plate coronagraph. Young Solar Analog. The Astrophysical
[Kenworthy et al. 2010]. Journal 689, L153–L156. Lagrange, A.-M.,
19Instruments in use. VLT NACO/APP Gratadour, D., Chauvin, G., Fusco, T.,
coronagraph Keck NIRC-2 Gemini NICI/Lyot Ehrenreich, D., Mouillet, D., Rousset, G.,
coronagraph HST NICMOS STIS ACS/HCR JWST Rouan, D., Allard, F., Gendron, ?.,
NIRCam. Image credit: ESO. Charton, J., Mugnier, L., Rabou, P.,
20Next generation technology. NASA’s New Montri, J., Lacombe, F., 2009. A probable
Worlds Observer. 4-m telescope plus giant planet imaged in the ? Pictoris
starshade has star:planet limiting disk. Astronomy and Astrophysics 493,
contrast of 10-11 at IWA = 50 mas. L21–L25. Lyon, R.G., Clampin, M., 2012.
[http://newworlds.colorado.edu]. Space telescope sensitivity and controls
21Next generation technology. Optical for exoplanet imaging. Optical Engineering
vortex coronagraph. z. Mask. PP1. Lyot 51, 011002– 011002–15. Marois, C.,
Stop. Detector. L3. L1. L2. ?’, ?’. r, ? Macintosh, B., Barman, T., Zuckerman, B.,
?, ? O1. Song, I.S., Patience, J., Lafreniere, D.,
22Next generation technology. Optical Doyon, R., 2008. Direct Imaging of
vortex coronagraph. z. Mask. PP1. Lyot Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR
Stop. Detector. L3. L1. L2. ?’, ?’. r, ? 8799. Science 322, 1348–1352. Marois, C.,
?, ? O1. Zuckerman, B., Konopacky, Q.M., Macintosh,
23Next generation technology. Vortex B., Barman, T., 2010. Images of a fourth
coronagraph. [Serabyn et al. 2010]. planet orbiting HR 8799. Nature 468,
24Candidate stars. 1080–1083. Mohanty, S., Jayawardhana, R.,
25“Habitable” Zone. Image credit: Hu?lamo, N., Mamajek, E., 2007. The
NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech. Planetary Mass Companion 2MASS 1207-3932B:
26HabCat: A catalog of nearby Temperature, Mass, and Evidence for an
“habitable” systems. Originally targets Edge-on Disk. The Astrophysical Journal
selected for SETI Derived from the 657, 1064–1091. Serabyn, E., Mawet, D.,
Hipparcos catalog 17,129 stars out of Burruss, R., 2010. An image of an
about 118,218 Criteria for HabCat exoplanet separated by two diffraction
Candidates Stars must be at least 3 Gyr beamwidths from a star. Nature 464,
old. Stars must be non-variable. Stars 1018–1020. Sivaramakrishnan, A., Koresko,
must be capable of harboring terrestrial C.D., Makidon, R.B., Berkefeld, T.,
planets (measured by [Fe/H]). Stars must Kuchner, M.J., 2001. Ground?based
support a dynamically stable habitable Coronagraphy with High?Order Adaptive
zone. [Turnbull et al. 2003]. Optics. The Astrophysical Journal 552,
27The HabCat catalog. 397–408. Swartzlander, G.A., 2009. The
28Size of habitable zone. . [Turnbull optical vortex coronagraph. Journal of
et al. 2004]. Optics a-Pure and Applied Optics 11.
29Habitable Zone. . [Image Credit: Turnbull, M., Glassman, T., Roberge, A.,
ESO]. Lo, A., Cash, W., 2009. Looking for New
30Can we resolve planets in the HZ? . Earth in the Coming Decade with Direct
Diameter [m]. IWA [mas]. # of HabCat Imaging, in: Astro2010: The Astronomy and
Stars. 1. 226.9. 1. 2. 113.4. 9. 4. 56.7. Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Presented at
86. 8. 28.4. 1167. 16. 14.2. 9092. the astro2010: The Astronomy and
31Planet-Star Contrast. . [Lyon and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, p. 299.
Clampin 2012]. Turnbull, M.C., Tarter, J.C., 2003a.
32Luminosity Ratio of Earth-like planet. Target Selection for SETI. I. A Catalog of
. Plot of luminosity ratio of a Nearby Habitable Stellar Systems. The
terrestrial planet in the HZ of HabCat Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
stars. 145, 181–198. Turnbull, M.C., Tarter,
33Aperture Flux. . [Lyon and Clampin J.C., 2003b. Target Selection for SETI.
2012]. II. Tycho?2 Dwarfs, Old Open Clusters, and
34Aperture Flux of an Earth-like planet. the Nearest 100 Stars. The Astrophysical
Plot of aperture flux for a 6.5 m (JWST) Journal Supplement Series 149, 423–436.
aperture in the J-band due to a
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