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Do our planets move
Do our planets move
The scientific method is used to develop new scientific theories
The scientific method is used to develop new scientific theories
Early models of the universe attempted to explain the motion of the
Early models of the universe attempted to explain the motion of the
Ptolemy explained this motion using a geocentric (Earth-centered)
Ptolemy explained this motion using a geocentric (Earth-centered)
Ptolemy explained this motion using a geocentric (Earth-centered)
Ptolemy explained this motion using a geocentric (Earth-centered)
Nicolaus Copernicus developed the first heliocentric (sun-centered)
Nicolaus Copernicus developed the first heliocentric (sun-centered)
Nicolaus Copernicus developed the first heliocentric (sun-centered)
Nicolaus Copernicus developed the first heliocentric (sun-centered)
We define special positions of the planets in their orbits depending
We define special positions of the planets in their orbits depending
However, the cycle of these positions (a synodic period) is different
However, the cycle of these positions (a synodic period) is different
The apparent change in the location of an object due to the difference
The apparent change in the location of an object due to the difference
Because the parallax of the star was too small to measure, Tycho
Because the parallax of the star was too small to measure, Tycho
After Tycho Brahes death, Johannes Kepler (pictured here with Tycho
After Tycho Brahes death, Johannes Kepler (pictured here with Tycho
KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #1
KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #1
KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #2: A line joining the
KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #2: A line joining the
KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #3: The square of a
KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #3: The square of a
Galileo was the first to use a telescope to examine celestial objects
Galileo was the first to use a telescope to examine celestial objects
Galileo was the first to use a telescope to examine celestial objects
Galileo was the first to use a telescope to examine celestial objects
Galileo also discovered moons in orbit around the planet Jupiter
Galileo also discovered moons in orbit around the planet Jupiter
Isaac Newton formulated three laws to describe the fundamental
Isaac Newton formulated three laws to describe the fundamental
NEWTONS LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION Two objects attract each other
NEWTONS LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION Two objects attract each other
Newtons laws were applied to other objects in our solar system
Newtons laws were applied to other objects in our solar system
Newtons laws were applied to other objects in our solar system
Newtons laws were applied to other objects in our solar system
Newtons laws were applied to other objects in our solar system
Newtons laws were applied to other objects in our solar system
Do our planets move

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Do our planets move

Do our planets move.ppt
1Do our planets move? 15the Sun. Planet moves faster in its orbit
2WHAT DO YOU THINK? What makes a theory when closer to the Sun.
scientific? What is the shape of the 16KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY
Earths orbit around the Sun? Do the MOTION LAW #3: The square of a planets
planets orbit the Sun at constant speeds? sidereal period around the Sun is directly
Do all the planets orbit the Sun at the proportional to the cube of its semi-major
same speed? How much force does it take to axis. This law relates the amount of time
keep an object moving in a straight line for the planet to complete one orbit
at a constant speed? How does an objects around the Sun to the planets average
mass differ when measured on the Earth and distance from the Sun. If we measure the
on the Moon? orbital periods (P) in years and distances
3You will discover what makes a theory (a) in astronomical units, then the law
scientific clues suggesting that Earth is mathematically can be written as P2 = a3.
not the center of the universe the 17Galileo was the first to use a
scientific revolution that dethroned Earth telescope to examine celestial objects.
from its location at the center of the His discoveries supported a heliocentric
universe Copernicuss argument that the model of the solar system. Galileo
planets orbit the Sun why the direction of discovered that Venus, like the Moon,
motion of the planets on the celestial undergoes a series of phases as seen from
sphere sometimes appears to change that Earth. In the Ptolemaic (geocentric)
Keplers determination of the shapes of model, Venus would be seen in only new or
planetary orbits depended on the careful crescent phases. However, as Galileo
observations of his mentor, Tycho Brahe observed, Venus is seen in all phases,
how Isaac Newton formulated an equation to which agrees with the Copernican model as
describe the force of gravity how Isaac shown.
Newton explained why the planets and moons 18Galileo also discovered moons in orbit
remain in orbit. around the planet Jupiter. This was
4The scientific method is used to further evidence that the Earth was not
develop new scientific theories. the center of the universe.
Scientific theories are accepted when they 19Isaac Newton formulated three laws to
make testable predictions that can be describe the fundamental properties of
verified using new observations and physical reality. NEWTONS THREE LAWS OF
experiments. MOTION LAW #1: A body remains at rest or
5Early models of the universe attempted moves in a straight line at constant speed
to explain the motion of the five visible unless acted upon by a net outside force.
planets against the background of fixed LAW #2: The acceleration of an object is
stars. The main problem was that the proportional to the force acting on it.
planets do not move uniformly against the LAW #3: Whenever one body exerts a force
background of stars, but instead appear to on a second body, the second body exerts
stop, move backward, then move forward an equal and opposite force on the first
again. This backward motion is referred to body.
as retrograde motion. 20NEWTONS LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
6Ptolemy explained this motion using a Two objects attract each other with a
geocentric (Earth-centered) model of the force that is directly proportional to the
solar system in which the planets orbited product of their masses and inversely
the Earth indirectly, by moving on proportional to the square of the distance
epicycles which in turn orbited the Earth. between them. Newton also discovered that
7Nicolaus Copernicus developed the gravity, the force that causes objects to
first heliocentric (sun-centered) model of fall to the ground on Earth, is the same
the solar system. In this model, the force that keeps the Moon in its orbit
retrograde motion of Mars is seen when the around the Earth. With his laws, Newton
Earth passes Mars in its orbit around the was able to derive Keplers three laws, as
Sun. well as predict other possible orbits.
8We define special positions of the 21Newtons laws were applied to other
planets in their orbits depending where objects in our solar system. Using
they appear in our sky. For example, while Newtons methods, Edmund Halley worked out
at a conjunction, a planet will appear in the details of a comets orbit and
the same part of the sky as the Sun, while predicted its return. Deviations from
at opposition, a planet will appear Newtons Laws in the orbit of the planet
opposite the Sun in our sky. Uranus led to the discovery of the eighth
9However, the cycle of these positions planet, Neptune.
(a synodic period) is different from the 22WHAT DID YOU THINK? What makes a
actual orbital period of the planet around theory scientific? If it makes predictions
the Sun (a sidereal period) because both that can be objectively tested and
the Earth and the planet orbit around the potentially disproved. What is the shape
Sun. of the Earths orbit around the Sun?
10The apparent change in the location of Elliptical Do the planets orbit the Sun at
an object due to the difference in constant speeds? The closer a planet is to
location of the observer is called the Sun in its orbit, the faster it is
parallax. When a new star appeared in moving. It moves fastest at perihelion and
the sky during the 16th century, a Danish slowest at aphelion.
astronomer named Tycho Brahe reasoned that 23WHAT DID YOU THINK? Do all the planets
the distance of the object may be orbit the Sun at the same speed? No. A
determined by measuring the amount of planets speed depends on its average
parallax. distance from the Sun. How much force does
11Because the parallax of the star was it take to keep an object moving in a
too small to measure, Tycho knew that it straight line at a constant speed? Unless
had to be among the other stars, thus an object is subject to an outside force,
disproving the ancient belief that the it takes no force at all to keep it moving
heavens were fixed and unchangeable. in a straight line at a constant speed.
12After Tycho Brahes death, Johannes How does an objects mass differ when
Kepler (pictured here with Tycho in the measured on the Earth and on the Moon? Its
background) used Tychos observations to mass remains constant.
deduce the three laws of planetary motion. 24Key Terms. acceleration angular
13KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY momentum aphelion astronomical unit
MOTION LAW #1. The orbit of a planet configuration (of a planet) conjunction
around the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun conservation of angular momentum cosmology
at one focus. ellipse elongation focus (of an ellipse)
14The amount of elongation in a planets force Galilean moons (satellites) gravity
orbit is defined as its orbital heliocentric cosmology. hyperbola inferior
eccentricity. An orbital eccentricity of 0 conjunction Keplers laws kinetic energy
is a perfect circle while an eccentricity law of equal areas law of inertia
close to 1.0 is nearly a straight line. In light-year mass model momentum Newtons
an elliptical orbit, the distance from a laws of motion Occams razor opposition
planet to the Sun varies. The point in a parabola parallax parsec. perihelion
planets orbit closest to the Sun is physics potential energy retrograde motion
called perihelion, and the point farthest scientific method scientific theory
from the Sun is called aphelion. semimajor axis (of an ellipse) sidereal
15KEPLERS THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY period superior conjunction synodic period
MOTION LAW #2: A line joining the planet universal constant of gravitation
and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in universal law of gravitation velocity
equal intervals of time. Planet moves weight work.
slower in its orbit when farther away from
Do our planets move.ppt
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Do our planets move

Do our planets move

About Russia - Picture Window Books. 2004. Books to Read. What Russian Kids Do. Grolier. 1999. Some Famous Russians. Sarah DeCapua. Ann Berge. Moscow. More Good Websites. Cheryl L. Enderlein. Lets Learn About Russia. Lets visit some important cities in Russia. Russia is famous for (Click on each name for more information.).

My country Russia - It flows into the Caspian Sea. Summer temperatures in Russia from +1 to +40, and in winter from -1 to -50 degrees. The red colour has always meant love and bravery. Russia. The official language is Russian. This flag has three wide stripes on it. The capital of Russia - Moscow. The stripes are white, blue and red.

- . . It is located at the Kremlin wall in the Alexander Garden. . It is 17 feet long and has a caliber of 35 inches. Weighing 200 tons, it is 20 feet high and about 22 feet in diameter.

Russian revolution - Land Reform. Russian krestyanin. Katerina Breshkovskaia. Bloody Sunday. Potemkin Mutiny. Soviet of workers and soldiers deputies. Japanese and russian officers. Red Guards. Long live world october. Northwest Europe. Leon Trotsky. Bolsheviks storming the winter palace. Alexander Kerensky. Nicholas II opening the Duma.

Moscow sights - Choose the right answer. Game. . A Famous Sight of Moscow. St Basils Cathedral. The founder of the Tretyakov Gallery. . Read the sentence. Hospitable. Insert the articles where necessary.

Russia - Woods occupy over 40 % of territory. The sculpture "the native land calls mother in Volgograd. Russia democratic federal prezidentsko-parliamentary Capital the city of Moscow. The tsar a bellin Moscow. Welcome to Russia. Kremlin in Moscow. Monument Petr to the first "the copper horseman" in Sankt-Peterburge.

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