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 Do our planets move The scientific method is used to develop new scientific theories Early models of the universe attempted to explain the motion of the Ptolemy explained this motion using a geocentric (Earth-centered) Ptolemy explained this motion using a geocentric (Earth-centered) Nicolaus Copernicus developed the first heliocentric (sun-centered) Nicolaus Copernicus developed the first heliocentric (sun-centered) We define special positions of the planets in their orbits depending However, the cycle of these positions (a synodic period) is different The apparent change in the location of an object due to the difference Because the parallax of the “star” was too small to measure, Tycho After Tycho Brahe’s death, Johannes Kepler (pictured here with Tycho KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #1 KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #2: A line joining the KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION LAW #3: The square of a Galileo was the first to use a telescope to examine celestial objects Galileo was the first to use a telescope to examine celestial objects Galileo also discovered moons in orbit around the planet Jupiter Isaac Newton formulated three laws to describe the fundamental NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION Two objects attract each other Newton’s laws were applied to other objects in our solar system Newton’s laws were applied to other objects in our solar system Newton’s laws were applied to other objects in our solar system
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## Do our planets move

содержание презентации «Do our planets move.ppt»
 Сл Текст Сл Текст 1 Do our planets move? 15 the Sun. Planet moves faster in its orbit 2 WHAT DO YOU THINK? What makes a theory when closer to the Sun. scientific? What is the shape of the 16 KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY Earth’s orbit around the Sun? Do the MOTION LAW #3: The square of a planet’s planets orbit the Sun at constant speeds? sidereal period around the Sun is directly Do all the planets orbit the Sun at the proportional to the cube of its semi-major same speed? How much force does it take to axis. This law relates the amount of time keep an object moving in a straight line for the planet to complete one orbit at a constant speed? How does an object’s around the Sun to the planet’s average mass differ when measured on the Earth and distance from the Sun. If we measure the on the Moon? orbital periods (P) in years and distances 3 You will discover… what makes a theory (a) in astronomical units, then the law scientific clues suggesting that Earth is mathematically can be written as P2 = a3. not the center of the universe the 17 Galileo was the first to use a scientific revolution that dethroned Earth telescope to examine celestial objects. from its location at the center of the His discoveries supported a heliocentric universe Copernicus’s argument that the model of the solar system. Galileo planets orbit the Sun why the direction of discovered that Venus, like the Moon, motion of the planets on the celestial undergoes a series of phases as seen from sphere sometimes appears to change that Earth. In the Ptolemaic (geocentric) Kepler’s determination of the shapes of model, Venus would be seen in only new or planetary orbits depended on the careful crescent phases. However, as Galileo observations of his mentor, Tycho Brahe observed, Venus is seen in all phases, how Isaac Newton formulated an equation to which agrees with the Copernican model as describe the force of gravity how Isaac shown. Newton explained why the planets and moons 18 Galileo also discovered moons in orbit remain in orbit. around the planet Jupiter. This was 4 The scientific method is used to further evidence that the Earth was not develop new scientific theories. the center of the universe. Scientific theories are accepted when they 19 Isaac Newton formulated three laws to make testable predictions that can be describe the fundamental properties of verified using new observations and physical reality. NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF experiments. MOTION LAW #1: A body remains at rest or 5 Early models of the universe attempted moves in a straight line at constant speed to explain the motion of the five visible unless acted upon by a net outside force. planets against the background of “fixed” LAW #2: The acceleration of an object is stars. The main problem was that the proportional to the force acting on it. planets do not move uniformly against the LAW #3: Whenever one body exerts a force background of stars, but instead appear to on a second body, the second body exerts stop, move backward, then move forward an equal and opposite force on the first again. This backward motion is referred to body. as retrograde motion. 20 NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 6 Ptolemy explained this motion using a Two objects attract each other with a geocentric (Earth-centered) model of the force that is directly proportional to the solar system in which the planets orbited product of their masses and inversely the Earth indirectly, by moving on proportional to the square of the distance epicycles which in turn orbited the Earth. between them. Newton also discovered that 7 Nicolaus Copernicus developed the gravity, the force that causes objects to first heliocentric (sun-centered) model of fall to the ground on Earth, is the same the solar system. In this model, the force that keeps the Moon in its orbit retrograde motion of Mars is seen when the around the Earth. With his laws, Newton Earth passes Mars in its orbit around the was able to derive Kepler’s three laws, as Sun. well as predict other possible orbits. 8 We define special positions of the 21 Newton’s laws were applied to other planets in their orbits depending where objects in our solar system. Using they appear in our sky. For example, while Newton’s methods, Edmund Halley worked out at a conjunction, a planet will appear in the details of a comet’s orbit and the same part of the sky as the Sun, while predicted its return. Deviations from at opposition, a planet will appear Newton’s Laws in the orbit of the planet opposite the Sun in our sky. Uranus led to the discovery of the eighth 9 However, the cycle of these positions planet, Neptune. (a synodic period) is different from the 22 WHAT DID YOU THINK? What makes a actual orbital period of the planet around theory scientific? If it makes predictions the Sun (a sidereal period) because both that can be objectively tested and the Earth and the planet orbit around the potentially disproved. What is the shape Sun. of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun? 10 The apparent change in the location of Elliptical Do the planets orbit the Sun at an object due to the difference in constant speeds? The closer a planet is to location of the observer is called the Sun in its orbit, the faster it is parallax. When a new “star” appeared in moving. It moves fastest at perihelion and the sky during the 16th century, a Danish slowest at aphelion. astronomer named Tycho Brahe reasoned that 23 WHAT DID YOU THINK? Do all the planets the distance of the object may be orbit the Sun at the same speed? No. A determined by measuring the amount of planet’s speed depends on its average parallax. distance from the Sun. How much force does 11 Because the parallax of the “star” was it take to keep an object moving in a too small to measure, Tycho knew that it straight line at a constant speed? Unless had to be among the other stars, thus an object is subject to an outside force, disproving the ancient belief that the it takes no force at all to keep it moving “heavens” were fixed and unchangeable. in a straight line at a constant speed. 12 After Tycho Brahe’s death, Johannes How does an object’s mass differ when Kepler (pictured here with Tycho in the measured on the Earth and on the Moon? Its background) used Tycho’s observations to mass remains constant. deduce the three laws of planetary motion. 24 Key Terms. acceleration angular 13 KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY momentum aphelion astronomical unit MOTION LAW #1. The orbit of a planet configuration (of a planet) conjunction around the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun conservation of angular momentum cosmology at one focus. ellipse elongation focus (of an ellipse) 14 The amount of elongation in a planet’s force Galilean moons (satellites) gravity orbit is defined as its orbital heliocentric cosmology. hyperbola inferior eccentricity. An orbital eccentricity of 0 conjunction Kepler’s laws kinetic energy is a perfect circle while an eccentricity law of equal areas law of inertia close to 1.0 is nearly a straight line. In light-year mass model momentum Newton’s an elliptical orbit, the distance from a laws of motion Occam’s razor opposition planet to the Sun varies. The point in a parabola parallax parsec. perihelion planet’s orbit closest to the Sun is physics potential energy retrograde motion called perihelion, and the point farthest scientific method scientific theory from the Sun is called aphelion. semimajor axis (of an ellipse) sidereal 15 KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY period superior conjunction synodic period MOTION LAW #2: A line joining the planet universal constant of gravitation and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in universal law of gravitation velocity equal intervals of time. Planet moves weight work. slower in its orbit when farther away from Do our planets move.ppt
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## Do our planets move

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