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Academic Literacy
Academic Literacy
A Portrait of an Effective Teacher
A Portrait of an Effective Teacher
Comprehensible Input
Comprehensible Input
Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of
Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of
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Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of Classroom Practices

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1Effective Strategies for Developing 20difficulties encountered in gold mining
Academic English: A Study of Classroom Used visuals to teach about mining
Practices. Shanan Fitts, PhD, Appalachian techniques and about gold. Has visuals on
State University Erica Bowers, EdD, the PP and hands out visuals for each
University of California, Fullerton SE method of mining “Are the pictures I just
TESOL 2009 Atlanta, GA. passed out modern or from 1848?—what’s
2Rationale for Study. Increased testing different about this picture?” Used choral
mandates for ELLs English learners repetition to emphasize some key vocab and
struggle with text-level comprehension concepts. For example, “everyone say ore.
(August & Shanahan, 2006) Long-term That’s a noun; it’s not the same as “o-r”
English learners (Freeman & Freeman, “You swirl it around in the water and then
2009) Teachers of English language what did we say, is gold heavier or
learners report feeling ill-prepared lighter than the water?” SS: “Heavier!”
(Coley & Coleman, 2004). Increased Key words and idea are underlined or in
focus on the concept of academic English italics in the PowerPoint.
in PD and instructional programs Teaching 21Explicit Teaching. Models processes
advanced literacy is complicated (Fillmore and skills, strategies, or concepts
& Snow, 2000). 2. Strategy Instruction Use of Expository
3Purpose of Study. Observe upper Text Instruct academic language Explicitly
elementary teachers to see what strategies teaches vocabulary.
they used to build their students’ 22Writing Leveled Questions to Prepare
proficiency in academic English Observe for a Socratic Seminar.
classes with high percentages of ELLs. 23
4Research Questions. What kinds of 24Critical Thinking Question Stems. How
classroom teaching practices are upper did ____ feel about ____? What was ______
elementary teachers using to help students probably like? How is _____ different from
develop advanced proficiency with ____? Why couldn’t ____ do ________? Why
comprehending and using academic English? did _______ do ________? Why was
Which kinds of strategies do teachers ______________? How did ____________? What
report to be effective? Are these reported caused the __________ to ______? What will
strategies observed in the classroom? ____ do next? What probably would have
Which strategies appeared to be happened if __________?
effectively implemented? Of those 25Modeling with the Titanic. “I have
strategies observed, which needed further these stems that are gonna help me. A good
practice, explanation, or development? idea is to find a fact and go from there.
5Academic Literacy. Students must be Here’s an interesting fact: The Titanic
able to develop: Vocabulary Syntax was thought to be the world’s first
Discourse genres & Registers unsinkable ship. I’m gonna go with this
Identities (Bailey, 2007; Gee, 1996; first stem. How did the passengers feel
Gottlieb, 2006). about being on an unsinkable ship?” (Sts.
6Large urban school district in discuss this question with tables and with
Southern CA. Classrooms leveled according the class). “Okay, so first I’m going to
to student test performance 4- Excel or find an interesting fact; something that
Enriched 1- Literacy 3- no special makes me think. Here’s one (T underlines
designation All had students identified as the fact on the overhead)—the fact that
ELL “Normal” & Literacy classrooms only 700 people got on life boats, but the
higher % of ELLs at beginning & life boats were suppose to be for 1178
intermediate levels. people—that makes me think… that makes me
7Teacher Selection. Original pool of confused… so I’m gonna ask: “what caused
108 survey participants 28 teachers the boat to carry only 700 people”.
consented to participate observations 8 26Opportunities for Practice. Students
agreed to observations. orally elaborate concepts Variety of
8Teacher Selection. 1. 4. 1. 2. High grouping strategies Students use content
Self-Report on Survey of Strategies Used language Teachers integrate more than one
=> 3.0/4.0. Low Self-Report on Survey language skill Writing in content areas
of Strategies Used =<3.0/4.0. High Test Students practice academic language.
Scores (=>65% proficient or advanced on 27Students are given time to explain
CST in ELA). Lower Test Scores (=<49% their ideas. Lesson on colonial America:
proficient or advanced on CST in ELA). Ss had opportunities to tell something
9Overview of the PD. Year 4 of district they learned about life in colonial times
PD for Language Arts (SB 1066) A Focused during the previous day’s activity.
Approach (Dutro& Moran, 2003; EL “Scholars, if I didn’t call on you, please
Achieve) Form & Function Brick words– turn to your neighbor and tell them what
topic specific Mortar words– grammatical you were going to say.” e.g. S: traveling
forms & general vocabulary Use of wasn’t for fun in colonial times. T: what
sentence stems Frontloading (preteaching) do you mean? S: well they didn’t go on
Opportunities for sts to practice vacations or cruises. T: so when they
language. traveled it was because they had to and
10Overview of the Classroom not for fun. Good point.
Observations. Researcher-developed 28Opportunities for Practice. Half of
protocol Two researchers observed each the teachers we observed provided very few
lesson 4-6 lessons observed in each room structured opportunities for students to
Four broad areas: Schema building practice and apply academic language.
Comprehensible input Explicit Teaching of 29Summary of findings. Used graphic
Concepts and Skills Providing organizers effectively. Used leveled
Opportunities for Practice. questions & sentence stems. Used
11Overview of the Classroom explicit teaching but also allowed for
Observations. 0-3 Rating scale 0 = Not student construction of knowledge. Used a
Observed 1= Shows ineffective variety of grouping strategies to scaffold
implementation; limited understanding of student participation. Gave students
strategies. Done w/out considering sts opportunities to elaborate or clarify
needs 2= Partial implementation. Meeting ideas and oral output. Teachers that rated
some sts. needs & trying to take some higher… Teachers that rated lower… Used
sts. needs/prior knowledge into some graphic organizers, but with a lot of
consideration 3= Effective implementation teacher talk. Followed scripted
of strategy. Meets the needs of the curriculum; not always aware of Ss needs,
student. interest, or level of comprehension.
12A Portrait of an Effective Teacher. Relied mostly on whole class teaching with
Higher level of student engagement Higher less structured use of grouping
teacher engagement Differentiation strategies. Used I-R-E which allowed for
Applying strategies thoughtfully shorter responses from students.
Responding to needs of sts Aware of 30Limitations of current study. Limited
strengths & weaknesses Look to number of observations in each teacher’s
teaching not blaming sts. class All observations conducted at end of
13Findings for each area. the year within one month Unable to
14Effective Schema Building. Activate collect detailed data on student output
prior knowledge (student’s personal Using CST scores to measure efficacy of
experiences) Link past to prior content teacher when classes are leveled.
learning Use of graphic organizers or 31Conclusion. All teachers were using
semantic webs to assess & elicit prior strategies learned in PD Some following
knowledge Preview or teaching vocabulary. script Others incorporating these into
15T: ….what kind of map is this? SS: their approach and responding to Ss needs
Bridge map. T: the line on this bridge map Each area reinforces the others Connecting
is going to represent “means.” Where have theory to practice: Some teachers seemed
you heard ped or pod before? Hands down, I to understand why particular strategies
want to give you time to think. (2 sec) were important and were able to
Okay share with your table. SS: i-pod T: communicate that to students Variation in
not a brand name (T uses selector spinner teachers’ ability to incorporate and apply
on overhead to select students from tables strategies Teachers applied GATE training
to share.) St: pedicure. (T writes on the Limitations of scripted curricula What is
circle map and asks st what the word our definition of effective? Is effective
means). (Other sts offer words and just a matter of getting the S achievement
informal definitions.) T: okay we have on standardized tests?
lots of words that have ped in them (names 32References. August, D., &
words and underlines the ped part of the Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing
word). I want you to think on your literacy in second-language learners:
own—what do all of these words have in Report of the national literacy panel on
common (no wait time for thinking here) language-minority children and youth.
talk to your table. St—they all have ped. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bailey, A.
T: we already know that they all have L. (Ed.). (2007). The language demands of
ped—I want you to think about the meaning school: Putting academic English to the
of the words. What do all of the meanings test. New Haven, CT: Yale University
have in common? Press. Coley, R. J. & Coleman, A. B.
16Effective Comprehensive Input. (2004). The fourth-grade reading
Emphasizes distinctive features of new classroom: Policy information report .
concepts Provides examples and/or Princeton, NJ; Educational Testing
non-examples to illustrate new Service. (ERIC Document Reproduction
skills/concepts/strategies Breaks down Service No. ED 485193) Dutro, S. &
skills /strategies/concepts into Moran, C. (2003) Rethinking English
smaller/simpler components Provides clear language instruction: An architectural
input about the concept or content approach. In G. Garcia (Ed.), English
Clarifies instructions Wait time Leveled language learners: Reaching the highest
questions or tasks. level of English literacy. Newark: IRA. E.
17Comprehensible Input. Teachers L. Achieve. (n.d.). Focused approach -
emphasize key concepts & vocab Overview presentation. Retrieved July 29,
Repetition Choral response Visuals 2009, from http://www.elachieve.org/
Teachers are animated: Gestures, Freeman, D. E., & Freeman, Y. S.
expression, engaged teaching Teachers (2009). Academic language for English
chunk & scaffold: Reading around the language learners and struggling readers:
room. How to help students succeed across the
18Comprehensible Input. content areas. Gee, J. P. (1996). Social
http://www.sikhspectrum.com/092002/images/ linguistics and literacies: Ideology in
old_panning.jpg. discourses (2nd ed.). London: Taylor &
19Clarifies Instructions What tools will Francis. Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing
we be using? (the pick and the shovel) English Language Learners: Bridges from
Wrote the different mining techniques that language proficiency to academic
they had discussed on the board Rephrases achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
to clarify: What is the same about those Press. Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building
pictures? What is one similarity? background knowledge for academic
20Emphasizes distinct features of achievement. Alexandria,VA: Association
concepts and provides examples Used for Supervision and Curriculum
hands-on activity to emphasize some of the Development. 32.
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