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 WHY? Matter is made up of atoms Experiment l.l Like charges repel; unlike charges attract Experiment 1.2 Experiment 1.2 Charging by sharing Earthing Charging by Contact Charging by Contact A charged object discharges easily when the air contains more ions Objects are classified as electrical conductors ( Charge distribution Charging by induction: Charging by induction: Negative charges are induced on the side closer to the rod and I understand now I know the same phenomenon can be observed when a charged rod is Section 3 Applications of electrostatics Electrostatic precipitation Photocopying Electrostatic hazards #Flying aeroplanes and moving vehicles accumulate charges too #Charges accumulated in clouds are carried to the earth through
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## ELECTROSTICS

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 Сл Текст Сл Текст 1 ELECTROSTICS. 17 1.11 An uncharged sphere becomes negative 2 WHY? When I was a primary student,my after touching negatively charged sphere. teacher told me to rub my plastic ruler by 18 Dsicharging through air. Air contains using a piece of cloth. As a result, the positive ions and free electrons. When a ruler attracted pieces of small paper positively charged rods is left in the automatically. air, the rod gradually attracts free 3 Section 1 Electric charges and forces. electrons into it. The positive charge is 4 Matter is made up of atoms. An atom then neutralized by the electrons. When a contains positive charges and negative negatively charged rod is left in the air, charges. The negative charges are due to the excess electrons are gradually lost the electrons. The atom as a whole is into the air and neutralize the positive neutral; the quantity of positive charge ions. In both cases, the rod is said to and negative charge are equal. There is discharge through air. -. +. -. +. -. + + empty space. The electrons are easily to + + +. - - - - -. +. -. +. -. +. *Fig lose away. 1.12. Positive rod. Negative rod. Positive 5 Electrons can be transferred from one ions and free electrons in air. atom to another. When an electron is 19 A charged object discharges easily removed from a molecule, the molecule when the air contains more ions. This can contains more positive charges than be done by heating the air with a negative charges. In other words, it flame(Fig l.12) or hot body, or contains net positive charges . It becomes irradiating it with a radioactive source. a positive ion (??). +. Positive ion. In these processes, many ions and free Neutral Atom. electron. electrons are produced. A charged object 6 When an electron is added to an atom, also discharges more easily when the air the atom contains more negative charges contains a lot of moisture. It discharges than positive charges. It has a net less easily when the air is dry. *Fig negative charge. We say the atom is 1.12. negatively charged; it becomes a negative 20 Section 2 Conductors and insulator. ion. +. Negative ion. Electron. Neutral 21 Objects are classified as electrical Atom. conductors (??) or insulators (???). In a 7 The quantity of electric charge is conductor, the charges can move easily expressed in the unit coulomb (C). An from one place to another. On the hand, in electron carries a charge of e = -1.6 x 10 an insulator, the charges cannot move -19 C The negative sign means the charge easily. Electrons are free to move in is negative. -19. conductor. *Fig 2.1. 8 Experiment l.l. Charging by friction. 22 Conductors and insulators are not two Rub two acetate strips with a dry woolen distinct class of material. Good cloth and hold them side by side. The insulators are bad conductors and vice strips repel each other. Repeat with two versa. Even the best insulator can allow a rubbed polythene strips. The strips also very small flow of charge. Similarly, repel each other.(Fig 1.4) Repeat with an charges are not completely free in a acetate strip and polythene strip. The conductor. Metals are the most common strips attract each other. conductors while non-metals are usually 9 Discussion of Experiment 1.1. Before insulators. Some common conductors and an acetate strips is rubbed, it contains insulators are listed below. Conductors. the same quantity of positive and negative Insulator. Silver copper aluminium charges. The strip is neutral because graphite water. Vacuum plastics wax dry there is no net charge. The same is true air wood. Earth, human body. In decending for the woolen cloth. When the acetate order of goodness. strip is rubbed, some electrons in the 23 Charge distribution. For a conducting strip are transferred to the cloth . As a sphere, the excess charges settle evenly result, the strip contains more positive on the surface (Fig 2.2). For a conductor charges than negative charges. It has a of irregular shape, the charge density is net positive charge. On the other hand, higher at sharp points. *Fig 2.2 It is the the cloth is negatively charged because it same of positive ions. contains more negative charges than 24 Charging by induction. The positive charges. When a polythene strip distribution of charges on a conductor is is rubbed, it is negatively charged while also affected by charges outside. Fig 2.3 the cloth is positively charged. Some shows a charged rod (which may be a electrons in the cloth have been conductor or an insulator) brought near a transferred to the strip. neutral conductor. The positive charges in 10 Like charges repel; unlike charges the rod attract unlike charges in the attract. Different material strips attract conductor to the side closer to the rod each other. Same material strips repel and push the like charges to the far side. each other. *Fig 1.5. There are forces The conductor is charged locally. But on called electric forces (??), which cause the whole it still remains neutral. This the strips repel or attract each other. phenomenon is called electric induction 11 In all cases, no new charges are (???). The charges separated in the produced in the rubbing process. The conductor are called induced charges. The charges are merely separated. They are more charges the cod contains and closer transferred from one object to the other is the rod to the conductor, the more through direct contact of the two objects. charges are induced. rod. + + + +. -. -. - The quantity of charge obtained by one -. ++. + +. conductor. *Fig 2.3. object is equal to the quantity of 25 Charging by induction: Alternatively, opposite charge obtained by the other. The *Fig 2.4. *Fig 2.5. net charge of the two objects taken 26 Negative charges are induced on the together remains zero. Charge cannot be side closer to the rod and positive created or destroyed. Principle of charges on the far side. The attractive conservation of charge. force between the positively charged rod 12 Experiment 1.2. Experiment 1.2. and the negative charges on the aluminium Charging by pushing. Connect one strip to piece is larger than the repulsive force the positive terminal and the other to the between the rod and the positive charges. negative terminal (Fig 1.7). The strips As a result, there is a net attractive attract each other. Connect two aluminium force between the rod and the aluminium strips to the positive terminal of the piece. *Fig 2.6 The pieces are attracted extra high tension (EHT) power supply as towards the rod. Attraction of neutral shown below. The strips repel each other. objects. *Fig 1.6. *Fig 1.7. 27 I understand now. Thank you! *Fig 2.7. 13 When both strips are connected to the For the same reason, tiny paper strips are positive terminal, the EHT power supply attracted towards a charged object. draws electrons from the strips, which 28 I know the same phenomenon can be then become positively charged. For observed when a charged rod is brought simplicity, we may say that the EHT power near a stream of running water. supply pushes positive charges onto the 29 Section 3 Applications of strips. When the strips are connected to electrostatics. different terminals, the power supply 30 Electrostatic precipitation. *Fig 3.1. pushes positive charges onto one strip 31 Photocopying. *Fig 3.2. through the positive terminal and negative 32 Electrostatic hazards. Static charges charges onto the other strip through the accumulate easily on insulators due to negative terminal. The charge are friction. This causes a nuisance in many transferred by conduction. Discussion of respects. ~ When you comb your hair on a Experiment 1.2. dry day. You can feel the pull on you hair 14 Charging by sharing. Experiment 1.3. by the static charges produced. No need to *Fig 1.7. mention this point!! *Fig 3.3. 15 The Van de Graff generator generates 33 #Flying aeroplanes and moving vehicles charges. The Hairs share the same type of accumulate charges too. Aeroplanes are charge with the generator by conduction. fitted with conductive tyres so that the Discussion of Experiment 1.3. charges are carried to the earth upon 16 Earthing. Fig 1.8 shows a charged landing. If not, a spark may occur during metal ball electrically connected to the refuel and may cause fires and even ground. This can be done by connecting the explosions. Oil trucks prevent such metal ball and the ground with a wire, or accidents by carrying a conductive belt or simply by touching the ball with the metal chain touching the ground.(Fig 3.4). finger. Since the earth is a huge object, *Fig 3.4. it practically obtains all the charges 34 #Charges accumulated in clouds are from the ball, which then becomes neutral. carried to the earth through lightning In fact, any charged metal will be during a thunderstorm. To prevent the completely discharged as result of lightning from hitting tall buildings, earthing or grounding. +. +. +. +. *Fig lightning conductors (???) are installed 1.9 Symbol for earth. *Fig 1.8. ground. on the rooftop. Help! *Fig 3.4 The 17 Charging by Contact. *Fig 1.10 An lightning conductor is a lonfg copper uncharged sphere becomes positive after strip . touching positively charged sphere. *Fig 35 THE. END. ELECTROSTICS.ppt
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