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Common Terms for ELL
Common Terms for ELL
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English Language Learners

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1English Language Learners. School 16minority students, ethnicity still
Issues. significantly influences achievement.
2Common Terms for ELL. English Language 17Factors associated with
Learners (ELL) Limited English Proficient Disproportionality. Systemic school bias
(LEP) Second-Language Learner (SLL) occurring in instruction, referral, and
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse assessment. Unequal resources for the
(CLD) Bilingual. school Bias in who gets referred and in
3Title VII of Improving America’s some schools there is the lack of
School Act (1994). LEP: has sufficient pre-referral interventions. Assessments
difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or done without adequate training, using
understanding the English language and wrong practices, and illegally.
whose difficulties may deny such Noncompliance w/State & Fed
individual the opportunity to learn Guidelines. How often are students
successfully in classrooms where the assessed in native language? How well are
language of instruction is English Federal exclusionary clauses addressed?
definition was often reflected in state 18Factors associated with
definitions as well. State methods of Disproportionality. School accountability
identifying are found on pages 4-5. requirements Lack of accountability except
4Review Data in School Records. Was through English-only group administered
child appropriately placed (or not) as testing. Lack of appropriate monitoring to
LEP? What is family history/ background? ensure that laws are being followed.
What is child’s educational background? Ambiguity in how different disability
Has the child progressed while in the U.S. categories are defined and constructed.
academically? What might have been This is particularly problematic in the
overlooked by the referral team? mild disability areas. These shift from
5LEP Students Differ by… Variations in state to state, reauthorization to
degrees of proficiency across both reauthorization, and sometimes from
languages. Sequential versus simultaneous psychologist to psychologist within the
bilingualism Did they learn both languages same district or school.
at the same time or did they learn one 19What’s the problem? Historically,
first and then the other second? Elective special education has too often been a
versus circumstantial bilingualism Did place -- a place to segregate minorities
they actively want to learn another and students with disabilities…. To the
language or did they have to learn a extent that minority students are
second language in order to survive? misclassified, segregated, or inadequately
62nd Language Acquisition. BICS: Basic served, special education can contribute
Inter-communication Skills CALP: Cognitive to a denial of equality of opportunity,
Academic Language Proficiency Tip of the with devastating results in communities
Iceberg. Cummins, J. (1979). throughout the nation. Civil Rights
7Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey, Project (2000).
Revised (WMLS-R). Rating System 1 = 20Group Project: Solutions to the
Negligible 2 = Very Limited 3 = Limited 4 Problems. As a class, review pages 36-40.
= Fluent 5 = Advanced Measures the Group 1: Discuss systemic-wide changes
following areas Oral Language Domain that a state might make to improve things.
Reading/ Writing Domain. Group 2: Discuss district-wide changes
8Tip of the Iceberg. WMLS-R: Level 1. that a district could do. Group 3: Discuss
BICS. WMLS-R: Level 3. WMLS-R: Level 5. school-wide changes that a school might
CALP. WMLS-R: Language Proficiency Test. do. Group 4: Discuss classroom specific
9Case Scenarios. Case 1 Spanish Oral changes that a teacher might do.
Lang. = 4 Read/Write = 2 English Oral 21Informed Parental Consent. Definition
Lang. = 3 Read/Write = 1. Case 2 Spanish of “Consent”: parent be fully informed, in
Oral Lang. = 1 Read/Write = 2 English Oral his or her native language (or other mode
Lang. = 1 Read/Write = 1. of communication) of all relevant
10Group Project. Case 1 Spanish Oral information for which consent is sought.
Lang. = 4 Read/Write = 1 English Oral Must be: Knowledgeable: Know what they are
Lang. = 2 Read/Write = 2. Case 2 Spanish consenting to. Legally Competent: No judge
Oral Lang. = 2 Read/Write = 1 English Oral has said that they can’t do it. Voluntary:
Lang. = 5 Read/Write = 4. Cannot be forced or cooerced.
11Disproportionality in SPED. 22Native Language. Language normally
Definition: When the percentage of one used by the parents of the child, unless
cultural group placed in special education this differs from the language normally
is not proportional to the percentage of used by the child. In all direct contact
that cultural group in the population. The (including the evaluation) the language
worst problems with disproportionality are should be that normally used in home or
found in MR,SLD, and SED. When poverty is learning.
removed as a variable, disproportionality 23Evaluation Procedures. Selected and
based on ethnicity decreases, but it is administered so as to not discriminate on
still apparent. racial or cultural bias. Provided in
12National Research Council (2002) and child’s native language or other mode of
Parrish (2002). African American compared communication unless it is clearly not
to white 135%-188% more likely to be dx MR feasible to do so. Measures the need for
59%-92% more likely to be dx ED Native SPED services not the need for bilingual
American compared to white 24%-50% more education services. This includes formal
likely to be dx SLD 31% more likely to be or informal testing in both English and
dx MR 12%-24% more likely to be dx ED child’s native language. If there is not a
Hispanics 7-17%% more likely to be dx SLD person available in your district to do
13-23%% less likely to be dx MR Most this, then you must find one from outside
groups more likely to be dx MR in states of your district to do so. Must evaluate
with larger diverse populations. if the primary cause meets one of the
13Least Restrictive Environment. exclusionary clauses.
Hispanics and African Americans are more 24Parents Participation in Meetings.
likely to be placed in more restrictive General Meetings Parents are members of
environments than whites. In California the group making decisions. Make
(2002) Native Americans, Hispanics, reasonable efforts to ensure that parents
African Americans, and Asian/ Pacific understand and can participate in any
Islanders in special education classrooms meeting. To do this a translator may be
were placed in self-contained to a greater needed. For IEP meetings School shall take
extent than was warranted based on their whatever action necessary to ensure that
disabilities. ~8-9% over assignment for the parent understands the meeting.
each of these groups concerned. 25IEP. Schools are required to provide
14The little guys… Birth to 2 General children with alternative language
Population 18.2% are Hispanic Children services to: Enable them to acquire
served in sped 14.9% are Hispanic proficiency in English. Provide them with
Preschool General Population 17.2% are meaningful access to the content of the
Hispanic Children served in sped 12% are educational curriculum available to all
Hispanic. children. The IEP must describe which
15Other end of the spectrum… Probability language services will be provided to the
of dx gifted compared to whites Asian/ student.
Pacific Islanders: 34% greater Native 26Group Project: Student. You have
American: 35% less Hispanics: 52% less received a referral on your desk for a
African Americans: 59% less. child whose native language is Spanish.
16Factors associated with The school district has no paid
Disproportionality. Deficit view about translators and no tests except RIAS,
culturally diverse students. Students will WJ-III, KTEA-II What are legal and ethical
rise to the level of expectations issues in assessing this child? What are
Sociological and economic characteristics legal and ethical issues that need to be
of culturally diverse families and addressed in the eligibility meeting? What
communities SES shows the largest amount are legal and ethical issues that need to
of influence over academic achievement. be addressed in developing the IEP? How do
However, although SES is a large you deal with this dilemma given that the
contributor to poor school achievement for school is saying they will not budge?
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English Language Learners

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