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Organs of speech
Organs of speech
Diagram of Cardinal Vowels
Diagram of Cardinal Vowels
/e/ and /
/e/ and /
/? / and /
/? / and /
/?/ and /
/?/ and /
/?/ and /u:/
/?/ and /u:/
/?:/ and /
/?:/ and /
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English Phonetics and Phonology

содержание презентации «English Phonetics and Phonology.ppt»
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1English Phonetics and Phonology. Eha 24onion, come, among, ton, won -ou enough,
M?ngel Tallinn University. double, touch, southern -ee threepence -oe
2Phonetics - a theory about speech does -oo blood, flood -wo twopence.
sounds, describing the sounds that we use 25Comparison. Estonian kapp samm kamm
in speaking Phonology - explains how English cup some come.
phonemes function in language, the 26Spelling /?:/. Common: -ar art, park,
relationships among different phonemes. star, argue, departure -a after, staff,
3The course will focus on. English father, class, gasp, answer Less common:
sounds Intonation and rhythm -al calf, half, calve, halve, salve, calm,
Transcription. palm -ah Brahmin are are -au aunt, laugh,
4Phoneme - a unit within a set of units draught -ear heart, hearth -er clerk,
as the basis of our speech. If we put one sergeant, Derby, Berkeley.
of these units in the place of one of the 27Comparison. Estonian paat kaar maast
others, we can change the meaning of the English part car mast.
word Allophone – different realisations of 28/?/ and /?:/. FRONT CENTRAL BACK.
one and the same unit. CLOSE. MID-OPEN. OPEN.
5Organs of speech. 29Spelling /?/. Common: -o ox, not,
6Classification of Speech Sounds. doll, shone, gone BUT: front,
Vowels Consonants. tongue,sponge etc. Less common: -a wash,
7General Articulatory Characters. swan, quarrel BUT: wax, swam -au sausage,
Relatively low position of the tongue More cauliflower, Austria, Laurence -eau
retracted articulation Relative absence of bureaucracy -ou cough, Gloucester, trough
lip-rounding and protrusion Laxness. -ow knowledge -ach yacht.
8Vowels. Monophthongs diphthongs 12 30Comparison. Estonian: mokk sokk oks
monophthongs: 7 short: ?, e, ?, ? , ?, ?, nokk English: mock sock ox knock.
? and 5 long: i: , ?: , ?: , з: , u: 7 31Spelling /?:/. Common: -or or, form,
diphthongs: 5 closing: e?, a?, ??, a?, ?? cord, sort -al chalk, talk, Baltic, Malta
and 2 (3) centring: e?, ??, (??). BUT album,Albert, palm,calm -ar war,
9Intonation. Stress Rise Fall Rise-fall reward, quarter BUT:card,larder -au
Fall-rise. autumn, pause, launch - aw awful, lawn,
10Rhythm. Tone unit Prominent syllable jaw Less common: -augh daughter, taught
Tonic syllable Tone unit border mark // I -augha- Maugham -as Arkansas.
hurried across and turned around the 32-awe awe -oa oar, broad -ough ought,
corner and started to walk I hurrried fought, brought -ou pour, court, source,
across// and turned around the corner// four -wor sword.
and started to walk. 33Comparison. Estonian: tool pool moon
11Diagram of Cardinal Vowels. English: tall Paul mourn.
12Comparison. Estonian niit piik siil 34/?/ and /u:/. FRONT CENTRAL BACK.
siin kiin English neat peak seal scene CLOSE. MID-OPEN. OPEN.
keen. 35Spelling /?/. Common: -oo good, book,
13Spelling i: All –ee: heel, sleep, keen took, foot, stood,wool -u put, full, pull,
Most –ea: steal, meat, read -e: be, me Less common: -ou could, should, would -o
Less common: -i : machine, police -ie : woman, wolf, Wocester.
field, piece -ei : receive -ey : key. 36Comparison. Estonian pukk tukk kukk
14Comparison. Estonian tipp lipp pikk English book took cook.
English tip lip pick. 37Spelling /u:/. Common: -oo tool, roof,
15Spelling I Common: -i : if, film, his zoo, food, boot -u plume, rule, June, rude
-e : verb endings and plurals: started, -ew flew, chew, Jew, grew -o do,move,
dances Exceptions: -o : women -u : busy -a Domesday, tomb, womb -ou group, rouble,
: village. sou -ue blue, true, sue -ui suit, bruise,
16Limerick. There was an Old Man of the juice, cruise, recruit -eu sleuth,
East, Who gave all his children a feast; rheumatism -oe shoe, canoe.
But they all ate so much, And their 38-oeu manoeuvre -ough through -wo two
conduct was such, That it killed that Old -uc Tucson.
Man of the East. 39Spelling /ju:/. -u unit, humour,
17was Man East, gave children feast; all perfume -ue cue, due, residue eu
much, conduct such, killed Man East. eucalyptus -ew few, curfew -eau beauty ewe
18/e/ and /? /. ewe -ieu adieu -iew view yew yew.
19Spelling /e/. Common: -e end, bed, 40Comparison. Estonian tuul tuum English
letter -ea dead, health, deaf, jealous tool tomb.
Less common: -a any, ate, Thames, Pall 41/?:/ and /?/. FRONT CENTRAL BACK.
Mall -ai said, against -ay says -ei CLOSE. MID-OPEN. OPEN.
leisure, heifer, Leicester -eo leopard, 42Spelling /з:/. Common: -ur curly, fur,
jeopardy -u bury. occur, urn -urr purr, ocurred BUT:
20Comparison. Estonian: test sett tennis occurrance -er permit, person, refer,
English: test set tennis. Ernest -err err, referred -ir dirty, firm,
21Spelling /?/. Common -a add, apple, sir, Irving -irr stirred, whirr -ear
rat, Less common: -ai plaid, plait -al search, earth, rehearse, earn -eur
salmon. amateur, Fleur -or word, work, worse,
22Comparison. Estonian: m?nd k?tt p?kk attorney.
English: man cat pack. 43Less common: -our courtesy, journal
23/? / and /?: /. FRONT CENTRAL BACK. -ere were -olo colonel -yr myrtle.
CLOSE. MID-OPEN. OPEN. 44Comparison. Estonian k??k s?? p??r
24Spelling /?/. Common: -u up, begun, English Kirk sir purr.
luck, republic, frustrate, Less common: -o
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English Phonetics and Phonology

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