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ESCHATOLOGY: The Last Things
ESCHATOLOGY: The Last Things
ESCHATOLOGY: The Last Things
ESCHATOLOGY: The Last Things
Death
Death
Revelation 6: 8 I looked, and there was a pale green horse
Revelation 6: 8 I looked, and there was a pale green horse
Immediately after Death: Particular Judgment
Immediately after Death: Particular Judgment
The constant faith of the Church attests to the faith in the
The constant faith of the Church attests to the faith in the
The constant faith of the Church attests to the faith in the
The constant faith of the Church attests to the faith in the
That death as a separation of the soul from the body is graphically
That death as a separation of the soul from the body is graphically
That death as a separation of the soul from the body is graphically
That death as a separation of the soul from the body is graphically
The Magisterium of the Church has confirmed throughout centuries the
The Magisterium of the Church has confirmed throughout centuries the
Council of Lyons II, 1274 "We believe
Council of Lyons II, 1274 "We believe
Reincarnation
Reincarnation
Being Taken Up Into Heaven
Being Taken Up Into Heaven
Clement of Alexandria Stromata, Book 7, Ch
Clement of Alexandria Stromata, Book 7, Ch
Gehenna Outside Jerusalem
Gehenna Outside Jerusalem
Gehenna Outside Jerusalem
Gehenna Outside Jerusalem
Matthew 25: 31-46 (Then Jesus told the crowds and his disciples:
Matthew 25: 31-46 (Then Jesus told the crowds and his disciples:
Abraham replied, 'My child, remember that you received what was good
Abraham replied, 'My child, remember that you received what was good
The Fathers of the Church reflect the constant faith of the Church on
The Fathers of the Church reflect the constant faith of the Church on
Gregory of Nyssa, The Great Catechism, Ch
Gregory of Nyssa, The Great Catechism, Ch
The teaching Magisterium of the Church has also affirmed the existence
The teaching Magisterium of the Church has also affirmed the existence
Vatican Council I, 1869-70 "Therefore, all who die in actual mortal
Vatican Council I, 1869-70 "Therefore, all who die in actual mortal
Vatican Council I, 1869-70 "Therefore, all who die in actual mortal
Vatican Council I, 1869-70 "Therefore, all who die in actual mortal
Purgatory
Purgatory
Purgatory is defined as a state of being, the continuing process of
Purgatory is defined as a state of being, the continuing process of
Isaiah 6:5-7 Then I (Isaiah) said, "Woe is me, I am doomed
Isaiah 6:5-7 Then I (Isaiah) said, "Woe is me, I am doomed
Scripture from the Greek Septuagint, the Old Testament of Christ, the
Scripture from the Greek Septuagint, the Old Testament of Christ, the
Experience teaches us that there are people who die so suddenly, they
Experience teaches us that there are people who die so suddenly, they
Catechism of the Catholic Church, Section 1261 As regards children who
Catechism of the Catholic Church, Section 1261 As regards children who
The Parousia: Christ's Second Coming
The Parousia: Christ's Second Coming
1 Thessalonians 4:16-18 For the Lord himself, with a word of command,
1 Thessalonians 4:16-18 For the Lord himself, with a word of command,
Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the Dead
Christians pray and affirm their belief in a general judgment in the
Christians pray and affirm their belief in a general judgment in the
and scrolls were opened
and scrolls were opened
The New Creation
The New Creation
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1ESCHATOLOGY: The Last Things. © 1985 – 5512:29 For our God is a consuming fire.
2005, Robert Schihl and Paul Flanagan. Hebrews 12:6,10 For whom the Lord loves,
2Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven. he disciplines; he scourges every son he
Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of acknowledges. ... but he does so for our
the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity. benefit, in order that we may share his
3Revelation 6: 8 I looked, and there holiness.
was a pale green horse. Its rider was 56Isaiah 6:5-7 Then I (Isaiah) said,
named Death, and Hades accompanied him. "Woe is me, I am doomed! For I am a
They were given authority over a quarter man of unclean lips, living among a people
of the earth, to kill with sword, famine, of unclean lips; yet my eyes have seen the
and plague, and by means of the beasts of King, the Lord of hosts!" Then one of
the earth. the seraphim flew to me, holding an ember
4Death. Christians believe that human which he had taken with tongs from the
death closes the state of human life or altar. He touched my mouth with it.
the time of probation. Scripture speaks of "See," he said, "now that
death in many ways: as a return to dirt this has touched your lips, your
(Genesis 3:19); as a departure (2 Timothy wickedness is removed, your sin
4:6; Philippians 1:23); to be at home (2 purged."
Corinthians 5:8-9); a discarding of a tent 571 Corinthians 3:11-15 For no one can
(2 Peter 1: 13-14); a sleeping (Matthew lay a foundation other than the one that
9:24, John 11:11-13); a rest (Revelation is there, namely, Jesus Christ. If anyone
14:13); a return to God (Ecclesiastes builds on this foundation with gold,
12:7); to be with Christ (Philippians silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or
1:23); and to live with Christ (2 Timothy straw, the work of each will come to
2:11). light, for the Day will disclose it. It
5Ecclesiastes 12:5-7 Because man goes will be revealed with fire, and the fire
to his lasting home, and mourners go about (itself) will test the quality of each
the streets; Before the silver cord is one's work. If the work stands that
snapped and the golden bowl is broken, And someone built upon the foundation, that
the pitcher is shattered at the spring, person will receive a wage. But if
and the broken pulley falls into the well, someone's work is burned up, that one will
And the dust returns to the earth as it suffer loss; the person will be saved, but
once was, and the life breath returns to only as through fire. 1 Pet 1:7 The
God who gave it. 2 Corinthians 5:1 For we genuineness of your faith, more precious
know that if our earthly dwelling, a tent, than gold that is perishable even though
should be destroyed, we have a building tested by fire, may prove to be for
from God, a dwelling not made with hands, praise, glory, and honor at the revelation
eternal in heaven. 2 Corinthians 5:4 For of Jesus Christ.
while we are in this tent we groan and are 58Jesus implies that our sins can be
weighed down, because we do not wish to be forgiven in the next world. Matthew 12:32
unclothed but to be further clothed, so And whoever speaks a word against the Son
that what is mortal may be swallowed up by of Man will be forgiven; but whoever
life. speaks against the holy Spirit will not be
62 Corinthians 5:8 Yet we are forgiven, either in this age or in the age
courageous, and we would rather leave the to come.
body and go home to the Lord. 2 Timothy 59Scripture from the Greek Septuagint,
4:6 For I am already being poured out like the Old Testament of Christ, the
a libation, and the time of my departure Evangelists and Paul, and of the councils
is at hand. Philippians 1:21-23 For to me of Hippo and Carthage, affirm purgatory.
life is Christ, and death is gain. If I go 602 Macabees 12:42-46 Turning to
on living in the flesh, that means supplication, they prayed that the sinful
fruitful labor for me. And I do not know deed might be fully blotted out. The noble
which I shall choose. I am caught between Judas warned the soldiers to keep
the two. I long to depart this life and be themselves free from sin, for they had
with Christ, (for) that is far better. 2 seen with their own eyes what had happened
Peter 1:13-14 I think it right, as long as because of the sin of those who had
I am in this "tent," to stir you fallen. He then took up a collection among
up by a reminder, since I know that I will all his soldiers, amounting to two
soon have to put it aside, as indeed our thousand silver drachmas, which he sent to
Lord Jesus Christ has shown me. Jerusalem to provide for an expiatory
7Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven. sacrifice. In doing this he acted in a
Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of very excellent and noble way, inasmuch as
the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity. he had the resurrection of the dead in
8Immediately after Death: Particular view; for if he were not expecting the
Judgment. Catholic Christians and many fallen to rise again, it would have been
other Christians believe that immediately useless and foolish to pray for them in
after death the souls of men and women go death. But if he did this with a view to
either to heaven (or prior to that, the splendid reward that awaits those who
purgatory), or to hell definitively. had gone to rest in godliness, it was a
Michelangelo's Last Judgment Sistine holy and pious thought. Thus he made
Chapel Vatican City. atonement for the dead that they might be
9Luke 16: 19-36 (Jesus said to them freed from this sin.
[the Pharisees]:...) "There was a 61Experience teaches us that there are
rich man who dressed in purple garments people who die so suddenly, they have not
and fine linen and dined sumptuously each had the opportunity to confess their sins,
day. And lying at his door was a poor man but are not guilty of serious "death
named Lazarus, covered with sores, who dealing" sin and separation from God.
would gladly have eaten his fill of the Gathering the objects, he 'sent 12,000
scraps that fell from the rich man's Drachmas to Jerusalem to offer a sin
table. Dogs even used to come and lick his offering...' (II Maccabees 12, 39-46).
sores. When the poor man died, he was Peter-Paul Rubens: Judas Maccabaeus
carried away by angels to the bosom of praying for the Dead.
Abraham. The rich man also died and was 62The constant faith of the Church
buried, and from the netherworld, where he affirms the belief in purgatory. From the
was in torment, he raised his eyes and saw earliest of times, the Fathers of the
Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. Church taught the existence of purgatory:
And he cried out, 'Father Abraham, have Tertullian (Rome, 160-220?), Origen
pity on me. Send Lazarus to dip the tip of (Alexandria, 185-254?), Cyprian (Carthage,
his finger in water and cool my tongue, 200-258), Ambrose (Tier, 340-397),
for I am suffering torment in these Augustine (Numidia, 354-430), Basil
flames.'. (Caesarea, 329-379), Gregory of Nazianzus
10Abraham replied, 'My child, remember (in Cappadocia, 329-389), John Chrysostom
that you received what was good during (Antioch, 349-407), Gregory the Great
your lifetime while Lazarus likewise (Rome, 540-604), and many others.
received what was bad; but now he is 63The teaching Magisterium of the Church
comforted here, whereas you are tormented. also affirms the belief in purgatory.
Moreover, between us and you a great chasm Council of Lyons II (1274) We believe ...
is established to prevent anyone from that the souls, by the purifying
crossing who might wish to go from our compensation are purged after death.
side to yours or from your side to ours.' Council of Florence (1438) Repeated the
He said, 'Then I beg you, father, send him Council of Lyons II (1274). Council of
to my father's house, for I have five Trent (1545-1563) We constantly hold that
brothers, so that he may warn them, lest purgatory exists, and that the souls of
they too come to this place of torment.' the faithful there detained are helped by
But Abraham replied, 'They have Moses and the prayers of the faithful.
the prophets. Let them listen to them.' He 64Catechism of the Catholic Church,
said, 'Oh no, father Abraham, but if Section 1031 The Church gives the name
someone from the dead goes to them, they Purgatory to this final purification of
will repent.' Then Abraham said, 'If they the elect, which is entirely different
will not listen to Moses and the prophets, from the punishment of the damned. The
neither will they be persuaded if someone Church formulated her doctrine of faith on
should rise from the dead.'" Purgatory especially at the Councils of
11Luke 23: 43 He (Jesus) replied to him, Florence and Trent. The tradition of the
"Amen, I say to you, today you will Church, by reference to certain texts of
be with me in Paradise." 2 Scripture, speaks of a cleansing fire.
Corinthians 5: 6-8 So we are always [Cf. 1 Cor 3:15; 1 Pet 1:7.] As for
courageous, although we know that while we certain lesser faults, we must believe
are at home in the body we are away from that, before the Final Judgment, there is
the Lord, for we walk by faith, not by a purifying fire. He who is truth says
sight. Yet we are courageous, and we would that whoever utters blasphemy against the
rather leave the body and go home to the Holy Spirit will be pardoned neither in
Lord. 1 Thessalonians 5:10 (Jesus) died this age nor in the age to come. From this
for us, so that whether we are awake or sentence we understand that certain
asleep we may live together with him. offenses can be forgiven in this age, but
Philippians 1:21-23 For to me life is certain others in the age to come.
Christ, and death is gain. If I go on 65Catechism of the Catholic Church,
living in the flesh, that means fruitful Section 1472 To understand this doctrine
labor for me. And I do not know which I and practice of the Church, it is
shall choose. I am caught between the two. necessary to understand that sin has a
I long to depart this life and be with double consequence. Grave sin deprives us
Christ, (for) that is far better. of communion with God and therefore makes
12The constant faith of the Church us incapable of eternal life, the
attests to the faith in the permanency of privation of which is called the
human death. That faith is best described "eternal punishment" of sin. On
in the writings of the Fathers of the the other hand every sin, even venial,
Church. Irenaeus of Lyons (circa 130-200), entails an unhealthy attachment to
set forth the idea of death as the creatures, which must be purified either
separation of the soul from the body. The here on earth, or after death in the state
identical idea is found in Tertullian in called Purgatory. This purification frees
the third century; Gregory of Nyssa (circa one from what is called the "temporal
330-395) in the fourth. Irenaeus. Nyssa. punishment" of sin. These two
Augustine. punishments must not be conceived of as a
13That death as a separation of the soul kind of vengeance inflicted by God from
from the body is graphically described by without, but as following from the very
Augustine of Hippo (354-439) in his book, nature of sin. A conversion which proceeds
The City of God. Clement of Rome (d. circa from a fervent charity can attain the
100) affirmed the permanency of death as complete purification of the sinner in
separation and the impossibility of such a way that no punishment would
meriting or losing meriting after death. remain.
14Cyprian of Carthage (cir 200-258) 66Limbo. The word limbo comes from the
mentions the same fact several times in Latin word limbus which means a border, a
his writings. Later Gregory of Nazianzus hem, or fringe around the edge of a
(329-389) and John Chrysostom of garment. The term is associated in common
Constantinople (347-407) mention the fact parlance to mean some in-between state of
several times. It also occurs in Gregory being. It is often associated, in a
the Great in Rome (540-604). Gregory of religious context, with some state of
Nyssa. Rome. John Chrysostom. Gregory of being in neither heaven nor hell,
Nazianzenus. Cyprian. therefore on the fringe of either. It has
15The Magisterium of the Church has been used to refer to the abode for the
confirmed throughout centuries the eternal dead who were neither capable of
lot of all souls, either in heaven, committing deadly sin (1 John 5:16) which
purgatory or hell is decided once for all excluded the soul from hell nor were
at the moment of death. Benedict XII, baptized in water and the Holy Spirit
Benedictus Deus, January 29, 1336, (John 3:5) which excluded the soul from
"We define that the souls of all the heaven.
saints who have left this life soon after 67There never has been nor is there any
individual death are or will be in heaven official Catholic doctrinal position or
and have eternal life; in addition we teaching on the existence of or state of
define that the souls of those dying in limbo. It must be stated that the term
actual mortal sin soon after individual limbo receives a lot of attention in
death descend into hell." (Denzinger pastoral practice when pastors had to
530). explain the mind of God to distraught
16Council of Lyons II, 1274 "We parents whose newborn infant has died
believe...that those truly penitent die in without being baptized.
charity before they have done sufficient 68Catechism of the Catholic Church,
penance for their sins of omission and Section 1261 As regards children who have
commission, their souls are cleansed after died without baptism, the Church can only
death in purgatorial or cleansing entrust them to the mercy of God, as she
punishments; ... the souls of those who does in her funeral rites for them.
have not committed any sin at all after Indeed, the great mercy of God, who
they received holy baptism, and the souls desires that all men should be saved, and
of those who have committed sin, but have Jesus' tenderness toward children, which
been cleansed, either while they were in caused him to say, "Let the children
the body or afterwards ... are promptly come to me, do not hinder them" [Mark
taken up into heaven. The souls of those 10:14, cf. 1 Tim. 2:4], allow us to hope
who die in mortal sin or with only that there is a way of salvation for
original sin soon go down into hell, but children who have died without baptism.
there they will receive different All the more urgent is the Church's call
punishments." (Denzinger 464). St. not to prevent little children coming to
Bonaventure at the Council of Lyons II. Christ through the gift of holy baptism.
17Reincarnation. It is not uncommon that 69Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven.
people under the influence of the New Age Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of
Movement and Hollywood movies ask about the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity.
the possibility of another or previous 70The Parousia: Christ's Second Coming.
life or other lives for the soul. Catholic Catholic Christians have always believed
Christianity and all orthodox Christian that Jesus Christ would come back to close
faith communities have always found in the the current period of human history in
Word of God clear revelation of the unique earth. The time when Jesus will return is
nature of this life, of individual death given many names: the Day of the Lord, the
and a definitive judgment for the soul. Parousia, the end time, and the Second
18Matthew 25: 31-41 (Then Jesus told the Coming of Christ.
crowds and his disciples: ...)"When 71The Bible describes the events of
the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all Jesus' return in apocalyptic images. Mark
the angels with him, he will sit upon his 13:26-27 And then they will see 'the Son
glorious throne, and all the nations will of Man coming in the clouds' with great
be assembled before him. And he will power and glory, and then he will send out
separate them one from another, as a the angels and gather (his) elect from the
shepherd separates the sheep from the four winds, from the end of the earth to
goats. He will place the sheep on his the end of the sky. Matthew 16:27 For the
right and the goats on his left. Then the Son of Man will come with his angels in
king will say to those on his right, his Father's glory, and then he will repay
'Come, you who are blessed by my Father. everyone according to his conduct. Acts
Inherit the kingdom prepared for you from 1:11 They (two men dressed in white) said,
the foundation of the world.' ... Then he "Men of Galilee, why are you standing
will say to those on his left, 'Depart there looking at the sky? This Jesus who
from me, you accursed, into the eternal has been taken up from you into heaven
fire prepared for the devil and his will return in the same way as you have
angels.'" seen him going into heaven."
192 Corinthians 5:10 For we must all 721 Thessalonians 4:16-18 For the Lord
appear before the judgment seat of Christ, himself, with a word of command, with the
so that each one may receive recompense, voice of an archangel and with the trumpet
according to what he did in the body, of God, will come down from heaven, and
whether good or evil. Luke 16: 19-36 the dead in Christ will rise first. Then
(Jesus said to them [the Pharisees]:...) we who are alive, who are left, will be
"There was a rich man who dressed in caught up together with them in the clouds
purple garments and fine linen and dined to meet the Lord in the air. Thus we shall
sumptuously each day. And lying at his always be with the Lord. Therefore,
door was a poor man named Lazarus, covered console one another with these words.
with sores ..." Hebrews 9:27-28 Just 73The parousia will be unmistakable
as it is appointed that human beings die because it will be accompanied by
once, and after this the judgment, so also unprecedented signs. Matthew 24:27 For
Christ, offered once to take away the sins just as lightning comes from the east and
of many, will appear a second time, not to is seen as far as the west, so will the
take away sin but to bring salvation to coming of the Son of Man be. Some signs
those who eagerly await him. are general events concerning the
20Being Taken Up Into Heaven. The evangelization of the world. Matthew 24:14
question of those still alive at the time And this gospel of the kingdom will be
of the end of the world has always preached throughout the world as a witness
concerned believers. Some evangelical to all nations, and then the end will
Christians have developed a teaching on come.
the so-called "rapture." It is 74Other signs are more proximate. Mark
based on a passage from Matthew's Gospel. (Chapter 13), Matthew (Chapter 24), and
Some believe in a rapture before Jesus' Luke (Chapter 21) all describe the
second coming. These teachings began in unmistakable signs with apocalyptic
1830 in the Plymouth Church in England images. 2 Timothy 4:1-2 I charge you in
from a man named John Nelson Darby. the presence of God and of Christ Jesus,
21Catholic Christians simply accept who will judge the living and the dead,
Christ's explanation of those still alive and by his appearing and his kingly power,
at the end of the world. Matthew 24:36-42 proclaim the word ... 2 Timothy 3:1-5 But
(In reply, Jesus said to them:) "But understand this: there will be terrifying
of that day and hour no one knows, neither times in the last days. People will be
the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the self-centered and lovers of money, proud,
Father alone. For as it was in the days of haughty, abusive, disobedient to their
Noah, so it will be at the coming of the parents, ungrateful, irreligious, callous,
Son of Man. In (those) days before the implacable, slanderous, licentious,
flood, they were eating and drinking, brutal, hating what is good, traitors,
marrying and giving in marriage, up to the reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure
day that Noah entered the ark. They did rather than lovers of God, as they make a
not know until the flood came and carried pretense of religion but deny its power.
them all away. So will it be (also) at the Reject them.
coming of the Son of Man. Two men will be 75No one knows exactly when this will
out in the field; one will be taken, and occur. Mark 13:32 (Jesus began his
one will be left. Two women will be discourse ... ) "But of that day or
grinding at the mill; one will be taken, hour, no one knows, neither the angels in
and one will be left. Therefore, stay heaven, nor the Son, but only the
awake! For you do not know on which day Father." 1 Thessalonians 5:2 For you
your Lord will come." yourselves know very well that the day of
22Paul says that the resurrection of the the Lord will come like a thief at night.
dead will precede the second coming. 2 Peter 3:10 But the day of the Lord will
According to Paul, the Lord will command come like a thief, and then the heavens
those who have suffered human death to will pass away with a mighty roar and the
rise. Only then (2) will those still elements will be dissolved by fire, and
living at the end of time join the the earth and everything done on it will
resurrected dead. Both groups together (3) be found out.
will be witnesses to Christ's coming. 1 76The Catholic Church teaches that we
Thessalonians 4:16-18 For the Lord should avoid pointless speculations about
himself, with a word of command, with the the time, the details of the signs, the
voice of an archangel and with the trumpet nature of the difficulties, etc. The
of God, will come down from heaven, and Church focuses instead on the need for
the dead in Christ will rise first. Then living the Gospel so as to be prepared for
we who are alive, who are left, will be the parousia whenever it happens. Mark
caught up together with them in the clouds 13:33,35-37 (Jesus began his discourse
to meet the Lord in the air. Thus we shall ...) "Be watchful! Be alert! You do
always be with the Lord. Therefore, not know when the time will come. ...
console one another with these words. Watch, therefore; you do not know when the
23Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven. lord of the house is coming, whether in
Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of the evening, or at midnight, or at
the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity. cockcrow, or in the morning. May he not
24Heaven. Catholic Christians and all come suddenly and find you sleeping. What
other Christians believe in the I say to you, I say to all: 'Watch!'"
blessedness of heaven realized in the 771 Peter 1:13-16 Therefore, gird up the
possession of God. Scripture speaks of loins of your mind, live soberly, and set
heaven in many ways: as life (Matthew your hopes completely on the grace to be
18:8); as eternal life (Matthew 25:46); as brought to you at the revelation of Jesus
the crown of life (James 1:12); as the Christ. Like obedient children, do not act
tree of life (Revelation 2:7); as glory in compliance with the desires of your
(Romans 8:18); as eternal glory (2 Timothy former ignorance but, as he who called you
2:10); as the eternal glory of God (1 is holy, be holy yourselves in every
Peter 5:10); as rest (Hebrews 4:3, 11); as aspect of your conduct, for it is written,
the crown of righteousness (2 Timothy "Be holy because I (am) holy."
4:8); as the Kingdom (Matthew 25: 34); as 78Millennialism: A Thousand Year Reign.
a dwelling in the heavens (2 Corinthians There exists among many Evangelical
5:1); as paradise (Luke 23:43). Protestants a dogma based on some passages
25Those who are in heaven will have: in the Bible called millennialism which
great rewards (Luke 6:23); treasures means a "thousand year reign."
(Matthew 6:20); an imperishable The basis for millennialism is found in
inheritance incapable of fading or the Book of Revelation. Revelation 20:1-15
defilement (1 Peter 1:4). In heaven the Then I saw an angel come down from heaven,
blessed: will be with God (Revelation holding in his hand the key to the abyss
21:3); will be with Christ (Mark 16:19); and a heavy chain. He seized the dragon,
will be with the angels (Matthew 22:30); the ancient serpent, which is the Devil or
will be in the house of the Father where Satan, and tied it up for a thousand years
there are many dwelling places (John and threw it into the abyss, which he
14:2); are heirs of God, heirs with Christ locked over it and sealed, so that it
(Romans 8:17); will see God face to face could no longer lead the nations astray
(1 Corinthians 13:9-12); will see God as until the thousand years are completed.
he is (1 John 3:2). After this, it is to be released for a
26They will reign forever and ever: short time.
illuminated by God (Revelation 22:3-5); 79Then I saw thrones; those who sat on
immortal and physically incorruptible them were entrusted with judgment. I also
(Revelation 21:4); with an irreproachable saw the souls of those who had been
conscience (1 Peter 3:21). The Magisterium beheaded for their witness to Jesus and
of the Church speaks of heaven in many for the word of God, and who had not
ways: as eternal life (Denzinger, 640); as worshipped the beast or its image nor had
the eternal fatherland (Denzinger 457); as accepted its mark on their foreheads or
heaven (Denzinger 464); as the kingdom of hands. They came to life and they reigned
heaven and celestial paradise (Denzinger with Christ for a thousand years. The rest
530); as the vision and fruition of God of the dead did not come to life until the
(Denzinger 530); as true beatitude thousand years were over. This is the
(Denzinger 530); as eternal rest first resurrection. Blessed and holy is
(Denzinger 530); as eternal beatitude the one who shares in the first
(Denzinger 570); as the vision of God one resurrection. The second death has no
and three (Denzinger 693); as glory power over these; they will be priests of
(Denzinger 842); as eternal retribution God and of Christ, and they will reign
(Denzinger 836); as the supernatural end with him for (the) thousand years.
(Denzinger 1669, 1786). 80When the thousand years are completed,
27Matthew 13:43 Then the righteous will Satan will be released from his prison. He
shine like the sun in the kingdom of their will go out to deceive the nations at the
Father. Whoever has ears ought to hear. four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog,
Romans 2:6-7, 10 ... who will repay to gather them for battle; their number is
everyone according to his works: eternal like the sand of the sea. They invaded the
life to those who seek glory, honor, and breadth of the earth and surrounded the
immortality through perseverance in good camp of the holy ones and the beloved
works, ... But there will be glory, honor, city. But fire came down from heaven and
and peace for everyone who does good. John consumed them. The Devil who had led them
17:3 Now this is eternal life, that they astray was thrown into the pool of fire
should know you, the only true God, and and sulfur, where the beast and the false
the one whom you sent, Jesus Christ. prophet were. There they will be tormented
Matthew 25:21 His master said to him, day and night forever and ever. Next I saw
'Well done, my good and faithful servant. a large white throne and the one who was
Since you were faithful in small matters, sitting on it. The earth and the sky fled
I will give you great responsibilities. from his presence and there was no place
Come, share your master's joy.'. for them. I saw the dead, the great and
28John 14:2-3 In my Father's house there the lowly, standing before the throne, and
are many dwelling places. If there were scrolls were opened.
not, would I have told you that I am going 81Then another scroll was opened, the
to prepare a place for you? And if I go book of life. The dead were judged
and prepare a place for you, I will come according to their deeds, by what was
back again and take you to myself, so that written in the scrolls. The sea gave up
where I am you also may be. Psalms its dead; then Death and Hades gave up
73:23-25 Yet I am always with you; you their dead. All the dead were judged
take hold of my right hand. With your according to their deeds. Then Death and
counsel you guide me, and at the end Hades were thrown into the pool of fire.
receive me with honor. Whom else have I in (This pool of fire is the second death. )
the heavens? None beside you delights me Anyone whose name was not found written in
on earth. Psalms 16:11 You will show me the book of life was thrown into the pool
the path to life, abounding joy in your of fire.
presence, the delights at your right hand 82The Magisterium of the Church has
forever. Psalms 17:15 I am just--let me never commented on a thousand year reign
see your face; when I awake, let me be of Christ. Rather, as is already clear
filled with your presence. from what is covered in these notes, the
291 John 3:2 Beloved, we are God's Church does not see the Second Coming of
children now; what we shall be has not yet Christ at any other time than at the
been revealed. We do know that when it is general judgment of all men and women
revealed we shall be like him, for we which is the same as the resurrection of
shall see him as he is. Luke 22:29-30 I the dead followed by definitive reward or
confer a kingdom on you, just as my Father punishment for souls. The Church
has conferred one on me, that you may eat interprets the expression "a thousand
and drink at my table in my kingdom; and years" not literally but according to
you will sit on thrones judging the twelve the literature in which it appears-
tribes of Israel. 1 Peter 1:3-5 Blessed be -prophetic and apocalyptic. In apocalyptic
the God and Father of our Lord Jesus literature, a thousand years would simply
Christ, who in his great mercy gave us a indicate a long period of time, in this
new birth to a living hope through the case, the time period before the Second
resurrection of Jesus Christ from the Coming of Christ. Apocalyptic literature
dead, to an inheritance that is is not to be taken literally.
imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, 83Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven.
kept in heaven for you who by the power of Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of
God are safeguarded through faith, to a the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity.
salvation that is ready to be revealed in 84Resurrection of the Dead. All
the final time. Christians hold firmly to the belief
301 Peter 5:4 And when the chief expressed in the Bible and mirrored in the
Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the resurrection from the dead of Jesus of the
unfading crown of glory. Revelation 21:27 resurrection of all men and women. By
... but nothing unclean will enter it (New "resurrection" Christians do not
Jerusalem, heaven), nor any (one) who does mean only the return to life in the body
abominable things or tells lies. Only of a dead human being; it means taking on
those will enter whose names are written a completely new existence. We believe
in the Lamb's book of life. Wisdom 5:16 that the souls of all those who have died
Therefore shall they receive the splendid will be reunited to their bodies; but
crown, the beauteous diadem, from the hand those bodies will have different
of the Lord- For he shall shelter them characteristics.
with his right hand, and protect them with 85We Catholic Christians profess this
his arm. 2 Corinthians 4:17 For this belief often when we pray the Apostles
momentary light affliction is producing Creed: "I believe in ... the
for us an eternal weight of glory beyond resurrection of the body. " In the
all comparison, Nicene Creed, we profess: "We look
31The teachings of the Fathers of the for the resurrection of the dead. "
Church affirms the constant understanding Matthew 22:29-32 Jesus said to them in
of heaven in the history of faith. reply, "You are misled because you do
Augustine, Confessions, Book 1, Ch. 1 not know the scriptures or the power of
"And man, being a part of your God. At the resurrection they neither
creation, desires to praise You. You move marry nor are given in marriage but are
us to delight in praising You; for You like the angels in heaven. And concerning
have made us for Yourself, and our hearts the resurrection of the dead, have you not
are restless till they find rest in read what was said to you by God, 'I am
you." Augustine, The City of God, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and
Book 11, Ch. 13 "From all this, it the God of Jacob'? He is not the God of
will readily occur to any one that the the dead but of the living."
blessedness which an intelligent being 86Matthew 5:29-30 (He [Jesus] began to
desires as its legitimate object results teach them ...) If your right eye causes
from a combination of two things, namely, you to sin, tear it out and throw it away.
that it interruptedly enjoy the It is better for you to lose one of your
unchangeable good which is God; and that members than to have your whole body
it be delivered from all doubt, and know thrown into Gehenna. And if your right
certainly that it shall eternally abide in hand causes you to sin, cut it off and
the same enjoyment." throw it away. It is better for you to
32Clement of Alexandria Stromata, Book lose one of your members than to have your
7, Ch. 10 "For it is said, "To whole body go into Gehenna. John 11:22-26
him that has shall be given" (Mt Jesus said to her (Martha), "Your
25:29; Lk 19:26): to faith, knowledge; and brother will rise." Martha said to
to knowledge, love; and to love the him, "I know he will rise, in the
inheritance. ... Whence at last ... it is resurrection on the last day." Jesus
that knowledge is committed to those fit told her, "I am the resurrection and
and selected for it. It leads us to the the life; whoever believes in me, even if
endless and perfect end, teaching us he dies, will live, and everyone who lives
beforehand the future life that we shall and believes in me will never die. Do you
lead, according to God, and with gods; believe this?"
after we are freed from all punishment and 87John 6:40 (Jesus explained to them
penalty which we undergo, in consequence (the disciples):) For this is the will of
of our sins, for salutary purposes." my Father, that everyone who sees the Son
33"After which redemption the and believes in him may have eternal life,
reward and the honors are assigned to and I shall raise him (on) the last day.
those who have become perfect; ... they John 6:51 (Jesus told them:) I am the
have become pure in heart, and near to the living bread ... whoever eats this bread
Lord, there awaits them restoration to will live forever. John 6:54 (Jesus told
everlasting contemplation; and they are them:) Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my
called by the appellation of gods, being blood has eternal life, and I will raise
destined to sit on thrones with the other him on the last day.
gods that have been first put in their 88Catholic Christians believe that the
places by the Savior." dead will rise with bodies similar to
34Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven. those they had on earth. Some important
Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of evidence for our resurrected bodies is to
the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity. read the qualities of the resurrected body
35Hell: Reprobation. Christians believe of Jesus: appeared suddenly then
because the Bible is clear that hell disappeared; passed through walls; his
exists. Scripture speaks of hell in many body seemed to be the same as it was
ways: as a place of torment (Luke 16:28), before death; but it was also very
as the netherworld (Luke 16:22), as the different; he even changed his appearance
abyss (Luke 8:31; Revelation 9:1-2,11; so that his disciples didn't recognize him
11:7; 17:8; 20:1,3), as a fiery furnace (Luke 24).
(Matthew 13:42, 50), as a pool of fire 89Church believes we will resurrect the
(Revelation 20:10, 14), as a fiery pool of same bodies as we had on earth by the
burning sulfur (Revelation 19:20), as a language of the Bible. The resurrection
pool of fire and sulfur (Revelation 20:10; will change these bodies into a glorified
21:8), as Tartarus (Greek mythological form. The word "reawakening" is
place of punishment) (2 Peter 2:4), as used in reference to the resurrection.
Gehenna or as the fire of Gehenna (Mt Catholic scholars have distinguished
5:22, 29; 10:28; 18:9; 23:33). certain qualities of our resurrected
36As a state, Scripture speaks of hell bodies: impassability: freedom from
with many words: as death (Romans 6:21; physical ills of any kind (sickness,
8:6; 8:13; 2 Corinthians 2:14-16), as the death, etc.); subtility: the
second death (Revelation 2:11; 20:6; spiritualization of the body--dominated by
21:8), as eternal ruin (2 Thessalonians the soul; agility: the ability of the soul
1:9; 1 Tim 6:9), as outside darkness to move the body with ease and speed;
(Matthew 8:12; 22:11-13; 25:30), as clarity: freedom from defects--having
eternal fire (Matthew 18:8, 25:41; Jude great beauty and radiance.
7), as eternal punishment (Matthew 25:46), 90Paul also speaks in language of
as destruction (Mathew 7:13; Philippians reawakening instead of replacement: 1
1:28; Peter 3:7), as damnation (Mark Corinthians 15:53 For that which is
16:16; John 12:25), as perishing (John corruptible must clothe itself with
3:16; 10:27; Romans 2:12), as unquenchable incorruptibility, and that which is mortal
fire (Mark 9:42-47; Luke 3:17), as fire must clothe itself with immortality. 1
and sulfur (Revelation 14:9-14), as thick Corinthians 15:42-44 So also is the
gloom of darkness (2 Peter 2:17; Jude 13), resurrection of the dead. It is sown
as corruption (Galatians 6:8), as Babylon Corruptible; it is raised incorruptible.
(Revelation 18; 19:1-3). It is sown dishonorable; it is raised
37Gehenna Outside Jerusalem. glorious. It is sown weak; it is raised
Michelangelo's Last Judgment Sistine powerful. It is sown a natural body; it is
Chapel Vatican City. raised a spiritual body.
38Matthew 25: 31-46 (Then Jesus told the 91Scripture speaks of the resurrection
crowds and his disciples: ...) "When of both the blessed and the damned: John
the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all 5:28-29 (Jesus' answer:) Do not be amazed
the angels with him, he will sit upon his at this, because the hour is coming in
glorious throne, and all the nations will which all who are in the tombs will hear
be assembled before him. And he will his voice and will come out, those who
separate them one from another, as a have done good deeds to the resurrection
shepherd separates the sheep from the of life, but those who have done wicked
goats. He will place the sheep on his deeds to the resurrection of condemnation.
right and the goats on his left. ... Then Matthew 22:23-32; Mark 12:18-27; Luke
he will say to those on his left, 'Depart 20:27-40 On that day Sadducees approached
from me, you accursed, into the eternal him (Jesus), saying that there is no
fire prepared for the devil and his resurrection. They put this question to
angels.' ... And these will go off to him, saying, "Teacher, Moses said,
eternal punishment, but the righteous to 'If a man dies without children, his
eternal life." brother shall marry his wife and raise up
39Luke 16: 19-26 (Jesus said to them descendants for his brother.'.
[the Pharisees]:...) "There was a 92Now there were seven brothers among
rich man who dressed in purple garments us. The first married and died and, having
and fine linen and dined sumptuously each no descendants, left his wife to his
day. And lying at his door was a poor man brother. The same happened with the second
named Lazarus, covered with sores, who and the third, through all seven. Finally
would gladly have eaten his fill of the the woman died. Now at the resurrection,
scraps that fell from the rich man's of the seven, whose wife will she be? For
table. Dogs even used to come and lick his they all had been married to her."
sores. When the poor man died, he was Jesus said to them in reply, "You are
carried away by angels to the bosom of misled because you do not know the
Abraham. The rich man also died and was scriptures or the power of God. At the
buried, and from the netherworld, where he resurrection they neither marry nor are
was in torment, he raised his eyes and saw given in marriage but are like the angels
Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. in heaven. And concerning the resurrection
And he cried out, 'Father Abraham, have of the dead, have you not read what was
pity on me. Send Lazarus to dip the tip of said to you by God, 'I am the God of
his finger in water and cool my tongue, Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of
for I am suffering torment in these Jacob'? He is not the God of the dead but
flames.'. of the living."
40Abraham replied, 'My child, remember 93John 11:22-26 Jesus said to her,
that you received what was good during "Your brother will rise." Martha
your lifetime while Lazarus likewise said to him, "I know he will rise, in
received what was bad; but now he is the resurrection on the last day."
comforted here, whereas you are tormented. Jesus told her, "I am the
Moreover, between us and you a great chasm resurrection and the life; whoever
is established to prevent anyone from believes in me, even if he dies, will
crossing who might wish to go from our live, and everyone who lives and believes
side to yours or from your side to ours.' in me will never die. Do you believe
" this?" Acts 23:6 Paul was aware that
41Mark 9:42-47 (Jesus said in reply ... some were Sadducees and some Pharisees, so
) "Whoever causes one of these little he called out before the Sanhedrin,
ones who believe (in me) to sin, it would "My brothers, I am a Pharisee, the
be better for him if a great millstone son of Pharisees; (I) am on trial for hope
were put around his neck and he were in the resurrection of the dead."
thrown into the sea. If your hand causes 94The Magisterium constantly proclaims
you to sin, cut it off. It is better for the truth of the resurrection of the body.
you to enter into life maimed than with Council of Toledo XI, 675 Thus, according
two hands to go into Gehenna, into the to the model of our Head, we profess that
unquenchable fire. And if your foot causes there is a true bodily resurrection of all
you to sin, cut it off. It is better for the dead... we shall rise in this very
you to enter into life crippled than with body in which we now live and are and
two feet to be thrown into Gehenna. And if move. (Denzinger 287) Lateran Council IV,
your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out. 1215 ... He (Christ) will come at the end
Better for you to enter into the kingdom of the world; he will judge the living and
of God with one eye than with two eyes to the dead; and he will reward all, both the
be thrown into Gehenna ..." 2 lost and elect, according to their works.
Thessalonians 1:9 These will pay the And all these will rise with their own
penalty of eternal ruin, separated from bodies which they now have so that they
the presence of the Lord and from the may receive according to their works,
glory of his power, ... whether good or bad; the wicked, a
42Matthew 13:40-42 Just as weeds are perpetual punishment with the devil; the
collected and burned (up) with fire, so good, eternal glory with Christ.
will it be at the end of the age. The Son (Denzinger 429).
of Man will send his angels, and they will 95Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven.
collect out of his kingdom all who cause Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of
others to sin and all evildoers. They will the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity.
throw them into the fiery furnace, where 96General Judgment. As we began the
there will be wailing and grinding of study of eschatology, we saw that each
teeth. John 15:6 Anyone who does not individual person is judged by God
remain in me will be thrown out like a immediately after his or her death. That
branch and wither; people will gather them prompt sentence is called the particular
and throw them into a fire and they will judgment. The Bible is very emphatic in
be burned. Romans 2:6-9 ... (he) will asserting that there is also a general
repay everyone according to his works: ... judgment of all mankind at the end of the
wrath and fury to those who selfishly world. The particular judgment addresses
disobey the truth and obey wickedness. each of us as individual and personal; the
Yes, affliction and distress will come general judgment will address all of us as
upon every human being who does evil, ... social, members of society. Also, after
431 Corinthians 6:9-10 Do you not know the resurrection, the body must also share
that the unjust will not inherit the the judgment of the soul. The general
kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; judgment addresses both the whole human
neither fornicators nor idolaters nor person, resurrected body reunited with the
adulterers nor boy prostitutes nor soul, and the whole of human society.
practicing homosexuals nor thieves nor the 97Christians pray and affirm their
greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor belief in a general judgment in the
robbers will inherit the kingdom of God. Apostles Creed and the Nicene Creed Jesus
John 3:36 Whoever believes in the Son has Christ ... sits at the right hand of God
eternal life, but whoever disobeys the Son the Father almighty and will come again in
will not see life, but the wrath of God glory to judge the living and the dead.
remains upon him. John 5:29 (This was 98Scripture is abundantly clear on the
Jesus' answer ...) those who have done point of general judgment for all people.
good deeds to the resurrection of life, Matthew 16:27 For the Son of Man will come
but those who have done wicked deeds to with his angels in his Father's glory, and
the resurrection of condemnation. then he will repay everyone according to
44Revelation 21:27 But nothing unclean his conduct. John 5:22-29 Nor does the
will enter it (the new Jerusalem, heaven), Father judge anyone, but he has given all
nor any (one) who does abominable things judgment to his Son, so that all may honor
or tells lies. Revelation 22:15 Outside the Son just as they honor the Father. ...
(the new Jerusalem, heaven) are the dogs, And he gave him power to exercise
the sorcerers, the unchaste, the judgment, because he is the Son of Man. Do
murderers, the idol-worshipers, and all not be amazed at this, because the hour is
who love and practice deceit. Matthew coming in which all who are in the tombs
10:28 And do not be afraid of those who will hear his voice and will come out,
kill the body but cannot kill the soul; those who have done good deeds to the
rather, be afraid of the one who can resurrection of life, but those who have
destroy both soul and body in Gehenna. done wicked deeds to the resurrection of
Revelation 21:8 But as for cowards, the condemnation.
unfaithful, the depraved, murderers, the 99Matthew 25: 31-46 "When the Son
unchaste, sorcerers, idol-worshipers, and of Man comes in his glory, and all the
deceivers of every sort, their lot is in angels with him, he will sit upon his
the burning pool of fire and sulfur, which glorious throne, and all the nations will
is the second death. be assembled before him. And he will
45The Fathers of the Church reflect the separate them one from another, as a
constant faith of the Church on the shepherd separates the sheep from the
existence and nature of hell. Ignatius of goats. He will place the sheep on his
Antioch, Letter to the Ephesians, Ch. 16:1 right and the goats on his left. Then the
"Make no mistake, brethren; the king will say to those on his right,
corrupter of families will not inherit the 'Come, you who are blessed by my Father.
kingdom of God. If, then, those are dead Inherit the kingdom prepared for you from
who do these things according to the the foundation of the world. For I was
flesh, how much worse if, with bad hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty
doctrine, one should corrupt the faith of and you gave me drink, a stranger and you
God for which Jesus Christ was crucified. welcomed me, naked and you clothed me, ill
Such a man, for becoming contaminated, and you cared for me, in prison and you
will depart into unquenchable fire; and visited me.' Then the righteous will
will any one who listens to him." answer him and say, 'Lord, when did we see
46Gregory of Nyssa, The Great Catechism, you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and
Ch. 40 "Indeed, the sinner's life of give you drink? When did we see you a
torment presents no equivalent to anything stranger and welcome you, or naked and
that pains the sense here. Even if some clothe you?
one of the punishments in that other world 100When did we see you ill or in prison,
be named in terms that are well known and visit you?' And the king will say to
here, the distinction is still not small. them in reply, 'Amen, I say to you,
When you hear the word fire, you have been whatever you did for one of these least
taught to think of a fire other than the brothers of mine, you did for me.' Then he
fire we see, owing to something being will say to those on his left, 'Depart
added to that fire which in this there is from me, you accursed, into the eternal
not; for that fire is never quenched, fire prepared for the devil and his
whereas experience has discovered many angels. For I was hungry and you gave me
ways of quenching this; and there is a no food, I was thirsty and you gave me no
great difference between a fire which can drink, a stranger and you gave me no
be extinguished, and one that does not welcome, naked and you gave me no
admit of extinction." clothing, ill and in prison, and you did
47The teaching Magisterium of the Church not care for me.' Then they will answer
has also affirmed the existence and nature and say, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry
of hell. The Lateran Council IV, 1215 or thirsty or a stranger or naked or ill
"... the wicked (receive), a or in prison, and not minister to your
perpetual punishment with the devil needs?' He will answer them, 'Amen, I say
…" Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254) to you, what you did not do for one of
"But if anyone dies unrepentant in these least ones, you did not do for me.'
the state of mortal sin, he will And these will go off to eternal
undoubtedly be tormented forever in the punishment, but the righteous to eternal
fires of an everlasting hell." life."
(Letter to the Bishop of Tusculum, Section 101Acts 10:42 (Peter addressed them in
24). these words) ... He (Jesus) commissioned
48Vatican Council I, 1869-70 us to preach to the people and testify
"Therefore, all who die in actual that he is the one appointed by God as
mortal sin are excluded from the kingdom judge of the living and the dead. Romans
of God and will suffer forever the 2:15-16 They show that the demands of the
torments of hell from which there is no law are written in their hearts, while
redemption. If anyone says that a man can their conscience also bears witness and
be justified even after death; or if he their conflicting thoughts accuse or even
says that the punishments of the damned in defend them on the day when, according to
hell will not last forever; let him be my gospel, God will judge people's hidden
anathema." Pope Pius IX. Vatican works through Christ Jesus. Revelation
Council I. 20:11-15 Next I saw a large white throne
49Death. Particular Judgment. Heaven. and the one who was sitting on it. The
Purgatory. Hell. Parousia. Resurrection of earth and the sky fled from his presence
the Dead. General Judgment. Eternity. and there was no place for them. I saw the
50Purgatory. Sacred Scripture and the dead, the great and the lowly, standing
constant faith of the Church affirm that before the throne,
heaven and hell, as places, exist. 102and scrolls were opened. Then another
Catholic Christians and other Christians scroll was opened, the book of life. The
also profess belief in a state of being, dead were judged according to their deeds,
not a place, called "purgatory." by what was written in the scrolls. The
The term "purgatory" is not sea gave up its dead; then Death and Hades
found in the Bible; but neither are other gave up their dead. All the dead were
such important Christian beliefs such as judged according to their deeds. Then
"Trinity" and Death and Hades were thrown into the pool
"Incarnation." of fire. (This pool of fire is the second
51Purgatory is defined as a state of death. ) Anyone whose name was not found
being, the continuing process of purgation written in the book of life was thrown
or purification of the soul after human into the pool of fire.
death. It is a state of perfection--begun 103The New Creation. The Bible tells all
in baptism and faith- consummated after Christians what life after general
death, entered into only by those who are judgment will be like. John wrote of his
saved. In other words, our transformation visions of the New Creation in his book of
in Christ (Romans 13:14, "Put on the Revelation. Revelation 21:1-8 Then I saw a
Lord Jesus Christ"), our perfection new heaven and a new earth. The former
in the holiness of the Father (1 Peter heaven and the former earth had passed
1:16, "Be holy, because I (am) away, and the sea was no more. I also saw
holy") is not ended at our physical the holy city, a new Jerusalem, coming
death. Purgatory is a sign of God's mercy down out of heaven from God, prepared as a
on those who have honestly sought to know bride adorned for her husband.
God and to do His will in this life and 104I heard a loud voice from the throne
yet die in some degree of bondage to sin saying, "Behold, God's dwelling is
or the effects of sin. The Church has only with the human race. He will dwell with
two official teachings concerning them and they will be his people and God
purgatory: it exists, and our prayers help himself will always be with them (as their
the souls in purgatory. God). He will wipe every tear from their
52God is revealed as perfect interior eyes, and there shall be no more death or
holiness. Isaiah 6:3 "Holy, holy, mourning, wailing or pain, (for) the old
holy is the Lord of hosts!" they (the order has passed away." The one who
Seraphim) cried one to the other. We are sat on the throne said, "Behold, I
called to that same holiness. Leviticus make all things new." Then he said,
19:2 "Speak to the whole Israelite "Write these words down, for they are
community and tell them: Be holy, for I, trustworthy and true." He said to me,
the Lord your God, am holy." 1 Peter "They are accomplished. I (am) the
1:15-16 As he who called you is holy, be Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the
holy yourselves in every aspect of your end. To the thirsty I will give a gift
conduct, for it is written, "Be holy from the spring of life-giving water. The
because I (am) holy." victor will inherit these gifts, and I
53Who can stand in the face of the shall be his God, and he will be my son.
holiness of God? Psalms 15:1 Lord, who may But as for cowards, the unfaithful, the
abide in your tent? Who may dwell on your depraved, murderers, the unchaste,
holy mountain? Psalms 66:18 Had I sorcerers, idol-worshipers, and deceivers
cherished evil in my heart, the Lord would of every sort, their lot is in the burning
not have heard. Hebrews 12:14 Strive for pool of fire and sulfur, which is the
peace with everyone, and for that holiness second death."
without which no one will see the Lord. 105Revelation 5:13 Then I heard every
Ephesians 5:3 Immorality or any impurity creature in heaven and on earth and under
or greed must not even be mentioned among the earth and in the sea, everything in
you, as is fitting among holy ones. the universe, cry out: "To the one
54Exodus 33:18-20 Then Moses said, who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be
"Do let me see your glory!" He blessing and honor, glory and might,
(Yahweh) answered, "I will make all forever and ever."
my beauty pass before you, and in your 106
presence I will pronounce my name, 'Lord'; 107Questions or comments? Email either
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