Курсы английского
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Experience on Fast Reactor MOX fuel dry reprocessing for Closed Fuel
Experience on Fast Reactor MOX fuel dry reprocessing for Closed Fuel
New Technological Platform
New Technological Platform
Pyrochemical processes
Pyrochemical processes
RIAR experience in reprocessing of spent fuel of the BOR-60 and BN-350
RIAR experience in reprocessing of spent fuel of the BOR-60 and BN-350
MOX-MOX reprocessing experiments
MOX-MOX reprocessing experiments
MOX-MOX reprocessing experiments
MOX-MOX reprocessing experiments
Granulated MOX-Fuel
Granulated MOX-Fuel
Granulated MOX-Fuel
Granulated MOX-Fuel
Granulated MOX-Fuel
Granulated MOX-Fuel
Vibropacking technique
Vibropacking technique
Production and testing of vibropacked fuel rods on the basis of
Production and testing of vibropacked fuel rods on the basis of
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Results of the material science studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Recycle of reprocessed fuel in the BOR-60 reactor in vibrocompacted
Recycle of reprocessed fuel in the BOR-60 reactor in vibrocompacted
Recycle of reprocessed fuel in the BOR-60 reactor in vibrocompacted
Recycle of reprocessed fuel in the BOR-60 reactor in vibrocompacted
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Experience on Fast Reactor MOX fuel dry reprocessing for Closed Fuel
Experience on Fast Reactor MOX fuel dry reprocessing for Closed Fuel
Comparison with powder from oxalate
Comparison with powder from oxalate
Comparison with powder from oxalate
Comparison with powder from oxalate
Main goals for dry technologies development for 2020
Main goals for dry technologies development for 2020
3D View on MultiPhunctional Complex
3D View on MultiPhunctional Complex
3D View on MultiPhunctional Complex
3D View on MultiPhunctional Complex
Layout of MPC
Layout of MPC
Thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention
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Experience on Fast Reactor MOX fuel dry reprocessing for Closed Fuel Cycle

содержание презентации «Experience on Fast Reactor MOX fuel dry reprocessing for Closed Fuel Cycle.ppt»
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1Experience on Fast Reactor MOX fuel 13wt.% CsCl 18,04 wt.% NaCl. Quantity.
dry reprocessing for Closed Fuel Cycle. <0,15 kg/kg of fast reactor SNF.
Alexander V. Bychkov Director Research <0,03 kg/kg of fast reactor SNF.
Institute of Atomic Reactors Dimitrovgrad, Evaluations by Toshiba.
Russia 2010. 14Vitrification of HLW from pyrochemical
2New Technological Platform. Na-related process. Characteristic. Characteristic.
topic: BN-350, BN-600 (all facilities - HLW type. HLW type. HLW type. Phosphate
140 reactor-years) Pb-related topic: precipitate. Spent salt electrolyte.
floating reactors (Pb-Bi) on nuclear Phosphate precipitate + spent salt
submarines Mixed uranium-plutonium fuel electrolyte. Glass matrix type. Pb(PO3)2
SNF reprocessing. Basic paths to arrange NaPO3. NaPO3, AlF3 Al2O3. NaPO3, AlF3
the architecture of Closed Fuel Cycle Al2O3. Introduction method. Vitrification,
(CFC) with fast neutron power units. Т=9500С. Vitrification without chloride
Beloyarsk 3, BN-600. Place of “fast conversion, Т=9500С. Vitrification without
reactor” in energy production/FC. Base for chloride conversion, Т=9500С. Introduced
new construction. Complementary to VVER. waste amount, %. 28. 20. 36. 137Cs
Light-metal (Na). “Aqueous”. Integral leaching rate as of the 7th day, g/cm2 *
economics and ecology of electric energy day. 7*10-6. 7*10-6. 4*10-6. Thermal
production and FC. Selection of coolant. resistance, 0С. 400. 400. 400. Radiation
Selection of reprocessing technology. resistance. 107 Gr (for ? and ?) 1018
Heavy-metal (Pb). “Dry”. ?-decay/g. 107 Gr (for ? and ?) 1018
3New Technological Platform. ?-decay/g. 107 Gr (for ? and ?) 1018
Development of prototypes of CFC ?-decay/g.
infrastructure key elements in Russia. 15Vibropacking technique. Fuel rods with
2014*. 2014. 2020. 2017. 2026. 2018. 2019. granulated fuel are fabricated by vi-pack
Consolidation of competence and technique according to the standard
responsibilities for NTP Model of new procedures (in glove boxes or hot cells)
power engineering architecture in economic that has been used at RIAR for 30 years.
logics Confirmation of technological The main advantages of the vi-pack
readiness for industrial scaling. Dense technique and vibropacked fuel rods are
fuel. Fast reactor power unit. VVER the following: Simplicity of the process
upgrade, power range. SNF reprocessing due to the reduced number of process and
unit. BN-800 and MOX fuel production control operations, that makes the
startup. Selection of base fast reactor automation and remote control of the
technology and decision on VVER upgrade. process easier Possibility of usage of the
Construction of power unit prototypes. granulate in any form; both in the form of
Establishment of “dense” fuel production. a homogeneous composition and mechanical
Scaling of new technological platform. mixture Reduced thermo mechanical impact
Startup of SNF industrial reprocessing and of vi-pack fuel on the cladding (as
RW disposal prototype. Start of research compared with a pelletized core). More
reactor MBIR (RIAR) operation. flexible requirements for the inner
4Key technologies of the Fast Reactor diameter of the fuel rod claddings. To
closed fuel cycle with MOX fuel (first correct the oxygen potential in the fuel
stage). Pyroelectrochemical reprocessing and eliminate the process impurities
(recycling through molten salt) effect, getter based on U metal powder is
Vibropacking technology (crystalline introduced into the granulated fuel.
particles with getter) Remote controlled 16Production and testing of vibropacked
automated technologies for fuel pins and fuel rods on the basis of MOX-fuel. Fuel
fuel assembly manufacturing. type. Fuel type. Number of fuel
5Implementation Pyroprocess for BN-800 assemblies. Burnur, max.%. Load, kW/m.
Fuel Cycle. Combination of pyroprocess and Temperature, 0С. Reactor. (U, Pu)O2.
vibropacking technology is the basis for Weapon grade, power grade. 330. 30,3.
BN-type MOX fuel production and recycling 51,5. 720. BOR-60. UO2 + PuO2. Weapon
in different scenarios. In future (second grade, power grade. 132+20. 14,8. 45. 705.
stage): For BN and BREST For MOX and BOR-60. (U, Pu)O2. Weapon grade. 30. 10,5.
(U,Pu)N. MCC Krasnoyarsk. RIAR 46. 680. BN-600. (U, Pu)O2. power grade.
Dimitrovdrad. On site NPP 4. development of the production
pyro-reprocessing facility. BN spent FAs. technique. development of the production
BN Reactor. BN FAs. technique. development of the production
6Current status of pyrochemical technique. BN-600.
development for oxide fuel. Fundamental 17Results of the material science
research Properties of U, Pu, Th, Np, Am studies of vibropacked fuel pins. Micro-
have been studied. Knowledge of physical and macrostructure of the cross section of
chemistry and electrochemistry of basic FP the BOR-60 fuel rod with UPuO2 fuel ( the
is sufficient for processes understanding burnup of 32% h.a.) and BN-600 fuel rod
and modeling. The needed research lines – (the burnup of 10.5 %).
study of Cm and Tc chemistry. Development 18Recycle of reprocessed fuel in the
of nitride fuel recycle methods is carried BOR-60 reactor in vibrocompacted mode.
out. Development work All technological Fuel UO2+PuO2 (mechanical mixture) has
steps and equipment have been developed burn-up about 17%, Some fuel pins were
for the oxide fuel reprocessing and under PIE (b.u.4,8 - 9,8 % ) MOX
fabrication processes. The process was reprocessed fuel used for new fuel pins
tested more than to 7400 kg of fresh fuel production in 2002 and under irradiation
for different reactors and up to 40 kg of in the BOR-60 from 2004 (burnup 15% ).
BN-350 and BOR-60 irradiated fuel. The 19Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800.
essentials of technology have been 20Other processes and fuels which are
elaborated and feasibility study has been under R&D in RIAR. Nitride fuel –
completed for the BN-800 large-scale CFC recycling by pyro-process and simplified
plant. More than 45 000 fuel pins and more pelletizing Metallic fuel (U-Pu-Zr, U-Al,
than 1000 FAs Industrial implementation As U-Be) reprocessing RBMK Spent Fuel
the readiness of technology is high, work conditioning (metallization by Li/or
is underway on industrial implementation electrochemical ). Different fuels/targets
of U-Pu fuel. The BOR-60 operates on with Np, Am, Cm Treatment of
vi-pack fuel. The design of the CFC non-traditional fuel (coated particles (UN
facility is in progress. 30 FAs have been covered by W, U-Mo alloy, UC, Pu alloy,
tested and irradiated in BN-600. These PuO2 etc.) Molten salt fuel - (study of
technologies are under implementation as reprocessing and MA behavior).
basic for BN-800 industrial MOX fuel 21Production of mononitride fuel from
production. the nitride spent fuel at the stage of
7Pyrochemical processes. Basic research pyrochemical reprocessing Production of
of the molten salt systems allowed for the mononitride fuel pellets Fabrication of
development of technological processes for fuel rods with sublayer on the basis of
production of granulated uranium and pelletized fuel Manufacturing of the fuel
plutonium oxides and mixed uranium and assemblies Hot cell design and
plutonium oxides. A distinctive feature of infrastructure are similar as MOX
the pyrochemical technology is a recycling Plant Recent activity
possibility to perform all the deposit (2010-2011): reprocessing test for (U,Pu)N
production operations in one apparatus - a fuel and U-Pu metallic fuel irradiated in
chloriator-electrolyzer Pyrochemical the BOR-60 test reactor. Concept of the
reprocessing consists of the following closed fuel cycle Plant for reprocessing
main stages: Dissolution of initial and production of (U,Pu)N fuel and
products or spent nuclear fuel in molten metallic fuel.
salts Recovery of crystal plutonium 22
dioxide or electrolytic plutonium and 23New times consideration: DOVITA
uranium dioxides from the melt Processing DOVITA-2. 1992 Dry technologies Oxide fuel
of the cathode deposit and production of with MA Vi-pack Integrated disposition
granulated fuel. same site with the reactor TA
8DDP (Dimitrovgrad Dry Process) Transmutation of Actinides. 2006-2009 Dry
MOX?PuO2 flow sheet. DDP MOX?MOX flow technologies On-site reprocessing Various
sheet. Na3PO4. Cl2. Cl2+O2+Ar. Cl2+O2+Ar. type of fuel with MA Integration of MA
Cathode (pyrographite). Cathode. Stirrer. recycling into FR Closed Fuel Cycle TA -
Stirrer. pyrographite bath, NaCl -2CsCl. Transmutation of Actinides.
Main MOX electrolysis 630 оС. Fuel 24Flexibility for pyrochemical closed
chlorination 650 оС. fuel cycle of FR. Fast reactor.
Electrolysis-additional 630 оС. Melt Dismantling & Decladding. Pyrochemical
purification 6500 оС. MOX. MOX. Pu4+. Cl-. reprocessing in chloride melt
UO22+. UO22+. UO22+. PuO2+. PuO2+. UO2. Precipitation Electrolysis/ Precipitation.
PuO2. MA,REE. (MA,REE) RW4. 238UO2 + MA + FP. Conditioning in chloride
91st salt. 2nd salt. DDP Double Salt melt. Fabrication of Vipac MA targets.
flow sheet. Draft purification from PuO2. Fabrication of pellets and FAs.
captured salt. Na3PO4. Cl2. Ar (Cl2). Fabrication of Vipac FAs. Waste
Cl2+O2+Ar. Cl2+O2+Ar. Na3PO4. Cl2. Cathode conditioning. Waste disposal. Spent FAs.
(pyrographite). Cathode. Stirrer. Stirrer. Spent MOX-fuel. 238UO2 powder. FP. PuO2+
Stirrer. pyrographite bath, NaCl - KCl. MA + FP. MA. MA. FP.
Fast Precipitation crystallization 680 оС. 25Comparison with powder from oxalate.
Fuel chlorination 700 оС. Preliminary Particle image : a) UO2 from oxalate,
electrolysis 680 оС. Fast Electrolysis- T=750oC; b) PuO2 from 3LiCl-2KCl, T=450oC;
700 оС. Melt purification 700 оС. 26Fabrication of MOX and PuO2 pellets.
Cl2+O2+Ar. Stirrer. Stirrer. pyrographite Composition of molding powder, wt%. Pellet
bath, NaCl -2CsCl. After accumulation of density, g/cm3. 100 UO2 industrial (from
impurities during some cycles. Main MOX oxalate). 10.4. 97 UO2 +3 PuO2 (from
electrolysis 630 оС. Melt purification 3LiCl-2KCl). 10.6. 80 UO2 +20 PuO2 (from
6500 оС. Fuel chlorination 650 оС. O2. LiCl-KCl-CsCl). 10.8. 20 UO2 +80 PuO2
UO22+. UO2 + NpO2. UO2. Pu4+. Pu4+. Cl-. (from 3LiCl-2KCl). 10.6. 100 PuO2 (from
UO22+. PuO22+. UO22+. UO22+. NpO2+. UO2. LiCl-KCl-CsCl). 10.3.
PuO2. PuO2. MOX. Cl-. Pu4+. UO22+. UO22+. 27Main goals for dry technologies
PuO2+. UO2. PuO2. MA,REE. (MA,REE) RW4. , development for 2020. Development of Pyro
10RIAR experience in reprocessing of reprocessing technologies on a
spent fuel of the BOR-60 and BN-350 semi-industrial level: FR SNF – molten
reactors. One BN-600 Spent MOX fuel salt technologies MOX Mixed Nitrides
assembly will be reprocessed on 2011 (10% Metallic LWR SNF – combination of fluoride
burnup, 26 kg - core, 20 kg – blanket). volatility and molten salt technologies
Decontamination factors (DF) from main UOX MOX Others So called
FPs. Fuel type. Burn up ,%. Mass, kg. hard-to-reprocessing SNF (test and
Period. Reactor. UO2. 7,7. 2,5. transportation reactors) Innovation types
1972..1973. BOR-60. (U,Pu)O2. 4,7. 4,1. of fuel (IMF, MSR +++) Demonstration of
1991. BN-350. (U,Pu)O2. 21..24. 3,5. 1995. Closing of BN-800 Fuel Cycle - on a
BOR-60. UO2. 10. 5. 2000. BOR-60. semi-industrial level up to 30 % annual
(U,Pu)O2. 10. 12. 2000…2001. BOR-60. loading, i.e. up to 3,5 – 4 t of MOX SNF
(U,Pu)O2. 16. 5. 2004. BOR-60. Fuel type. per Year Testing and Demonstration of
Fuel type. Main FPs. Main FPs. Main FPs. Closing FR Fuel Cycle for MA Develop the
Main FPs. Main FPs. Ru- Rh. Ce- Pr. Cs. Initial Data for full scale Design of
Eu. Sb. PuO2 for BN-350 (test, 1991). 50. Industrial Pyro Module for FR SNF
220. > 3000. 40. 200. PuO2 for BOR-60 Reprocessing. 27.
(test, 1995). 33. 40..50. 4000. 40..50. 283D View on MultiPhunctional Complex.
120. UO2 for BOR-60 (test, 2000). > 30. 28.
~. > 4000. > 200. ~. (U,Pu)O2 for 29Layout of MPC. Repair Zone. Repair
BOR-60 ( test, 2001). 20 - 30. 25. ~ Zone. 29.
10000. > 100. ~. 30Conclusions. Basic studies on
11MOX-MOX reprocessing experiments. 2000 pyrochemical processes in molten chlorides
1st Main MOX - 3 200 g, Pu content - 10 are mainly completed Different
%wt . Current efficiency – 15 %. 2004 Main technological methods developed and tested
MOX - 3 400 g, Pu content - 30 %wt . for oxide and nitride fuel reprocessing
Current efficiency – 35 %. and refabrication Pyroelectrochemical
12Granulated MOX-Fuel. Metal content, technology for production of MOX
%wt. 87,75. Pyknometric density of vibropacked fuel for the BN-800 fast
granules, g/cm3. 10,7. Bulk density of reactor is under implementation in Russia.
polydispersed granulate, g/cm3. 6,0. O/M Both type of plutonium – military and
ratio (oxygen ratio). 2,00+0,01. Mass power grade civil - will be used for MOX
fraction of process impurities, %: fuel production. Dry technologies were
chlorine – ion. 0,006. carbon. 0,006. choose as basic advanced processes for the
13Pyrochemical Wastes treatment. Na3PO4. closed fuel cycle with the fast reactors
Salt purification. Salt residue. New facilities are under design and
Pyroreprocessing. NaCl CsCl. NdPO4CePO4. construction for investigation and
Phosphates. Fission products. Radioactive demonstration of industrial closed fuel
Cs. Waste. Phosphates. Salt residue. cycle with the fast reactors in Russia.
Special features. contain fission 31Thank you for your attention!
products. Alkaline metal chlorides, high Alexander Bychkov State Scientific Centre
activity, significant heat release. Basic Research Institute of Atomic Reactors.
elements. 11 wt.% Nd 4,4 wt.% Ce. 81,96
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