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As Pete wolfed down his dinner, he was curious
As Pete wolfed down his dinner, he was curious
CQ#2: What percent of your average daily food intake is fresh fruits
CQ#2: What percent of your average daily food intake is fresh fruits
CQ#3: What percentage of your average daily food intake is lipids
CQ#3: What percentage of your average daily food intake is lipids
Pete searched the internet
Pete searched the internet
Steroids
Steroids
Steroids
Steroids
Steroids
Steroids
Fats and Fatty Acids
Fats and Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Phospholipids
Phospholipids
Phospholipids
Phospholipids
Since cholesterol is hydrophobic (water fearing) and blood is
Since cholesterol is hydrophobic (water fearing) and blood is
Hyperlipidemia can lead to disease
Hyperlipidemia can lead to disease
Trans Fats  The Double Whammy
Trans Fats The Double Whammy
Statin Drugs (optional slide)
Statin Drugs (optional slide)
Face the Fats: The Biochemistry of Lipids by Nancy A. Rice Western Kentucky University

: NCC. , . , Face the Fats: The Biochemistry of Lipids by Nancy A. Rice Western Kentucky University.ppt zip- 1146 .

Face the Fats: The Biochemistry of Lipids by Nancy A. Rice Western Kentucky University

Face the Fats: The Biochemistry of Lipids by Nancy A. Rice Western Kentucky University.ppt
1Face the Fats: The Biochemistry of 27well. But apparently his body did not
Lipids by Nancy A. Rice Western Kentucky think so. His doctor suggested three
University. 1. things to help lower his blood
2Vytorin. Pete was glad to finally be cholesterol: Reduce the amount of
home. Hed been gone since 8 oclock this saturated fat and cholesterol in his diet.
morning - first to classes all day and Lose some weight. Losing weight can help
then straight to his job at Dillards. Now lower your LDL and total cholesterol
it was 8 pm. He walked into his apartment levels, as well as raise your HDL and
and threw his backpack on the floor. Whew! lower your triglyceride levels. Be
He was tired and hungry! He found some hot physically active for at least 30 minutes
pockets in the freezer and threw two in most, if not all, days. 27.
the microwave before he slumped on the 28So if KFC already cooks their chicken
couch and turned on the TV. Another one of in vegetable oil, whats the problem? Ok,
those annoying drug company commercials! doc. No more burgers and fries. But I
This one was about some drug called dont get it. Ive been reading a lot on
VytorinTM. As the microwave beeped that the internet and I know that oil, like
his dinner was ready, Pete watched the corn oil, is not saturated. Its
commercial and laughed at all of the unsaturated. So why are things cooked in
people who resembled what they ate. He margarine also bad? Isnt margarine made
wondered.do I look like a Hot Pocket? from corn oil? Yes, youre right, Pete,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBfWybm0218 his doctor said. There is another type of
or search on Youtube for Vytorin Ad. 2. bad fat out there. Its called a trans
3As Pete wolfed down his dinner, he was fat. Lots of trans fats exist in products
curious. How much cholesterol was in a hot like margarine.. 28.
pocket anyway? He grabbed the box from the 29CQ#8: Trans fats _____. A. Are
trash can and read the nutrition label on essential. B. Are antioxidants. C. Have
the back. 3. trans double bonds. D. Are present in all
4CQ#1: How much cholesterol was in foods. E. Are in transition from
Petes dinner? 25 milligrams 50 milligrams unsaturated to saturated fats. 29.
6 grams 13 grams. 4. 30CQ#9: Trans fats are formed when: A.
5Too young to have high cholesterol. Liquid fat is chemically changed to solid
Whoa! After reading the package, Pete fat. B. Solid fat is chemically changed to
realized that only one hot pocket is liquid fat. C. Liquid fat is refrigerated.
considered a serving so he had eaten 620 D. Solid fat is melted. 30.
calories for dinner! Not to mention 50 mg 31Trans Fats The Double Whammy. Trans
of cholesterol. Although he had no idea if fats come from adding hydrogen to
this was high or not, he figured it vegetable oil (unsaturated fats) through a
couldnt be too good or there wouldnt be process called hydrogenation. Partially
a need for a Lean Pocket! He decided to hydrogenated oils may contain higher
research cholesterol levels on the levels of trans fats. Trans fats are more
internet. He was not even sure what solid than oils. Trans fats increase the
cholesterol was to begin with. He also shelf life of foods. Unlike other fats,
wondered: what should a normal persons trans fats both raise your "bad"
cholesterol level be? Did he have high (LDL) cholesterol and lower your
cholesterol? Nah, he reasoned. How could "good" (HDL) cholesterol. 31.
I? Im too young. 5. 32CQ#10: Which of these does not contain
6Nutritional analysis of 3 common fast trans fats? A. Fast-food french fries B.
food meals. Wendys 1.4 lb single with Grilled hamburger C. Store-bought cookies
cheese 530 calories 27 g of total fat D. Frozen chicken nuggets. 32.
Medium french fries 420 calories 20 g of 33CQ#11: What does trans-fat-free mean
total fat. Subway 6 turkey breast on food labels? A. Less than 1.5g per
sandwich (no mayo or cheese) 280 calories serving B. Less than 1g per serving C.
3.5 g total fat 2oz bag of Doritos 280 Less than 0.5g per serving D. 0g per
calories 14 g total fat. Steak n Shake serving. 33.
Frisco Melt 1173 calories 93 g of total 34FDA recommendations for labeling trans
fat French fries 211 calories 10g total fats. In January 2006, all food labels
fat Vanilla shake 654 calories 21 g total were required to list saturated fat and
fat. 47 g total fat. 17.5 g total fat. 124 cholesterol amounts AND trans fat content.
g total fat. 6. Foods with 0.5 g or less / serving are
7CQ#2: What percent of your average considered trans fat free. From the FDA:
daily food intake is fresh fruits and/or If the ingredient list includes the words
vegetables? A. 0% B. 10% C. 25 % D. 50% or shortening, partially hydrogenated
greater. 7. vegetable oil or hydrogenated vegetable
8CQ#3: What percentage of your average oil, the food contains trans fat. Because
daily food intake is lipids? A. 0% B. 10% ingredients are listed in descending order
C. 25 % D. 50% or greater. 8. of predominance, smaller amounts are
9Pete searched the internet After a present when the ingredient is close to
quick Google search, Pete found the the end of the list. 34.
following information: The American Heart 35Ban the Trans Fats! Many cities and
Association and the United States several states have lobbied to ban trans
Department of Agriculture recommend that fats from restaurants Tiburon, CA, was
you limit your fat intake to no more than first. New York City was second. For more
30% of your daily calories. Of that 30%, information see
10% or less of the fat calories should http://www.bantransfats.com/. 35.
come from saturated fat. One gram of fat = 36Resolution. Wow! Pete never knew that
9 calories. Fat? Saturated fat? Are these food could be so complicated. But now it
different than cholesterol? Pete kept all makes sense. He didnt think he ate a
searching. 9. lot of high cholesterol foods, but he did
10CQ#4: Pete normally consumes ~ 2000 eat a lot of processed snacks and fast
calories per day. What % of his total food cookies, french fries foods with
daily caloric intake is coming from the high trans fat content. Pete decided it
two Hot Pockets? What % of his total daily was time to really start paying more
calories is coming from the fat in his two attention to what he ate, especially with
Hot Pockets? A. ~ 30%; 5% B. ~ 30 %; 11% regard to fats and cholesterol, and to
C. ~ 50 %; 20% D. ~ 60 %; 11%. Is Pete exercise. Its never to early to Face the
meeting AHA recommended guidelines for fat Fats.. 36.
consumption? (limit your fat intake to no 37Postscript. Are all partially
more than 30% of your daily calories). hydrogenated products bad? NO! Recent
10. changes in the food industry with regard
11Cholesterol is a Lipid. Lipids are the to processing of oils results in partially
group of biological macromolecules that hydrogenated products with minimal trans
have a major hydrocarbon component and are fat content. A recent publication in Ann
mostly nonpolar and hydrophobic. Nutr Metab 2009; 54 (Suppl.1):15-24 states
Functionally, lipids are important in cell that: margarines and cooking products,
membrane structure and in energy and to a lesser extent dressings, have
production. There are three main families been adapted to contain less trans fatty
of lipids: Steroids Fats Phospholipids. acids (TFA), less saturated fatty acids
11. (SFA) and more essential (polyunsaturated,
12Steroids. Typically have a core PUFA) fatty acidsBy blending vegetable
structure of four fused carbon rings oils rich in the essential PUFAs
Cholesterol is an example. Many hormones a-linolenic acid (w-3) or linoleic acid
and vitamins are steroids. Cholesterol. (w-6), margarines and dressings with both
12. essential fatty acids present in
13Fats and Fatty Acids. A fat, also significant quantities can be realized. In
known as a triacylglycerol or addition, full hydrogenation and fat
triglyceride, is a glycerol linked to rearrangement have enabled the production
three fatty acids. Condensation reactions of cost-effective margarines virtually
between glycerol hydroxyl groups and fatty devoid of TFA and low in SFA. Dietary
acid carboxyl groups form ester linkages surveys indicate that vegetable oils, soft
joining the two subunits. Fatty acids can margarines and dressings are indeed often
be either saturated or unsaturated. 13. important sources of essential fatty acids
14Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. in people's diets, whilst providing
Fats that have no double bonds in the negligible amounts of TFA and contributing
hydrocarbon chain are saturated with modestly to SFA intakes. . 37.
hydrogens and are very linear, e.g. animal 38Statin Drugs (optional slide). Statin
fats. Fats that have a double bond are drugs inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase
called unsaturated and have kinks in the This is an enzyme in the synthesis pathway
hydrocarbon chain, e.g. plant oils. of cholesterol Statins also increase
Unsaturated fats can be either cholesterol uptake from the bloodstream by
monounsaturated as shown or resulting in more LDL receptor expression
polyunsaturated (more than one double Vytorin is actually a combination drug
bond). Unsaturated fats are generally made of simvastatin and ezetimibe, (Zetia)
healthier than saturated fats. 14. which prevents cholesterol absorption from
15CQ#5: Which of the following is the the digestive tract. 38.
best explanation for why vegetable oils 39Image Credits. 39. Slides 3, 4 and 9
are liquid at room temperature? A. right Description: Image of the
Vegetable oils are saturated fatty acids nutritional data from a cheeseburger Hot
that do not pack together efficiently and Pockets. Slide 7 lower right
therefore have a low melting point. B. Description: Fruits and vegetables Source:
Vegetable oils are saturated fatty acids Wikimedia commons Link:
that pack together very efficiently and http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm
therefore have a low melting point. C. ns/b/bd/Shukaku_no_aki_autumn_fruit_vegeta
Vegetable oils are unsaturated fatty acids les.JPG Permission: Permission is granted
that do not pack together efficiently and to copy, distribute and/or modify this
therefore have a low melting point. D. document under the terms of the GNU Free
Vegetable oils are unsaturated fatty acids Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any
that pack together very efficiently and later version published by the Free
therefore have a low melting point. 15. Software Foundation Slide 8 lower right
16Phospholipids. Phospholipids consist Description: Oils Source: National
of a 3-carbon glycerol linked to a Institutes of Health Link:
negatively charged phosphate group, and http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/images/
two fatty acids. Phospholipids are a major liveoil.jpg Permission: Open source free
component of cell membranes due to their access; work of U.S. Federal government
amphipathic nature. Amphipathic molecules under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1,
have a nonpolar region (hydrophobic) and a Section 105, of the U.S. Code. Slide 12
polar region (hydrophilic). 16. right Description: Molecular structure of
17CQ#6: Which of these best describes cortisol and Vitamin D Source: Wikimedia
the term phospholipid? A polar lipid Commons Link:
molecule that fully interacts with water. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ste
B. A nonpolar lipid molecule that is made oid_hormones,_cortisol_and_Vitamin_D3.jpg
amphipathic by the addition of a Permission: This image of a simple
phosphate. C. A nonpolar lipid molecule structural formula is ineligible for
that is made polar by the addition of a copyright and therefore in the public
phosphate. D. A polar lipid molecule that domain, because it consists entirely of
fully repels water. 17. information that is common property and
18Pete was beginning to understand a contains no original authorship. Slide 12
little bit about cholesterol and fats. But right (lower) Description: Cell membrane
he still didnt understand: why were they structure Source; Wikimedia Commons Link:
so unhealthy? And if they are unhealthy, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cel
why do we even need cholesterol and fat? _membrane_detailed_diagram_en.svg
In small groups, develop an answer. What Permission: This image has been released
would you tell Pete? 18. into the public domain by its author,
19Pete learned that your body needs some LadyofHats.
cholesterol. In addition to being a 4040. Slide 13 right Description:
component of cell membranes, cholesterol Molecular structure of a triglyceride
is also used to make hormones, vitamin D, backbone Source: Wikimedia Commons Link:
and substances that help you digest foods. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tri
Your liver makes all the cholesterol your lyceride-2D-skeletal.png Permission: This
body needs. And excess cholesterol and fat image has been released into the public
in our bodies is dangerous. It often means domain by its author Slide 14 right top
you are overweight, and it can damage your Description: Space filling model of
vascular system. The amount of cholesterol myristic acid Source: Wikimedia commons
a person produces varies depending upon Link:
their genetic makeup. 19. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Myr
20Since cholesterol is hydrophobic stic-acid-3D-vdW.png Permission: image has
(water fearing) and blood is hydrophilic been released into the public domain by
(water loving), the two do not mix. its author Slide 14 right middle
Cholesterol is carried through the Description: Molecular structure of
bloodstream in protein packages called myristic acid Source: Wikimedia commons
lipoproteins, made up of lipid on the Link:
inside and protein on the outside. Two http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Myr
kinds of lipoproteins carry cholesterol stic_acid.svg Permission: This image is
throughout your body. - High density ineligible for copyright and therefore in
lipoproteins (HDL) - Low density the public domain, because it consists
lipoproteins (LDL). 20. entirely of information that is common
21LDL and HDL continued. LDL property and contains no original
cholesterol is sometimes called bad authorship Slide 14 right middle
cholesterol. High LDL cholesterol leads to Description: Space filling model of oleic
a buildup of cholesterol in arteries. The acid Source: Wikimedia commons Link:
higher the LDL level in your blood, the http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ole
greater chance you have of getting heart c-acid-3D-vdW.png Permission: This image
disease. HDL cholesterol is sometimes has been released into the public domain
called good cholesterol. HDL carries by its author Slide 14 right bottom
cholesterol from other parts of your body Description: Molecular structure of oleic
back to your liver. The liver removes the acid Source: Wikimedia Commons Link:
cholesterol from your body. The higher http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ole
your HDL cholesterol level, the lower your c-acid-skeletal.svg Permission: This image
chance of getting heart disease. 21. has been released into the public domain
22Hyperlipidemia can lead to disease. by its author Slide 16 right (left hand
When there is too much cholesterol /LDL in side) Description: Molecular structure of
your body (because of diet and the rate at phosphatidylcholine Source: Wikimedia
which the cholesterol is processed) it is commons Link:
deposited in arteries, including those of http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pho
the heart, which can lead to narrowing of phatidylcholine.png Permission: Permission
the arteries and heart disease. Studies of is granted to copy, distribute and/or
people with heart disease have shown that modify this document under the terms of
lowering cholesterol/LDL reduces the risk the GNU Free Documentation License,
for dying from heart disease, having a Version 1.2 or any later version published
heart attack, or needing heart bypass by the Free Software Foundation.
surgery or angioplasty. 22. 4141. Slide 16 right (right hand side)
23Pete was beginning to get the idea. Description: Structure of phospholipids in
Low cholesterol/LDL levels in your blood solution Source: Wikimedia commons Link:
help keep you healthy by preventing heart http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pho
attacks and strokes. Therefore, maybe pholipids_aqueous_solution_structures.svg
eating foods that are low in cholesterol Permission: This image has been released
may ultimately be able to lower your risk into the public domain by its author,
for these diseases. But what would a LadyofHats. Slide 20 right Description:
normal blood cholesterol level be? 23. lipoprotein structure Source:
24Lipoprotein Profile. Cholesterol "lipoprotein." The Oxford
levels are measured in milligrams (mg) of Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood. University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007.
Desirable or optimal levels for adults Answers.com 21 Jul. 2009.
with or without existing heart disease http://www.answers.com/topic/lipoprotein
are: Total cholesterol: Less than 200 Link:
mg/dL. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) http://content.answers.com/main/content/im
cholesterol: Less than 100 mg/dL. High /oxford/Oxford_Sports/0199210896.lipoprote
Density Lipoprotein (HDL): 40 mg/dL or n.1.jpg Permission: Slide 22 right
higher. Triglycerides: Less than 150 Description: Artherosclerosis Source:
mg/dL. The National Cholesterol Education National Heart Lung Blood Institute of the
Program recommends that healthy adults NIH Link:
over 20 years of age have their http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseas
cholesterol levels checked once every 5 s/Hbc/HBC_WhatIs.html Permission: Open
years. 24. source free access; work of U.S. Federal
25Pete heads to the campus health government under the terms of Title 17,
center Pete decided he better check out Chapter 1, Section 105, of the U.S. Code.
his own lipid profile. He went to the Slide 30 right Description: Krispy Kreme
campus health center after fasting all donuts Source: Wikimedia Link:
night and had his blood drawn. A few days http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm
later the doctor called with his results. ns/b/b6/Krispy_Kreme_donut_assortment.JPG
25. Permission; Permission is granted to copy,
26CQ#7: Review Petes lipid profile distribute and/or modify this document
results below. What should Pete know? A. under the terms of the GNU Free
Pete has acceptable cholesterol levels. B. Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any
Pete has borderline high cholesterol and later version published by the Free
high LDL levels; however the fact that his Software Foundation Slide 38 right
HDL is elevated is a benefit to him. C. Description: HMG-CoA reductase pathway
Pete has high cholesterol and HDL levels (cholesterol) Source: Wikimedia Link
yet the fact that his LDL is elevated is a http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HMG
benefit to him. Total cholesterol: 233.4 CoA_reductase_pathway.png Permission:
mg/dl HDL: 55 mg/dl LDL: 122 mg/dl Permission is granted to copy, distribute
Triglycerides:125 mg/dl. 26. and/or modify this document under the
27Pete was surprised. He was young, terms of the GNU Free Documentation
relatively active (he walked to class License, Version 1.2 or any later version
everyday at least), was only a little published by the Free Software Foundation.
overweight, and he thought he ate pretty
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Face the Fats: The Biochemistry of Lipids by Nancy A. Rice Western Kentucky University

Face the Fats: The Biochemistry of Lipids by Nancy A. Rice Western Kentucky University

the woman - . . = . A good wife makes a good husband. 9 , : Un homme- . A man - . A womans tongue wags like a lambs tail. As great a pity to see a woman cry as a goose go barefoot.

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The english-speaking countries - Disneyland. Australia. Scotland. Great Britain. USA. The English-speaking countries.

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