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Filters and Enveloping - A Practical Discussion -
Filters and Enveloping - A Practical Discussion -
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
Consider This Simple Vibration Signal in the Time Domain
A Word About Bearings
A Word About Bearings
A Word About Bearings
A Word About Bearings
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Filters and Enveloping - A Practical Discussion

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1Filters and Enveloping - A Practical 1560 Hz. 15. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell
Discussion -. William Tudoroff Condition Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Monitoring Services Product Manager 16A Word About Bearings. The vast
Rockwell Automation. 1. Copyright © 2005 majority of bearings are one of two types:
Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights Rolling Element, or “Anti-Friction”
reserved. Bearings and Fluid Film Bearings. Rolling
2Agenda Sample. 1. Basic Filter Element: Low cost, simple to apply. But
Terminology. 2. Basic Filter Theory. 3. are capable of only moderate speeds and
Rolling Element Bearing Faults. 4. relatively light loads. Rotor dynamics
Applying Envelopes. 2. Copyright © 2005 aren’t bad but diagnostics can be complex
Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights due to all those spinning balls! Fluid
reserved. Film: Capable of supporting very high
3Consider This Simple Vibration Signal loads, high temperatures, high speed.
in the Time Domain. 3. Copyright © 2005 Expensive and associated rotor dynamics
Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights are very complex. Accelerometer. Eddy
reserved. Current Probe. bearing. bearing. bearing
4Or in the Frequency Domain. Amplitude. housing. bearing housing. Oil Wedge (load
Frequency. 40 Hz. 4. Copyright © 2005 zone). Soft Metal (Babbitt). 16. Copyright
Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights © 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All
reserved. rights reserved.
5Basic Filter Terminology – High Pass 17Rolling Element Bearing Faults. What
Filter. High Pass Filter – Allows happens when there is a fault or defect on
Frequencies Higher than the filter value the inner or outer race of the bearing? We
to be retained in the signal – also known feel an impact anytime a ball or roller
as the Low Corner Frequency*. 40 Hz High passes over the defect This impact energy
Pass Filter. *Remember – If it’s an is typically very low amplitude. Fault or
important concept in the world of Defect on Outer Race. Accelerometer.
Vibration, there must be more than one bearing. bearing housing. 17. Copyright ©
name for it. Amplitude. Frequency. 40 Hz. 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights
5. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell Automation, reserved.
Inc. All rights reserved. 18Rolling Element Bearing Faults. In
6Basic Filter Terminology – Low Pass fact, the vibration energy from a bearing
Filter. Low Pass Filter – Allows fault is so small sometimes that it gets
Frequencies Lower than the filter value to hidden by all the other machine vibration
be retained in the signal – also known as going on: Unbalance, Looseness,
the High Corner Frequency or Frequency Misalignment, etc. 18. Copyright © 2005
Maximum. 40 Hz Low Pass Filter. Amplitude. Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights
Frequency. 40 Hz. 6. Copyright © 2005 reserved.
Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights 19Remember our Band Pass Filter or
reserved. Envelope. If we pass the signal through
7Basic Filter Terminology – Band Pass the right Envelope or High Pass Filter, we
Filter. Band Pass Filter – Allows could theoretically leave only the
Frequencies in the Band defined by the vibration generated by our bearing fault.
filter value to be retained in the signal Band Pass Filter. Amplitude. Frequency.
– also known as Enveloping. 30 - 50 Hz 19. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell Automation,
Band Pass Filter. Amplitude. Frequency. 40 Inc. All rights reserved.
Hz. 7. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell 20Enveloping and High Pass Filtered
Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. Signal. Our Enveloped or High Pass
8Basic Filter Theory – When Does the Filtered Signal would look like this:
Filtering Occur? Although we have Amplitude. 20. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell
visualized the filter in the Frequency Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Domain – the actual signal processing can 21What Envelope or High Pass Filter
occur in either the Frequency or Time Should We Use? We need to know what
Domain. Also, when filtering in the frequency or frequencies we are trying to
Frequency Domain, this can occur in the isolate The frequencies are generated by
hardware as the data is being processed, the impact of the ball or roller as it
or in the Software, after the data has passes over the defect on the race So what
been processed. 8. Copyright © 2005 frequency is this? 21. Copyright © 2005
Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights
reserved. reserved.
9Basic Filter Theory – Analog Filter. 22What Envelope or High Pass Filter
Filtering in the Time Domain is also Should We Use? If we envelope properly, we
called an Analog Hardware Filter because should be able to eliminate all the higher
the filtering occurs during the actual amplitude, low frequencies that are
capture of the Time Waveform. Analog present in the signal: Unbalance Frequency
Input. Analog to Digital Converter. Analog (1X) Misalignment Frequencies (1X and 2X)
Filter. Digital Output. Digital Signal Looseness Frequencies (1X and 2X and
Processor. 9. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell possibly more running speed harmonics)
Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. Fundamental Bearing Defect Frequencies
10Basic Filter Theory – Analog Filter. (Non-harmonics from around 3X to around
If the Raw Time Waveform was made up of 40X) So what frequency is this? Amplitude.
the 20 Hz and 60 Hz Signals Below. 40 Hz 22. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell Automation,
Analog High Pass Filter. This becomes the Inc. All rights reserved.
Analog Signal Sent to the Analog to 23Bearing System Natural Frequencies. If
Digital Converter. 10. Copyright © 2005 we envelope properly, all we should have
Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights left is the bearing natural frequency
reserved. response to the impacts that are occurring
11Basic Filter Theory – Analog Filter is as the balls or rollers pass over the
a Roll Off Filter. An Analog Filter is defect(s) Why? Because this gives us a
considered a Roll-Off Filter – in other measure of the energy generated by any
words the filter is not a brick wall but impacts or impulses on the system Since we
allows some of the signal beyond the are measuring the amount of resonance
filter value to pass through The Filter occurring in the system, it will be very
“Attenuates” or reduces the amplitudes of sensitive to the severity of the impacts
the frequencies below the filter value The and hence, the severity of the fault If
filter values will be defined by the measured properly, we should see almost
hardware manufacturer as they are an all bearing related energy. 23. Copyright
actual Analog Chip Lets visualize it in © 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All
the Frequency Domain – even though the rights reserved.
filtering is occurring in the Time Domain. 24What High Pass or Envelope Filters are
11. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell Automation, Available in the Hardware? Rockwell
Inc. All rights reserved. Automation (Entek and IRD Brands) Use
12Basic Filter Theory – Analog Filter is Analog High Pass Filters 100 Hz, 200 Hz,
a Roll Off Filter. 40 Hz High Pass Filter. 500 Hz, 1 KHz, 2 KHz and 5 KHz SKF Use
Roll-Off. Amplitude. Frequency. 40 Hz. 60 Analog Envelope Filters 5 to 100 Hz, 50 to
Hz. 12. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell 1000 Hz, 0.5 to 10 kHz, 5 to 40 kHz and
Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. 250 to 350 kHz CSI Use Analog High Pass
13Basic Filter Theory – Digital Filter. Filters 500 Hz, 1 KHz, 2 KHz and 5 KHz
Filtering in the Frequency Domain is often Both CSI and Rockwell Automation then
called a Digital Hardware Filter because apply a digital low pass filter to the
the filtering occurs during the actual signal to create the Envelope. 24.
Digital Signal Processing of the Time Copyright © 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc.
Waveform into a Frequency Spectrum. Analog All rights reserved.
Input. Analog to Digital Converter. Analog 25What Does the Spectrum Look Like? What
Filter. Digital Output. Digital Signal are These? Amplitude. Amplitude.
Processor. Fast Fourier Transform, Frequency. 25. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell
Integration and Digital Filtering Occur Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Here. 13. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell 26Where Do the Sidebands come from?
Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. Carrier Frequency. Sideband or Modulating
14Basic Filter Theory – Digital Filter. Frequencies. Amplitude. Amplitude.
A Digital Filter is considered an Absolute Frequency. 26. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell
Filter – in other words the filter is Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
essentially a brick wall, allowing none of 27There’s more to Enveloping. If we
the signal beyond the filter value to pass apply a Digital Low Pass Filter as the
through The filters available are upper end of the Envelope, we can then
dependent on the hardware being used Most extract the modulating frequencies from
common example is the Frequency Maximum the impact waveform. Digital Low Pass
(FMAX) setting we are all familiar with. Filter (FMAX). The Key Question: What
40 Hz FMAX. Amplitude. Frequency. 40 Hz. frequencies are left? Amplitude.
60 Hz. 14. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell Frequency. 27. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell
Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
15Basic Filter Theory – Software Filter. 28Bearing Fault Frequencies! Ball Pass
Filtering in the Frequency Domain after of the Inner Race (BPIR) Ball Pass of the
the data has been processed in the Outer Race (BPOR) Ball Spin Frequency
hardware is called a Software Filter (BSF). 28. Copyright © 2005 Rockwell
because many vendors just display Zero Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
amplitude in any bins (lines of 29Any Questions? Remember, this was a
resolution) that are being filtered out practical overview! 29. Copyright © 2005
Thus, an infinite number of filters is Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights
available using this method. 40 Hz High reserved.
Pass Filter. Amplitude. Frequency. 40 Hz.
Filters and Enveloping - A Practical Discussion.ppt
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