Курсы английского
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Qajar Dynasty 1794-1925
Qajar Dynasty 1794-1925
Reza Shah
Reza Shah
World War II
World War II
Mohammad Reza Shah
Mohammad Reza Shah
Opposition to the Shah’s Rule
Opposition to the Shah’s Rule
The Islamic Revolution
The Islamic Revolution
Iran Hostage Crisis
Iran Hostage Crisis
Iran-Iraq War
Iran-Iraq War
Iran-Iraq War
Iran-Iraq War
After Khomeini
After Khomeini
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Фон для революция

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1Background for Persepolis, by Marjane 13felt his changes were a threat to Islam.
Satrapi: Iran’s History. 14Khomeini. A Muslim leader named
2Introduction. “Iran” comes from the Ayatollah Khomeini was one of the shah’s
word “Aryan” Aryans settled here in 1500 most vocal opponents. He condemned the
B.C. Descendents were the Medes and the shah for being corrupt and in the pocket
Persians Eventually, whole territory of the United States.
became known as the Persian Empire 1935 15The Islamic Revolution. The Shah fled
Reza Shah changed the name from Persia to in 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini became “real”
Iran. leader Declared Iran an Islamic
3Ancient Iran: Dynasties and Invasions. Republic—the clerics must rule. Iran
Though Iran has a great history of became a true theocracy: official religion
building vast empires, many groups over is also the supreme government authority.
the years fought to seize control of the 16Khomeini and The Islamic Revolution.
country. During Darius’ reign in 518 B.C., Khomeini ruled with an iron fist: -Death
Persepolis was built. Persepolis was a to those who supported/worked with the
vast palace complex that included temples, shah -Women forced to wear chador and walk
government buildings, and a place for only with male relative in public -The
special ceremonies. University of Tehran closed for two years
4Persepolis. Construction took more -Newspapers shut down -History books
than 200 years and represented the Persian re-written -Schools divided by sex -Many
Empire’s might Carvings were covered in Iranians fled (Westernized intellectuals,
gold, bronze, and lapis. those associated with the shah, or those
5Persepolis. In the 4th century B.C., who simply had grown accustomed to the
Alexander the Great burned the royal Western style).
palace at Persepolis, and made Persia part 17Iran Hostage Crisis. In 1979, Reza
of his Greek Empire. Today all that Shah allowed to enter U.S. Iranian
remains is the stone underneath; still, students went to U.S. embassy in Tehran
this is the most visited site in Iran. and took 50 people hostage. They demanded
6Qajar Dynasty 1794-1925. Early 1800’s, that the U.S. send the shah back to Iran
Russians wanted access to Persian Gulf and to stand trial, but the U.S. refused. The
the British wanted to keep their trade hostages were held for more than a year.
route to India. The Qajars needed the 18Iran-Iraq War. In 1980, Iraq invaded
money, so they made deals with both Iran. Saddam Hussein wanted to take
countries. Both the British and Russians: advantage of Iran’s chaos War lasted eight
banks, mining, control of Iranian years and affected cities, oil facilities,
industries. The Qajar shahs grew wealthy, people.
but the Iranian economy declined. The 19Iran-Iraq War. Each country maintained
Iranian people grew angry and, in an army of 600,000 To keep forces staffed,
response, the shah at the time (see both sides enlisted boys as young as 11 or
picture) created a constitution. Thus, 12 years old Each side claimed this as a
Iran’s first elected legislature, the “holy war.” Cease-fire was declared in
Majlis, was formed. 1988.
71908. In 1908, oil was discovered in 20After Khomeini. Khomeini died in 1989
Iran; the British took control over the and millions of people mourned in the
oil industry, and they took most of the streets. Sayyid Ali Khamenei took over as
profits. The people of Iran obviously did spiritual and political leader of Iran,
not like this arrangement and discontent and he still holds title of “supreme
spread. leader” A moderate cleric named Ayatollah
8Reza Shah. Reza Shah Pahlavi was a Muahmmad Khatami became president in 1997.
general in the Persian army who: Led the Hoping to improve the status of women and
coup d’etat to overthrow the last Qajar give more people a voice, he was also
shah in 1923. Sought to modernize Iran. friendlier to the West. He was unable to
Reduced the power of the clergy. Built a accomplish much due to resistance from
national education system and opened the more conservative and powerful government
University of Tehran. Gave women the right leaders.
to vote for the Majlis and freed them from 21Today. In 2005, Moahmoud Ahmadinejad,
Islamic obligation to wear the head-to-toe the former mayor of Tehran, won the
chador at all times. Men began wearing presidency. He turned Iran in a more
suits instead of traditional Iranian conservative direction. Iran continues to
clothes. Ordered the first railroad to have strained relations with the West,
cross the country to be built. especially the United States. In 2009, he
9World War II. The Allied forces, won re-election though many feel electoral
especially Britain and the Soviet Union, fraud took place.
wanted to ensure that Iranian oil would 22Quiz!
continue to reach the front. Both nations 23Reza Shah attempted to modernize Iran
sent troops into Iran to prevent Nazi in all of the following ways except: He
Germany from gaining control there. build a national education system. He gave
However, Reza Shah favored Germany because women the right to vote for the Majlis. He
1) he resented British and Soviet freed women from the Islamic obligation to
intrusions and 2) many Germans were living wear chadors. He discontinued the 2 years
and working in Iran at the time. of military service all Iranian men were
10Mohammad Reza Shah. In 1941, the required to serve. He reduced the power of
British and the Soviets forced Reza Shah the clergy.
Pahlavi out of power. His twenty-one year 24The Islamic Revolution of 1979 caused
old son, Mohammad Reza, replaced him as all of the following events EXCEPT: The
shah (see pic). Early on, he was heavily country’s supreme government became truly
influenced by the British, who still democratic Women were forced to cover
controlled the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. their hair and wear chadors History books
Most of the money produced by Iran’s oil were rewritten Families who had come to
industry went to the British. enjoy Western freedoms fled to Europe and
11Battle Over Iran’s Oil. In 1951, the U.S. The University of Tehran was
Iranian politician Muhammad Musaddiq spoke closed for two years.
out against the British control and many 25Reza Shah (II) also wanted to
supported this stance. In response, the modernize the country, and he made efforts
Iranian government nationalized the oil to do so, however… He grew more
industry. In 1953, the British began a dictatorial as time went on Many believed
boycott of Iranian oil. People lost jobs he was corrupt He outlawed all political
and the nation’s oil industry suffered. parties but his own Those who spoke out
Supporters of Musaddiq (now Iran’s prime against him were imprisoned or killed All
minister) fought supporters of the shah. of the above.
The shah fled the country. The British 26True or False? During World War II,
convinced the U.S. to help remove Musaddiq Reza Shah was forced out of power by
from office. He was forced out and Reza Germany. False: The British and the
Shah returned. Oil industry was Soviets forced him out of power.
denationalized, only now the British did 27True or False? Strict fundamentalists
not control it all. The U.S. now had 40% were upset with Reza Shah because of his
control. looser interpretation of Islamic doctrine.
12Modernization and Corruption. Like his True!
father, Reza Shah wanted to modernize the 28True or False? Iran began the
country—schools, hospitals, roads, etc. Iran-Iraq war in 1980 in order to expand
Women could now hold public office. He its territory. False! Although this was
also, however, grew more and more the stated reason, the real reason was
dictatorial. The shah outlawed all that Saddam Hussein thought he would be
political parties but his own. Freedom of able to bring down the chaotic Iranian
speech was limited—those who spoke out government.
against him were imprisoned, while some 29True or False? After the Shah left
were killed. Meanwhile, the economy Iran in 1979, many people who had worked
suffered. with him were considered heroes and were
13Opposition to the Shah’s Rule. Huge exalted by the new leaders. False: Under
protests against the shah became common. Ayatollah Khomeini’s rule, many people who
Opposition grew in the 1970s, especially had worked with the Shah were put to
among two groups: Communist-inspired death.
students and intellectuals who wanted 30Bibliography. Milivojevic, JoAnn.
genuine and democratic reform Muslim Iran. New York: Children's P, 2008.
fundamentalists, or believers in the Sanders, Renfield. Iran. New York: Chelsea
strictest possible interpretation of House, 1990. Taus-Bolstad, Stacy. Iran in
Islamic doctrine. Many religious leaders Pictures. New York: Lerner Group, 2004.
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