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Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
New Vocab
New Vocab
New Vocab
New Vocab
Core Periphery Model
Core Periphery Model
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Cultural Regions
Cultural Regions
Ethnicities of Africa
Ethnicities of Africa
Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay
Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay
Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay
Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay
Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay
Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay
Mexico-Guatemala Border Region
Mexico-Guatemala Border Region
Mexico-Guatemala Border Region
Mexico-Guatemala Border Region
Capital of Turkey
Capital of Turkey
Geographical Characteristics of the State
Geographical Characteristics of the State
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Geographical Characteristics of the State

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1Geographical Characteristics of the 28Boundaries. Physical / Natural
State. The Cultural Mosaic Fellman, and Boundaries Median-Line Principle -
Notes from D.J. Zeigler of Old Dominion. approach to dividing and creating
2Vocab Review. Functional Region MDC boundaries at the mid-point between two
LDC Postindustrial Sectors of the Economy places. Geometric Boundaries Cultural
Primary Secondary Tertiary. State Boundaries Relict Boundaries – North &
Sovereignty Nation Nation-State South Vietnam.
Part-nation State Binational State 29Fortified Boundaries. Great Wall of
Multinational State Multistate Nation China Berlin Wall Morocco/Western Sahara –
Stateless Nation Nationalism. earth berms.
3 30Cultural Regions.
4New Vocab. Wallerstein’s World Systems 31Boundary definition – determining the
Theory: proposes that social change in the boundary by a treaty-like agreement
developing world is inextricably linked to through actual points, latitude/longitude,
the economic activities of the developed or landscape Boundary delimitation – the
world Core – Processes that incorporate boundary is drawn on the map Boundary
higher levels of education, higher demarcation – the boundary is established
salaries and more technology; generate by steel posts, concrete pillars, fences,
more wealth than periphery countries in etc. to mark the boundary on the ground.
the world economy Semi-Periphery – Places 32Boundary Disputes. Definitional: focus
where core & periphery processes are on legal language (e.g. median line of a
both occurring; places that are exploited river: water levels may vary) Locational:
by the core but in turn exploit the definition is not in dispute, the
periphery Periphery – Processes that interpretation is; allows mapmakers to
incorporate lower levels of education, delimit boundaries in various ways
lower salaries, and less technology; and Operational: neighbors differ over the way
generate less wealth than core countries the boundary should function (migration,
in the world economy. smuggling) (e.g., US/Mexico) Allocational:
5 disputes over rights to natural resources
6New Vocab. Brandt Line. (gas, oil, water) (e.g., Saddam Hussein
7Core Periphery Model. invaded Kuwait, in part, due to a dispute
8Territoriality. The modern state is an over oil rights regarding the Ramallah oil
example of a common human tendency: the field (mostly in Iraq but straddling into
need to belong to a larger group that Kuwait).
controls its own piece of the earth, its 33Ethnicities of Africa.
own territory. AP Central: How earth’s 34Politics of Geography. Effect of place
surface should be organized This is called on politics Example: Political Borders.
territoriality: a cultural strategy that 35Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay.
uses power to control area and communicate 36Mexico-Guatemala Border Region.
that control, subjugating inhabitants and 37Deforestation in Bolivia.
acquiring resources. http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/content/es
9Shapes of States. Compact States 05.sci.ess.earthsys.bolivia/.
Efficient Theoretically round Capital in 38Spatial Organization of Territory--.
center Shortest possible boundaries to 39How states organize their territory
defend Improved communications Ex. for administrative purposes. Governments
Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Poland, decide where power is localized so there
Uruguay. is a locus of power within the state.
10Shapes of States. Elongated States Power can be highly concentrated or widely
States that are long and narrow Suffer diffused. The two basic ways governments
from poor internal communication Capital are administered are unitary and federal.
may be isolated Ex. Chile, Norway, 40Unitary. Countries where the capital
Vietnam, Italy, Gambia. is associated with the core, and all power
11Shapes of States. Fragmented States is concentrated in a single place, the
Several discontinuous pieces of territory capital. Centralized governments,
Technically, all states w/off shore relatively few internal contrasts and a
islands Two kinds: separated by water strong sense of national identity, little
& separated by an intervening state provincial power. Examples: France, China
Exclave – Ex. Indonesia, USA, Russia, and newly independent states developed out
Philippines, Azerbaijan, Angola. of former colonies.
12Shapes of States. Prorupted States 41Federal. Power is shared between a
w./large projecting extension Sometimes central government and the governments of
natural Sometimes to gain a resource or provinces. Acknowledges and gives some
advantage, such as to reach water, create powers to its constituent parts; have
a buffer zone Ex. Thailand, Myanmar, strong regional government
Namibia, Mozambique, Cameroon, Dem. Rep. responsibilities. Examples: the US,
of Congo. Canada, Germany, Australia. --One result
13Proruption Examples. Dem. Rep. of of federalism is to lessen public support
Congo – when Belgians colonized included for something so radical as secession (as
Zaire River to Atlantic Ocean Afghanistan in Canada).
– when British ruled, created a 200 mi. 42Confederate.
proruption to prevent Russia from sharing 43Devolution. The process whereby
border with Pakistan Namibia – Germans regions within a state demand and gain
carved a proruption known as Caprivi Strip political strength and growing autonomy at
to gain access to the Zambezi River. the expense of the central government.
14Shapes of States. Perforated States A Example: the Soviet Union.
country that completely surrounds another 44Regional or asymmetric federalism.
state Enclave – the surrounded territory Gives some authority to subdivisions while
Ex. Lesotho/South Africa, San Marino & keeping central authority in monetary
Vatican City/Italy. policy, defense, foreign policy, etc.
15Enclaves and exclaves. An enclave is within the capital. Canada: establishment
an area surrounded by a country but not of the self-governing Nunavut territory
ruled by it. It can be self-governing United Kingdom: separate status for
(Lesotho) or an exclave of another Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Spain:
country. Can be problematic for the Catalonia, Basque country.
surrounding country. Pene-enclave—an 45Capital moves. The capital may be
intrusive piece of territory with a tiny newly created or moved from another city:
outlet such as Gambia. Karachi to Islamabad, Istanbul to Ankara.
16 Forward-thrust capital city: One that is
17 purposely placed in the interior of a
18Exclave. An exclave is part national country to show government’s desire to
territory separated from the main body of encourage more uniform development: Brazil
the country to which it belongs. Example: moved its capital from Rio de Janeiro to
Kaliningrad, separated from Russia, Brasilia in the 1950’s.
Cabinda from Angola, Alaska from US Very 46Nigeria. 100 million people speak more
undesirable if a hostile power holds the than 400 different languages: Hausa – 35
intervening territory. Defense and mil Yoruba – 25 mil Ibo – 20 mil Rest
supplies are problematic. Inhabitants may spoken by less than 1 mil. Abuja: New
develop separatist ideas. Example: Capital. Lagos: Old Capital. School
Pakistan and Bangladesh. instruction in English.
19Distribution of territory— geographic 47Capital of Turkey.
characteristics of states. The more 48
compact the territory, the easier it is to 49Brazil.
govern. Ideal shape is round or hexagonal. 50Size: a classification system. Very
Types of shapes: compact, prorupt, large. Over 1 million square miles. Large.
elongated, fragmented and perforated 135,000 to 1 million square miles. Medium.
(which contains an enclave). The most 60,000 to 135,000 square miles. Small.
damaging territorial distributions affect 10,000 to 60,000 square miles. Very small.
a country’s cohesiveness and stability: Under 10, 000 square miles. Ministates.
enclaves and exclaves. 500 to 5,000 square miles. Microstates.
20 Under 500 square miles.
21Landlocked States. No access to major 51Ministates.
sea or ocean Must negotiate rights to move 52Core-Periphery. Many states have grown
resources through other countries – to their present shape over a long time,
problems exist when countries do not agree from an original core area, which had good
on fundamental policies. resources and was easily defensible. This
22Location. Relative location: Some area usually contains the most
states are landlocked. economically developed base, densest
23 population and largest cities, and most
24 developed transportation and the resources
25Boundaries. Natural or Physical that originally supported the economy.
Boundaries Mountains Deserts Water – Core area often is where the capital is
rivers, seas, lakes, oceans. located. It becomes the node of a
26Boundaries. Physical / Natural functional culture region.
Boundaries Geometric Boundaries. 53The outlying area or periphery is
27Boundaries. Physical / Natural directed toward the core, but friction can
Boundaries Geometric Boundaries Cultural exist between the two. Countries which
Boundaries Antecedent Boundaries have developed from core areas are usually
Malaysia/Indonesia Canada/US Consequent fairly stable countries. But the absence
Boundaries Religious Boundaries between of a core can weaken a country’s national
Ireland & N. Ireland Language identity. Countries with competing core
Boundaries Subsequent Boundaries areas, such as Spain, can have problems
Yugoslavia Superimposed Boundaries too.
Indonesia/Papua New Guinea.
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Geographical Characteristics of the State

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