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Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev, b. 1931, General Secretary of the
Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev, b. 1931, General Secretary of the
Gorbachev’s wife Raisa (1932-1999)
Gorbachev’s wife Raisa (1932-1999)
Gorbachev and the Fall of the USSR
Gorbachev and the Fall of the USSR
Time to end the Cold War
Time to end the Cold War
November 1989: the fall of the Berlin Wall, symbol of Cold War
November 1989: the fall of the Berlin Wall, symbol of Cold War
Moscow, August 1991: hard-liners attempt a coup to stop democratic
Moscow, August 1991: hard-liners attempt a coup to stop democratic
Leaders of the August 1991 coup present themselves at a Moscow
Leaders of the August 1991 coup present themselves at a Moscow
August, 1991: Barricades in front of the Russian Parliament building
August, 1991: Barricades in front of the Russian Parliament building
The military desert the coup and join protesters
The military desert the coup and join protesters
Russians celebrating the defeat of the August coup
Russians celebrating the defeat of the August coup
Freed from house arrest in Crimea, Gorbachev returns to Moscow
Freed from house arrest in Crimea, Gorbachev returns to Moscow
After the coup, Gorbachev was rapidly losing power to Boris Yeltsin
After the coup, Gorbachev was rapidly losing power to Boris Yeltsin
December 1991: the three men who dissolved the Soviet Union, left to
December 1991: the three men who dissolved the Soviet Union, left to
Gorbachev in Toronto, March 2005
Gorbachev in Toronto, March 2005
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Gorbachev and the Fall of the USSR

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1Gorbachev and the Fall of the USSR. 19Negotiating an end to the Cold War The
2Soviet TV, late December 1978: Leonid threat of nuclear war as the overriding
Brezhnev records New Year greetings to issue The Cold War was undermining the
Soviet youth: Soviet system The economic burden A
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5j4JepHaP_w militarized state ensured bureaucratic
3Basic methods of social control* paralysis: society lacked basic freedoms,
authority (the power of command) exchange the state was losing its capacity to
(the power of deal) persuasion (the power govern The atmosphere of confrontation
of idea) moral codes (the power of belief) with the West was stifling impulses for
Each political-economic system relies on a necessary reforms, imposing ideological
specific combination of these methods rigidity Soviet domination of Eastern
Under state socialism, the power of Europe was now seen as an obsolete,
command dwarfed all other methods The counterproductive policy. Lessons of
command economy and one-party rule Czechoslovakia (1968) and Poland
reinforced each other Extreme (1980-81). Reforms in Eastern Europe are
centralization of economic and political necessary for Soviet reform. Solution: New
power Fear of exchange – the specter of Thinking, a plan to negotiate an end to
capitalist restoration Inefficiency and the Cold War to assure security and free
social discontent *See Charles Lindblom, up Soviet and East European potential for
Politics and Markets, Basic Books, 1976. reform. “The Sinatra Doctrine”.
4The Communist Party under state 20Options for reform Conviction that
socialism The system’s core The principle Soviet socialism could only be revived
of hierarchy (“democratic centralism”) The through the creation of a market mechanism
Party leadership controls all mechanisms and political liberalization (presented as
of the state, including economic democratization) Linkages between economic
management Assuring the mass base through and political reforms At first – priority
Party membership Control of information of economic over political Economic reform
(little or no media freedom, heavy use of impossible without political
propaganda, control of the cultural liberalization Political liberalization
sphere) The key role of security organs leads to the emergence of political
Cannot be used against Party leadership divisions within the Party and society –
Use of force only under extreme rise of pluralism as a natural condition
circumstances Manipulation of political Managing a pluralistic society requires
processes Surveillance, informer networks political democracy.
Preventive measures against dissent. 21Novoye myshlenie (new thinking) –
5The Soviet society: new classes, new reform of the international system, also
expectations, new relations and structures used to refer to reformist thinking in the
The ruling class (NOMENKLATURA) Ambivalent USSR Perestroika (restructuring) – a
social status: the question of ownership comprehensive overhaul of the Soviet
Does not need a dictator – WHY? system, involving all areas of public
Increasingly confident of its power and policy Glasnost – a shift to an open
right to rule Big, diverse, interested in information order Demokratizatsiya
decentralization – WHY? Reformers, (democratization) – building a new Soviet
Stalinists, pragmatic conservatives. political system.
6A new society Increasingly urbanized 22Which forces supported the reform
Rapidly growing educational levels Class process? The spectrum inside the Party:
struggle is declared over Raised in the from anarchists to monarchists The
spirit of democratic expectations (even if Party-state bureaucracy – mostly
within the limits of official ideology) conservative, fearful of change –
Demanding higher living standards Women, potential loss of power and privilege The
youth, intellectuals: new social demands managerial class is interested in greater
Development of nationalist sentiments autonomy, limited market freedom The
Citizens losing fear of the state. intellectuals: overwhelming support for
7The essence of the reform process liberal reform, democratization
States and societies created by the Rank-and-file Party membership
communists enter into a process of complex predominantly in favour of Gorbachev’s
interactions: --between the rulers and the reforms The ideological legitimacy of
ruled --between different social groups democracy The working class Nationalists
--between internal and external forces in non-Russian republics.
Both conflicts and accomodation Challenges 23From reform to collapse 1. 1985-86:
to political leaders Open-ended outcomes negotiating an end to the Cold War.
Successes and failures. Cautious attempts at reforms, with the
8The main components of the reform main emphasis on the economy 2. 1986-88:
process – addressing the system’s flaws End of the Cold War. A more decisive
DECENTRALIZATION LIBERALIZATION policy of market reforms, accompanied by
MARKETIZATION DEMILITARIZATION OPENING TO glasnost, liberalization, and political
THE WORLD The outcome depended on many reform 3. 1989: First democratic election
factors – both internal and external State in USSR, emergence of democratic
socialism had to prove its viability under opposition, fall of communist regimes in
conditions of peace. Eastern Europe 4. 1990: Democratic
9Decentralization. Achieving rational elections in the 15 Soviet republics, push
distribution of power between different for sovereignty, Gorbachev’s desperate
levels of communist state structure Within attempts to maintain control 5. 1991:
the USSR: More power to national republics Escalation of conflict between
Within the Soviet bloc: Loosening of conservatives and democratic reformers.
Soviet control over Eastern Europe Limits: The August coup and the paralysis of the
Fear of loss of control Requires Soviet state. Dissolution of the Soviet
liberalization The dynamics of nationalism Union.
– prospect of creation of new 24November 1989: the fall of the Berlin
nation-states, shifts of allegiance in the Wall, symbol of Cold War division of
Cold War. Europe.
10Liberalization. Reducing state 25Moscow, August 1991: hard-liners
domination over society New society attempt a coup to stop democratic reforms.
expects the state to be democratic – 26Leaders of the August 1991 coup
serving the people (influence of ideology present themselves at a Moscow
– both communist and Western) The press-conference.
international environment fosters those 27August, 1991: Barricades in front of
expectations No mass repressions; lesser the Russian Parliament building.
role for security organs Relaxation of 28The August 1991 coup:
controls over cultural life Development of http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4bWo49OoFo
pluralism within the ruling party How far 29The military desert the coup and join
could communists go down this road? protesters.
11Marketization. Restoration of elements 30Russians celebrating the defeat of the
of market systems Considerations of August coup.
economic efficiency Growing consumer 31Freed from house arrest in Crimea,
demands Interests of managers, Gorbachev returns to Moscow.
entrepreneurs Problems: Does the revival 32After the coup, Gorbachev was rapidly
of market forces make restoration of losing power to Boris Yeltsin.
capitalism inevitable? What do the people 33December 1991: the three men who
want – capitalism or socialism? dissolved the Soviet Union, left to right:
ALTERNATIVE MODEL – MARKET SOCIALISM. Presidents Kravchuk of Ukraine,
12Demilitarization. Reducing the burden Shushkevich of Belarus, Yeltsin of Russia.
of military expenditures Dismantling the 34FACTS BEHIND THE DRAMA THE SOVIET
“battle order” (partial) War is not EMPIRE WAS DISSOLVED IN A SERIES OF
inevitable Counterfactors: Power of the POLITICAL DEALS, INITIATED BY MOSCOW ROUND
military-industrial complex The ONE: Gorbachev encourages East European
international environment (competition communists to act on their own; USSR loses
with the West, upheavals in the Third control over Eastern Europe; Soviet
World) Persistence of militarized republics get more power ROUND TWO:
thinking. Yeltsin and leaders of the other 14
13Opening to the World. Wider republics move to dissolve the USSR ROUND
participation in the global economy THREE: Yeltsin and leaders of Russia’s
Peaceful coexistence with capitalism Arms regions sign the Federal Treaty to
control and disarmament Wider cultural and establish the Russian Federation.
human contacts with foreign countries 35THE BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO
Counterfactors: Moscow feared loss of FALLS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE 20TH
control over Eastern Europe Dangers of CENTURY: The Romanov Empire collapsed as a
ideological “contamination” International result of a revolution, the elites were
advocacy of human rights challenged overthrown and replaced by new elites as a
communist rulers. result of the civil war The Communist
14Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev, b. 1931, elites moved to divide the empire to
General Secretary of the Communist Party recast themselves as leaders of
of the Soviet Union (1985-1990), President independent nation-states – or of units of
of the USSR (1990-1991). the Russian Federation A key reason why
15Gorbachev’s wife Raisa (1932-1999). the Soviet empire made a relatively quiet
16 exit was because key Soviet elites saw a
17Gorby on need for reform, disarmament future for themselves after communism.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=595W4JJHa2U 36Gorbachev in Toronto, March 2005.
18Time to end the Cold War.
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