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High-Quality Unstructured Volume Rendering on the PC Platform
High-Quality Unstructured Volume Rendering on the PC Platform
High-Quality Unstructured Volume Rendering on the PC Platform
High-Quality Unstructured Volume Rendering on the PC Platform
Introduction
Introduction
Opacity Reconstruction
Opacity Reconstruction
Opacity Reconstruction
Opacity Reconstruction
Chromaticity Reconstruction
Chromaticity Reconstruction
Chromaticity Reconstruction
Chromaticity Reconstruction
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
HW Accelerated Pre-Int
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
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High-Quality Unstructured Volume Rendering on the PC Platform

содержание презентации «High-Quality Unstructured Volume Rendering on the PC Platform.PPT»
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1High-Quality Unstructured Volume 17Opacity Reconstruction. Approximation
Rendering on the PC Platform. Stefan Guthe of chromaticity (Radeon 8500) Texture
WSI/GRIS University of Tuebigen Stefan setup Additionally store l in primary
R?ttger, Andreas Schieber IfI/VIS color alpha. unit. coordinates. RGB. A. 0.
University of Stuttgart. Hardware Workshop 1. -. 2. -. 3. -. 4. -. 5. 0,0,l. -.
2002. 18Chromaticity Reconstruction.
2Overview. Introduction Motivation Cell Approximation of chromaticity (Radeon
Projection High Resolution Ray Integral 8500) Pixel shader. ps.1.4 texld r0, t0 //
Opacity Reconstruction Chromaticity load chromaticity and density texcrd r5,
Reconstruction Hardware Accelerated t5 // pass l into register mul r5, r0.a,
Pre-Integration Results & Conclusion. r5.b // multiply density and l phase texld
3Introduction. r1, t1 // load other coefficients texld
4Motivation. Tetrahedral Meshes Common r2, t2 texld r3, t3 texld r4, t4 texld r5,
for numerical simulations Adaptive r5 // dependent lookup mad r0.rgb, v0.a,
resolution Straight forward r0, r1 // calculate polynomial... mad
multiresolution algorithms General purpose r0.rgb, v0.a, r0, r2 mad r0.rgb, v0.a, r0,
hardware Widely available Fast polygonal r3 mad r0.rgb, v0.a, r0, r4 +mov r0.a,
rendering Flexible fragment shading for r1.a // and get alpha for final color.
recent generations Fast development of 19Chromaticity Reconstruction. Problems
future generations Cheap compared to of this approach Limited precision of
special purpose hardware. pixel shader could be a problem ?
5Cell Projection. Projected Tetrahedra normalize coefficients Additional vertex
(PT) Algorithm Shirley and Tuchman ’90 shader needed Optimal approximation
Classify tetrahedra based on profile of requires a least square fit for
projection Split tetrahedra into 3 or 4 chromaticity (infeasible) Part of the
triangles. three-dimensional pre-integration table
6Cell Projection. Projected Tetrahedra needs to be computed Interactive change of
(PT) Algorithm Render projected profiles classification no longer possible with
Chromaticity vector Scalar optical density software-only calculation of approximation
Resulting ray integral. textures.
7Ray Integral. 20HW Acceleration.
8Opacity Reconstruction. Approximation 21HW Accelerated Pre-Int. Hardware
of opacity Corresponding portion of the accelerated pre-integration Use blending
ray integral Original approximation capabilities of graphics card Construct
Calculate correct values for vertices pre-integration table slice by slice (l
Interpolate linearly between vertices constant) Problems High error with few
Improvement by Stein et al. ’94 Calculate blending operations Slow, due to large
average extinction coefficient Use texture amount of frame buffer writes High error
map for exponential lookup Linear opacity with lots of blending operations Accuracy
or piecewise linear (HIAC ‘98). of 8 bits too low No problem with new
9Opacity Reconstruction. Approximation floating point hardware.
of opacity Corresponding portion of the 22HW Accelerated Pre-Int. High accuracy
ray integral Further improvements 2D pre-integration Use high internal
texture map for lookup of average precision of pixel shader Create
extinction 1D dependent texture lookup No pre-integration table using 12-bit values
restriction to linear opacity. Perform multiple blending operations at
10Opacity Reconstruction. Approximation once 4 blending operations in one step ?
of opacity (GeForce 4) Texture setup Pixel speedup of approximately 2 Store high
shader. unit. coordinates. RGB. A. 0. precision values in two 8-bit values Loose
chrom. (RGA). 1. 0,0,l. ps.1.3 def c0, 1, some instructions to combining and
1, 0, 0 tex t0 // load chromaticity and splitting high precision values No alpha
density texdp3 t1, t0 // dependent lookup blending ? ping-pong rendering Separate
lrp r0.rgb, c0, t0, t0.a // extract passes for R,G and B.
chromaticity... +mov r0.a, t1.a // and 23HW Accelerated Pre-Int. Comparison of
alpha for final color. software and hardware pre-integration
11Opacity Reconstruction. Approximation Speedup of about 700% Relatively low
of opacity (Radeon 8500) Texture setup error. hardware. software. difference?8.
Pixel shader. unit. coordinates. RGB. A. 24HW Accelerated Pre-Int. HW accelerated
0. chromaticity. 1. 0,0,l. ps.1.4 texld pre-integration (Radeon 8500) Pixel shader
r0, t0 // load chromaticity and density combine Use R and B for calculations
texcrd r1, t1 // pass l into register mul Multiply result by 8 during last blending
r1, r0.a, r1.b // multiply density and l operation ? faster split Pixel shader
phase texpass r0, r0 // transfer split. def c0, 0.0019608, 0, 0, 0 // 1/256
chromaticity texld r1, r1 // dependent mad r0, r0.ggaa, c0.r, r0.rrbb // combine
lookup mov r0.a, r1.a // correct alpha for values. add_x8 r0.ga, r0_x2.rrbb,
final color. r0_x2.rrbb // get low bits mov_d8 r0.rb,
12Chromaticity Reconstruction. r0.rrbb // get high bits.
Approximation of chromaticity 25HW Accelerated Pre-Int. HW accelerated
Corresponding portion of the ray integral pre-integration (Radeon 8500). ps.1.4 def
Original approximation Calculate correct c0, 0.0019608, 0, 0, 0 // 1/256 texld r0,
values for vertices Interpolate linearly t0 // previous data texld r1, t1 // 4
between vertices Improvement in HIAC ‘98 samples ... ... texld r4, t4 mad r0,
Calculate values for slices through r0.ggaa, c0.r, r0.rrbb // combine values
tetrahedra Texture lookup instead of mad r1, r1.ggaa, c0.r, r1.rrbb mad r2,
linear interpolation Support of piecewise r2.ggaa, c0.r, r2.rrbb mad r3, r3.ggaa,
linear transfer functions. c0.r, r3.rrbb mad r4, r4.ggaa, c0.r,
13Chromaticity Reconstruction. r4.rrbb phase mad r1.rb, r0, 1-r1.b, r1 //
Approximation of chromaticity perform blending mad r2.rb, r1, 1-r2.b, r2
Corresponding portion of the ray integral mad r3.rb, r2, 1-r3.b, r3 mad_x8 r4.rb,
Improvement by Roettger et al. ‘00 3D r3, 1-r4.b, r4 add_x8 r0.ga, r4_x2.rrbb,
texture for chromaticity and opacity Slow r4_x2.rrbb // get low bits mov_d8 r0.rb,
update of transfer function High memory r4.rrbb // get high bits.
requirements of 3D textures Accurate only 26Results.
for small tetrahedra due to limited 27Results. Prototype (12,936 tetras)
resolution of pre-integration table. 1280?960 at 89.45 fps. Buckyball (176,856
14Chromaticity Reconstruction. tetras) 1280?960 at 2.46 fps.
Approximation of chromaticity 28Results. Blunt fin (187,395 tetras)
Corresponding portion of the ray integral 1280?960 at 3.18 fps.
Different approach Higher order 29Results. Bonsai (538,937 tetras)
polynomials in l Number of triangles equal 1280?960 at 1.20 fps. Trumpet (1,567,755
to PT Only 4 slices for cubic polynomials tetras) 1280?960 at 0.48 fps.
Higher resolution table ? high image 30Conclusion. Algorithm overview
quality Faster update of transfer Dependent texture for opacity Polynomial
function. approximation of chromaticity High
15Opacity Reconstruction. Approximation resolution pre-integration table High
of chromaticity (GeForce 4) Texture setup quality rendering 4 slices for cubic
(B and A swapped for unit 0) Additionally approximation 6 slices for fifth order
store l in primary color alpha approximation Fast update whenever
Distribution of duplicate values via transfer function changes Number of
vertex shader. unit. coordinates. RGB. A. triangles equal to original PT algorithm
0. 1. -. 2. -. 3. 0,0,l. -. Fast rendering.
16Chromaticity Reconstruction. 31Conclusion. Migration to new graphics
Approximation of chromaticity (GeForce 4) hardware HW pre-integration Floating point
Pixel shader. ps.1.3 def c0, 1, 1, 0, 0 accuracy improves More blending steps at
tex t0 // load chromaticity and density once ? even more performance gain Image
tex t1 tex t2 texdp3 t3, t0 // dependent quality will be improved by floating point
lookup lrp r0.rgb, c0, t0, t0.a // extract frame buffer precision No dependent
chromaticity mad r0.rgb, v0.a, r0, t1 // texture lookup due to exp-function in
calculate polynomial... mad r0.rgb, v0.a, pixel shader.
r0, t2 +mov r0.a, t1.a // and get alpha 32Questions?
for final color.
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