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History of the English Language
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History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
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History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Sir William Jones
Sir William Jones
August Schleicher
August Schleicher
August Schleicher
August Schleicher
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
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History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
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History of the English Language

содержание презентации «History of the English Language.ppt»
Сл Текст Сл Текст
1History of the English Language. WS 30Slavic South Slavic Old Prussian Russian
2005/6. Polish Serbo-Croatian Russian Czech
2Topics. Linguistic changes: grammar Slovene Belarusian Slovak Bulgarian
and lexicon Social and political events Sorbian Macedonian.
that influenced the development of the 31
English language English varieties 32Cases in Indo-European. IE. Sanskrit.
Mechanisms of language change. German. English. Lithuanian. NOM VOC ACC
3Course script Digitale Bibliothek GEN ABL DAT LOC INST. *wlk+os **wlk+e
Th?ringen Search: Diessel – History of the **wlk+om **wlk+osyo **wlk+od **wlk+oi
English Language. **wlk+ei **wlk+o. vrkas vrka vrkam vrkasya
4What you will learn: Why the English vrkad vrkaya vrke vrka. der den des dem.
spelling is so odd Why English does not he him his. vilkas vilke vilka vilko
have case marking Why English developed a vilkui vilke vilku.
rigid word order Why there are regular and 33Celtic. Celtic Gaelic Irish Scottish
irregular verbs forms Why many English Welsh Manx Cornish Breton.
words are similar to words in German Why 34
many English words are similar to words in 35
French Why questions require the use of 36
?do’ Why English has become a world 37
language. 38
5Requirements. Short exam for student 39
who started last year. 1 5% 2 10% 3 5% 4 40
20% 5 60%. 41Sanskrit.
6Readings. Barber, Charles. 2000. The 42
English Language. A Historical 43
Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge 44
University Press. Baugh, A.C. and T. 45700 English 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 0
Cable. 2002. A History of the English 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit 800 Greek
Language. London: Routledge. [fifth 1000 Old Persian 1200 Hittite 1500 Vedic
edition] Jucker, Andreas H. 2004. History Sanskrit 3000 Proto Indo-European.
of English and English Historical 46Second Germanic sound shift. time Zeit
Linguistics. Stuttgart: Klett. Millward, tongue Zunge ten zehn that das there da
C.M. 1996. A Biography of the English through durch pan Pfanne path Pfad pole
Language. Boston: Heinle. [second edition] Pfahl. hat hassen eat essen let lassen
The Cambridge History of the English grip greifen deep tief sleep schlafen.
Language. Vol. I-V. 1992. Cambridge: 47Numerals in Indo-European and
Cambridge University Press. non-Indo-European languages. English.
7Readings. Aitchison, J. Language Gothic. Latin. Greek. Sanskrit. Chinese.
Change. Progress or Decay. Cambridge: Japanese. one two three four five six
Cambridge University Press. Trask, R.L. seven eight nine ten. ains twai Trija
1996. Historical Linguistics. London: fidwor fimf saihs sibun ahtau niun taihun.
Arnold. McMahon, A.M.S. 1995. unus duo tres quattuor quinque sex septem
Understanding Language Change. Cambridge: octo novembe decem. heis duo treis
Cambridge University Press. Hock, H.H. tettares pente heks hepta okto ennea deka.
1991. Principles of Historical ekas dva trayas catvaras panca sat sapta
Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. asta nava dasa. i erh san su wu liu ch’i
Croft, W. 2000. Explaining Language pa chiu shih. hitotsu futatsu mittsu
Change. An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: yottsu itsutsu muttsu nanatsu yattsu
Longman. kokonotsu to.
8Time periods. 450-1100 Old English 48Sound correspondences in IE. English.
1100-1500 Middle English 1500-1800 Early Latin. Greek. Irish. fish father foot for
Modern English 1800-present Present Day six seven sweet salt new night nine.
English. piscis pater ped– pro sex septem suavis
9Germanic. Germanic West Germanic North sal novus noct– novem. ikhthys pater pod–
Germanic East Germanic English Swedish para hexa hepta hedys hal neos nykt–
Gothic Frisian Danish Vandal German (en)nea. iasg athair troigh do se seacht
Norwegian Burgundian Yiddish Icelandic millis salann nua (in)nocht naoi.
Dutch Afrikaans. 49Sound correspondences across unrelated
10 languages. Arabic. Urdu. Turkish. Swahili.
11 Malay. news time book service beggar.
12 xabar waqt kitab xidmat faqir. xabar vaqt
13English German Swedish sun Sonne sol kitab xidmatgari faqir. haber vakit kitap
house Haus hus cat Katze kat apple Apfel hizmet fakir. habari wkati kitabu huduma
?pple father Vater fader hand Hand hand go fakiri. khabar waktu kitab khidmat fakir.
gehen gar see sehen sar hear h?ren h?ra 50Sir William Jones.
run rennen r?nnar dream tr?umen dr?mar. 51Sound correspondences between
14English loan words in German. English Sanskrit, Latin and Greek. Sanskrit.
German computer Computer email Email Latin. Greek. asmi asi asti smas stha
internet Internet jeans Jeans event Event santi. sum es est sumus estis sunt. eini
laptop Laptop cool cool mountain bike ei esti esmen este eisi.
Mountain Bike absolutely absolut. 52August Schleicher.
15Loan words in English. take Old Norse 53
give Old Norse they Old Norse paper French 54Latin. Old English. Gothic. /p/ ? /f/
story French force French wall Latin /t/ ? /?/ /k/ ? /x/h/ /b/ ? /p/ /d/ ? /t/
street Latin school Latin kindergarten /g/ ? /k/. pedum piscis tres tu cordem
German. centum turba ‘crowd’ edo decem ager genus.
16English-German sound correspondences. fot fisc three [Tri] thou [TaU] heart
English German time Zeit tongue Zunge ten hundred thorp ‘village’ eat ten acre kin.
zehn tame zahm tent Zelt to zu two zwei fotus fiskis thrir thuU hairto hund itan
twins Zwillinge. taihun akrs kuni. IE. Old English. Gothic.
17English-German sound correspondences. /bh/ ? /b/ /dh/ ? /d/ /dh/ ? /d/. *bhero
that das there da through durch thirsty *dhura *ghostis. beran duru gasts. ba?ra
durstig think denken. da?r giest.
18English-German sound correspondences. 55Grimm’s law. *p t k ? f T x/h *b d g ?
pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl pepper p t k *bh dh gh ? b d g.
Pfeffer pipe Pfeife plant Pflanze. 56Exceptions to Grimm’s law. [p t k] [f
19English-German sound correspondences. T x] [b d g]. Sanskrit Old English v?rtate
hate hassen eat essen let lassen grip weorTan var?rta wearT vavrtim? wurdon
greifen deep tief sleep schafen. vavrta:n? worden.
20IE reconstructed word forms. *pe:s- 57Verner’s law. [p t k] ? [f T x] /
‘foot’ *ed- ‘eat’ *ghebh- ‘give’ *aug- [stressed syllable] __ ? [b d g] /
‘increase’ *wed- ‘water’. [unstressed syllable] __.
21English-German sound correspondences. 58Neogrammarian Hypothesis. Every sound
cheese child chin cheery church king. K?se change takes place according to laws that
Kind Kinn Kirsche Kirche K?nig. admit no exceptions. [Karl Brugmann].
22Loan words from French. crime crime 59
prison prison letter lettre justice 60Evidence for the IE homeland. Common
justice contract contrat music musique words for: cold winter snow honey wolf
demand demander pronounce prononcer beech pine. No common words for: ocean
propose proposer responsible responsable. palm elephant camel.
23Cognates: English-French. one un, une 61
two deux three trois four quatre five cinq 62
six six seven sept eight huit nine neuf 63
ten dix. 64
24Romance. French Catalan Italian 65
Galician Spain Sardinian Portuguese 66
Provencal Romanian Rhomansh. 67
25 68
26Sound correspondences in Romance. 69
Italian. Sardinian. Romansh. French. 70Amerind hypothesis. Eskimo Na Dene
Spanish. Hundred Sky Stag Wax. TEnto Telo Amerind.
TErvo Tera. kEntu kElu kErbu kEra. tsjEnt 71Number of speakers. Mandarin 907
tsil tsErf tsairaE. sa sjEl sER siR. Tjen English 456 Hindi 383 Spanish 362 Russian
Tjelo Tjerbo Tera. 293 Arabic 208 Bengali 189 Portuguese 177
27Indo-European. Germanic Greek Romance Indonesian 148 Japanese 126 French 123
Iranian Slavic Indian Baltic Albanian German 119.
Celtic Armenian. 72Nostratic. Indo-European Altaic Uralic
28 Afro-Asiatic Kartvelian.
29 73
30Balto-Slavic. Balto-Slavic Baltic 74
Slavic Latvian Lithuanian East Slavic West
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