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Chapter 6 How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form
Chapter 6 How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form
Musical “characters” – notes, rhythms, melodies, patterns, and vocal
Musical “characters” – notes, rhythms, melodies, patterns, and vocal
Insights and Perspectives
Insights and Perspectives
Form: The Designs of Musical Works
Form: The Designs of Musical Works
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How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form

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1Chapter 6 How Music Works, Part IV: 10polyrhythms), it it is possible instead to
Texture and Form. perceive it as music defined by a single,
2Musical “characters” – notes, rhythms, unified rhythmic expression with multiple
melodies, patterns, and vocal and manifestations. The technicalities of both
instrumental parts – are similar to how sides of the argument are complex, but the
the characters in a novel relate and controversy itself is a good example of
interact. Texture describes the kinds of how music as sound is difficult to
relationships that emerge and evolve separate from the study of music as
between these characters. Form is the culture.
element of music that pertains to 11Form: The Designs of Musical Works.
large-scale dimensions of musical 12Understanding the form of a piece
organization. Study of form is concerned involves understanding how it is laid out
with the development and shape of entire from beginning to end, with how the music
pieces, phrases, and sections. unfolds and develops as it progresses. If
3Texture. there is no repetition and the music has a
4There are many kinds of musical lack of distinct sections, it is said to
textures. Single-line textures are the be through-composed. More often, however,
simplest, and are also known as monophonic repetition, patterns, and sectional
textures. One, two, five, or a thousand organization are present in music and
individuals can create a monophonic define its forms.
texture, so long as all are playing the 13Forms Based on Repetition and
same sequence of pitches with the same Patterns. Repetition and patterning are
rhythm. Polyphonic textures include two or key features of most music. Elements
more distinct parts. This may result from including melodies, rhythms, chord
the playing/singing of different parts on progressions, metric cycles, and large
different instruments, or from a single sections of material may be presented and
instrument that can play more than one repeated in a performance – either once or
note at the same time. CD ex. #1-6 is an many times. Repetitions may be exact, or
example of Mongolian khoomii, in which a may change through subsequent repetitions.
single human voice creates polyphony. This is known as varied repetition.
5A drone accompanying a melody is a Repetitions and patterns are often
common and simple type of polyphonic intuitive, even when one is not familiar
texture. CD ex. #1-16 is an example of a with the musical style. For example, you
Scottish bagpipe ensemble performing a can often tell when the catchy ‘hook’ of a
melody over a sustained, long drone. song is about to arrive. Unexpected twists
Harmonized textures emerge when notes of and turns are also key tools in keeping
different pitches occur together to form listeners engaged and interested.
chords, or “harmonies.” CD ex. #1-11 14Some musical works are based upon the
(harmonized voices); CD ex. #1-27 (chords repetition or varied repetition of a
on guitar accompany melody on saxophone). single musical pattern or phrase. A short
6Multiple-melody texture occurs in figure that is repeated multiple times is
polyphonic music that features two or more called an ostinato, and is normally the
essentially separate melodic lines being smallest unit of organization upon which
performed simultaneously. CD ex. #2-3—two musical forms are built. CD ex. #2-8
groups of male vocalists generate features “Xai” (Elephants). It is from the
multiple-melody texture. Javanese gamelan Qwii people of the Kalahari desert and
music, as in CD x. #1-7, provides rich repeats an ostinato roughly every two
multiple-melody textures. CD ex. #2-4 seconds. Layered ostinatos are achieved by
features a traditional BaMbuti elephant stacking two or more ostinatos, creating a
hunting song. The relative equality in the rich and complex texture. CD ex. #2-9,
vocal parts reflects the egalitarian Tito Puente’s “Oye Como Va” features
nature of the society. saxophone, trombone (0:15), and trumpet
7Polyrhythm describes music in which (0:31) ostinatos, creating a layered
there are several different parts or ostinato texture.
layers, with each defined by its 15Cyclic forms are similar to
distinctive rhythmic character rather than ostinato-based forms, but the repeated
by melodies or chords (CD ex. #2-5). When cycle is longer than an ostinato. An
musical melodies and rhythmic lines are example is the 12-bar blues, a common
stacked upon each other, a single melody cyclic form used for blues songs. Each
may be divided among two or more cycle is 12 measures and has the same
instruments. This is called interlocking basic chord progression as the others. CD
parts. CD ex. #2-6 features folkloric ex. #1-19, Charles Atkins’ “A Funny Way of
music of the Andes mountains of Bolivia, Asking,” features the 12-bar blues form.
South America. The melody is divided 16Forms with Contrasting Sections.
between two sets of instruments Formal Sections are identifiably distinct
(panpipes), which rely upon one another to sections found within a piece. The
complete the musical scale. different sections often contrast with
8Call-and-response is also linked to each other – for example, through a change
musical texture. It involves of key, instrumentation, rhythm, or a
back-and-forth alternation between combination of many changes. Verse-chorus
different instrument or voice parts. This form is a common formal design featuring
conversational approach to texture takes contrasting sections. It alternates verses
many forms, including: Between a lead (A sections) and choruses (B sections),
singer and background singers, as in CD sometimes including other sections like an
ex. #2-7 (a West African piece.) Between a introduction, interludes, transitional
singer and instrumentalist Between two passages, or instrumental solos.
groups of instrumentalists or two groups 17CD ex #2-10 features “Ingculaza
of singers. (AIDS),” by Dumisani “Ramadu” Moyo. It is
9Insights and Perspectives. The Debate a social commentary about the AIDS
over Polyrhythms in West African Music. pandemic in Africa, the text of which may
10Much West African music is described be found on page 81 of the textbook. The
as polyrhythmic by Westerners, but some form includes two sung verses (the A
scholars and musicians believe that this sections) and three sung choruses (the B
does not reflect how West Africans sections.) See page 82 for a full chart of
conceptualize their music. Rather than the form.
perceiving it as “many rhythms” (i.e.,
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