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Identifying Fallacies

содержание презентации «Identifying Fallacies.ppt»
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1Identifying Fallacies. FYE 101 Also 10Iphone 6 is the latest in technology.
see pp. 175-177 in the St. Martin’s Therefore the Iphone 6 is the best cell
Handbook. phone on the market. I must have an Iphone
2Ad Hominem. Person A makes claim X. 6 now!
Person B makes an attack on person A. 11Appeal to Pity. P is presented, with
Therefore A's claim is false. For example: the intent to create pity. Therefore claim
Although Ms. Bell’s book on Joe DiMaggio C is true. Example: Sunera: Thomas is the
was well researched, I doubt that an worst of the candidates we have
Australian historian can contribute much interviewed. Laura: But Thomas was nervous
to our knowledge of an American baseball because he has been unemployed for several
player. months and really needs the job to feed
3You Too Fallacy. Person A makes claim his family and feel like the head of the
X. Person B asserts that A's actions or household again. Sunera: Well, on second
past claims are inconsistent with the thought, I guess Thomas would do ok in the
truth of claim X. Therefore X is false. position.
Example: Sunera: I think there should be a 12Appeal to Ridicule. X, which is some
way for illegal immigrants to obtain form of ridicule is presented (typically
citizenship. Barbara: But you just said directed at the claim). Therefore claim C
the opposite last month, so you must be is false. Example: Same-sex marriage? Not
wrong now. until the Bible is written to say “Adam
4Appeal to Authority. Person A is and Steve” rather than “Adam and Eve”
(claimed to be) an authority on subject S. Ha-Ha!
Person A makes claim C about subject S. 13Appeal to Spite. Claim X is presented
Therefore, C is true. Example: Obama is a with the intent of generating spite.
Muslim who was born somewhere in Africa Therefore claim C is false (or true)
who wants to turn America into a Nazi-like Example: Sunera: I think John’s idea about
state. [This author is a citizen of our final exam in FYE is a good one.
Shreveport]. Clyde: Oh, is this the same John who I
5Appeal to Belief. Most people believe heard called you a *%$#@ biach at the KA
that a claim, X, is true. Therefore X is house last weekend? Sunera: What??? Then
true. Example: Most people believe the John can take his idea and shove it!
United States is a Christian Nation. 14Appeal to Tradition. X is old or
Therefore, the United States is a traditional therefore X is correct or
Christian Nation. better. The “We have always done it that
6Appeal to Common Practice. X is a way” fallacy. Example: Shandra: What! No
common action. Therefore X is catfish in the cafeteria on Friday? We
correct/moral/justified/reasonable, etc. have always had “Catfish Friday” at
Example: Most men view women as sex Centenary!
objects so there must not be anything 15Appeal to Peer Pressure. Person P is
wrong with it; I guess guys are just wired pressured by his/her peers or threatened
that way. with rejection. Therefore person P's claim
7Appeal to Emotion. Favorable emotions X is false. Example: Sunera: I think that
are associated with X. Therefore, X is persons of all religious convictions
true. Example: Heaven is a beautiful place should be shown respect. Jackson: Well,
where one is reunited with departed love Sunera, I guess you are not a God-fearing
ones and lives an eternity of happiness. Christian like the rest of us. We sure
Therefore, heaven exists. will miss you here. Sunera: Ha-Ha! Only
8Appeal to Fear. Y is presented (a joking! I know they will all burn in
claim that is intended to produce fear). Hell!! Yay!
Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is 16Begging the Question. Premises in
generally, but need not be, related to Y which the truth of the conclusion is
in some manner). Example: Do not “double claimed or the truth of the conclusion is
dip” your chip in the salsa. You could assumed (either directly or indirectly).
contract AIDS that way. [An actual Claim C (the conclusion) is true. Also
statement from a former staff member of known as a circular argument. Example:
Student Life at Centenary]. Sunera: How do you know God exists? Evan:
9Appeal to Flattery. Person A is Because the Bible says so. Sunera: But why
flattered by person B. Person B makes should I believe the Bible? Evan: Because
claim X. Therefore X is true. Example: God wrote it.
Sam: Dr. Otto, you are the best teacher I 17Burden of Proof. Claim X is presented
have ever encountered. Dr. Otto. Thanks, by side A and the burden of proof actually
Sam. Sam: Just between us, I think Dr. rests on side B. Side B claims that X is
Mackie does not know anything in his false because there is no proof for X.
discipline. Dr. Otto. Probably so! Example: Sunera: I believe in
[Disclaimer: Actually this conversation reincarnation. Tommy: But where is your
never took place]. proof? Sunera: Tommy, nobody has yet to
10Appeal to Novelty. X is new. Therefore prove that reincarnation does not occur!
X is correct or better. Example: The
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Identifying Fallacies

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