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Recursive Nature of Representation Information
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Sample Representation Net
Sample Representation Net
Types of Information Used in OAIS
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AIP Types
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ISO Reference Model For an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Tutorial Presentation Lou Reich CSC Don Sawyer NASANSSDC May 2000

содержание презентации «ISO Reference Model For an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Tutorial Presentation Lou Reich CSC Don Sawyer NASANSSDC May 2000.ppt»
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1ISO “Reference Model For an Open 33Preservation Description Information
Archival Information System (OAIS)” (PDI). Content Information. derived from.
Tutorial Presentation Lou Reich /CSC Don delimited by. e.g., Information supporting
Sawyer /NASA/NSSDC May 2000. customer searches for AIP. e.g., How to
2Outline of Talk. History Reference find Content information and PDI on some
Model overview Digital Archive Directions medium. further described by. e.g., •
(DADs) workshop AWIICS workshop Reference Hardcopy document • Document as an
Model Status. electronic file together with its format
3NASA Role. National Space Science Data description • Scientific data set
Center NASA’s first digital archive consisting of images and text in three
Experienced many technology changes since electronic files together with format
1966 Consultative Committee for Space Data descriptions. e.g., • How the Content
Systems International group of space Information came into being, who has held
agencies Developed variety of science it, how it relates to other information,
discipline- independent standards Became and how its integrity is assured.
working body for an ISO TC 20/ SC 13 about 34AIP Types. Based on the difference in
1990 TC20: Aircraft and Space Vehicles Content Object complexity AIUs contain a
SC13: Space Data and Information Transfer single Data Object as the Content Object
Systems. AICs contain multiple AIPs in their
4Initial Archive Standards Proposal. Content Objects Each member of an AIC is
ISO suggested that SC 13 should develop an AIP containing Content Information and
archive standards Address data used in PDI The AIC contains unique PDI on the
conjunction with space missions Address collection process.
intermediate and indefinite long term 35Package Descriptors and Access Aids.
storage of digital data. Package descriptors are needed by an OAIS
5Response. Response to Consultative to provide visibility and access to the
Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) OAIS holdings Package Descriptors contain
and ISO TC 20/SC 13 No framework widely 1 or more Associated Descriptions which
recognized for developing specific digital describe the AIP Content Information from
archive standards Begin by developing a the point of view of a single Access Aid
‘Reference Model’ to establish common Some example of Access Aids Include:
terms and concepts Ensure broad Finding Aids - assist the consumer in
participation, including traditional locating information of interest Ordering
archives (Not restricted to space Aids - allow the consumer to discover the
communities; all participation is cost of and order AIUs of interest
welcome!) Focus on data in electronic Retrieval Aids - enable authorized users
forms, but recognize that other forms to retrieve the AIU described by the Unit
exist in most archives Follow up with Descriptor from Archival Storage.
additional archive standards efforts as 36Information Model Summary. Presented a
appropriate. model of information objects as containing
6Getting Started. First open US data objects and representation objects
workshop held October 1995 Variety of Classified information required for
government, academic, and industry Long-term archiving into 4 classes:
participation, including National Archives Content Information, PDI, Packaging
Active US working group was formed US Information and Descriptive Information
workgroup activities are fully open New Described how these classes would be
participants always welcome Plans, aggregated and related in an AIP to fully
minutes, drafts available from Web Broad describe an instance of Content
international workshops also held Britain Information Presented information needed
and France Issue resolution at CCSDS for Access, in addition to that needed for
international workshops. Long-term Preservation Put the Access
7Results. Reference Model targeted to oriented structures in the context of the
several categories of reader Archive other data needed to operate an OAIS.
designers Archive users Archive managers, 37Detailed Models. Functional View.
to clarify digital preservation issues and 38General Principles. Highlight the
assist in securing appropriate resources major functional areas important to
Standards developers Adopting terminology digital archiving Use functional
that crosses various disciplines decomposition to clarify the range of
Traditional archivists Scientific data functionality that might be encountered
centers Digital libraries Getting Don't decompose beyond two levels to avoid
favorable comments wherever exposed. becoming too implementation dependent
8Reference Model for an Open Archival Provide a useful set of terms and concepts
Information System. Do not imply that all archives need to
9Open Archival Information System implement all the sub-functions Identify
(OAIS). Open Reference Model standard(s) some common services which are likely to
are developed using a public process and be needed, and are assumed to be
are freely available Information Any type available, as underlying support.
of knowledge that can be exchanged 39Common Services. Modern, distributed
Independent of the forms (i.e., physical computing applications assume a number of
or digital) used to represent the supporting services Examples of Common
information Data are the representation Services include: inter-process
forms of information Archival Information communication name services temporary
System Hardware, software, and people who storage allocation exception handling
are responsible for the acquisition, security file and directory services.
preservation and dissemination of the 40OAIS Functional Entities. C O N S U M
information Additional OAIS E R. P R O D U C E R. MANAGEMENT. SIP =
responsibilities are identified later and Submission Information Package AIP =
are more fully defined in the Reference Archival Information Package DIP =
Model document. Dissemination Information Package. Data
10Document Organization. Introduction Management. Requests. other information.
Purpose and Scope, Applicability, Ingest. Access. SIP. DIP. Archival
Rationale, Road Map for Future Work, Storage. Administration.
Document Structure, and Definitions of 41Functional Entities In An OAIS.
Terms OAIS Concepts High level view of Ingest: This entity provides the services
OAIS functionality and information models and functions to accept Submission
OAIS external environment Minimum Information Packages (SIPs) from Producers
responsibilities to become an “OAIS” and prepare the contents for storage and
Detailed Models Functional model management within the archive Archival
descriptions and information model Storage: This entity provides the services
perspectives Migration perspectives Media and functions for the storage, maintenance
migration, compression, and format and retrieval of Archival Information
conversions Archive Interoperability Packages Data Management: This entity
Criteria to distinguish types of provides the services and functions for
cooperation among archives Annexes populating, maintaining, and accessing
Scenarios of existing archives, both descriptive information which
compatibility with other standards. identifies and documents archive holdings
11Purpose, Scope, and Applicability. and internal archive administrative data.
Framework for understanding and applying Administration: This entity manages the
concepts needed for long-term digital overall operation of the archive system
information preservation Long-term is long Access: This entity supports consumers in
enough to be concerned about changing determining the existence, description,
technologies Starting point for model location and availability of information
addressing non-digital information stored in the OAIS and allowing consumers
Provides set of minimal responsibilities to request and receive information
to distinguish an OAIS from other uses of products.
‘archive’ Framework for comparing 42Ingest Functions. Schedule Submission
architectures and operations of existing Delivery: negotiates a data submission
and future archives Basis for development schedule with the producer Receive
of additional related standards Addresses Submission: provides the appropriate
a full range of archival functions storage capability or devices to receive a
Applicable to all long-term archives and SIP from the producer. The Receive SIP
those organizations and individuals function may represent a legal transfer of
dealing with information that may need custody for the CI in the SIP, and may
long-term preservation Does NOT specify require that special access controls be
any implementation. placed on the contents Generate Archival
12Model View of an OAIS’s Environment. Information Package: transforms one or
Producer is the role played by those more SIPs into one or more AIPs that
persons, or client systems, who provide conforms to the internal data model of the
the information to be preserved Management archive. Generate Descriptive Information:
is the role played by those who set extracts Descriptive Information from the
overall OAIS policy as one component in a AIPs to populate the data management
broader policy domain Consumer is the role system. Coordinate Updates: responsible
played by those persons, or client for transferring the AIPs to Archival
systems, who interact with OAIS services Storage and the Descriptive Information to
to find and acquire preserved information Data Management.
of interest. OAIS (archive). Producer. 43Ingest Data Flow Diagram.
Consumer. Management. 44Analysis of Archive Issues Using OAIS
13OAIS Information Definition. RM. Migration.
Information is defined as any type of 45Digital Migration. Digital Migration
knowledge that can be exchanged, and this is defined to be the transfer of digital
information is always expressed (i.e., information, while intending to preserve
represented) by some type of data In it, within the OAIS. Focus on preservation
general, it can be said that “Data of the full information content New
interpreted using its Representation information implementation replaces the
Information yields Information” In order old OAIS has full control and
for this Information Object to be responsibility over all aspects of the
successfully preserved, it is critical for transfer Three major motivators are seen
an archive to clearly identify and to drive Digital Migrations of Archival
understand the Data Object and its Information Packages within an OAIS: Media
associated Representation Information. Decay Increased Cost Effectiveness New
Data Object. Representation Information. Consumer Service Requirements.
Information Object. Interpreted Using its. 46Digital Migration Approaches. Four
Yields. primary types of digital migration in
14Information Package Definition. An response to motivators, ordered by
Information Package is a conceptual increasing risk of information loss:
container of two types of information Refreshment Media replacement with no bit
called Content Information and changes Replication No change to Packaging
Preservation Description Information Information or Content Information bits
(PDI). Preservation Description Repackaging Some bit changes in Packaging
Information. Content Information. Information Transformation Reversible: Bit
15Information Package Variants. changes in Content Information are
Submission Information Package Negotiated reversible by an algorithm Non-reversible:
between Producer and OAIS Sent to OAIS by Bit changes in Content Information are not
a Producer Archival Information Package reversible by an algorithm.
Information Package used for preservation 47Access Preservation. Effective access
Includes complete set of Preservation to digital information requires the use of
Description Information for the Content software Application Programming
Information Dissemination Information Interfaces (APIs) may be cost-effectively
Package Includes part or all of one or maintained across time by an OAIS when:
more Archival Information Packages Sent to API is not too complex API is applicable
a Consumer by the OAIS. to a wide variety of AIUs API source code
16External Data Flow Diagram. OAIS. may be ported to new environments
Producer. Submission Information Packages. Extensive testing is needed to ensure
queries. query response. Dissemination against information loss Preservation of
Information Packages. orders. Consumer. executables by full emulation of
17OAIS Responsibilities. Negotiates and underlying hardware is problematic Hard to
accepts Information Packages from know what is the information being
information producers Obtains sufficient preserved May not be possible to fully
control to ensure long-term preservation emulate associated devices.
Determines which communities (designated) 48Analysis of Archive Issues Using OAIS
need to be able to understand the RM. Archive Associations.
preserved information Ensures the 49Archive Interoperability Motivators.
information to be preserved is Users of multiple OAIS archives have
independently understandable to the reasons to wish for some interoperability
Designated Communities Follows documented or cooperation among the OAISs. Consumers
policies and procedures which ensure the Common finding aids to aid in locating
information is preserved against all information over several OAIS archives
reasonable contingencies Makes the Common Package Descriptor schema for
preserved information available to the access Common DIP schema for
Designated Communities in forms dissemination, or a single global access
understandable to those communities. site. Producers common SIP schema for
18Detailed Models. Overview. submission to different archives a single
19Overview of Detailed Models. It was depository for all their products.
decided to do both a functional and an Managers Cost reduction through sharing of
information model of the OAIS Both models expensive hardware increasing the
were tasked to: Use the models to better uniformity and quality of user
communicate OAIS Concepts Use a well interactions with the OAIS.
established, formal modeling technique 50Categories of Archive Interactions.
Stay as implementation independent as Independent: no knowledge by one OAIS of
possible Avoid detailed designs. Standards implemented at another
20Detailed Models. Information Model. Cooperating: Potentially common submission
21General Principles. Define classes of standards, and common dissemination
“information objects’ that illustrate standards, but no common access. One
information necessary to enable Long-term archive may make subscription requests for
storage and access to Archives The class key data at the cooperating archive
definition should be implementation Federated: Access to all federated OAIS is
Independent Use a variant of Object provided through a common set of access
Modeling Technique (OMT) as a notation aids that provide visibility into all
(being updated to UML). participating OAISs. Global dissemination
22OMT Notation Overview. Class: and Ingest are options Shared resources:
Multiplicity of Associations: Aggregation: An OAIS in which Management has entered
Specialization: Association: Class Name. into agreements with other OAISs is to
Exactly one. Class. Many (zero or more). share resources to reduce cost. This
Class. Assembly Class. Optional (zero or requires various standards internal to the
one). Class. 1+. Class. One or more. archive (such as ingest-storage and
Part-2 Class. Part -1 Class. Association access-storage interface standards), but
Name. Class-1. Class-2. Parent Class. does not alter the community’s view of the
Child -1 Class. Child-2 Class. archive.
23Information Objects. 51Federated Archives. Local. Consumer.
24Representation Information. The Global. Consumer. Common Catalog. OAIS 2.
Representation Information accompanying a Local. Consumer. Dissemination Information
physical object like a moon rock may give Package. (Optional). Dissemination
additional meaning, as a result of some Information Package. (Optional). Access.
analysis, to the physically observable Access. Administration. Administration.
attributes of the rock The Representation Ingest. Access. Access.
Information accompanying a digital object, 52Levels of Autonomy in Associated
or sequence of bits, is used to provide Archives. No interactions and therefore no
additional meaning. It typically maps the association Associations that maintain
bits into commonly recognized data types your autonomy. You have to do certain
such as character, integer, and real and things to participate, but you can leave
into groups of these data types. It the association without notice or impact
associates these with higher level to you. Associations that bind you by
meanings which can have complex contract. To change the nature of this
inter-relationships that are also association you will have to re-negotiate
described. the contract. The amount of autonomy
25Recursive Nature of Representation retained depends on how difficult it is to
Information. Preexisting standards that negotiate the changes.
define primitive data-types Mapping rules 53Reference Model Summary. Reference
that map those primitive data-type into model is to be applicable to all digital
the more complex data-type concept used by archives, and their Producers and
the Data Object Other semantic Consumers Identifies a minimum set of
informa-tion that aids in the responsibilities for an archive to claim
under-standing of the Data such as a Data it is an OAIS Establishes common terms and
Dictionary. concepts for comparing implementations,
26Sample Representation Net. but does not specify an implementation
27Types of Information Used in OAIS. Provides detailed models of both archival
28Content Information. The information functions and archival information
which is the primary object of Discusses OAIS information migration and
preservation An instance of Content interoperability among OAISs.
Information is the information that an 54Reference Model Acceptance. Reference
archive is tasked to preserve. Deciding model has been getting good reviews
what is the Content Information may not be Society of American Archivists 1997 annual
obvious and may need to be negotiated with meeting NAGARA 1998 Annual Meeting Various
the Producer The Data Object in the international conferences Major context
Content Information may be either a for June 1998 Digital Archive Directions
Digital Object or a Physical Object (e.g., (DADs) workshop hosted by NARA
a physical sample, microfilm). http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/isoas/dads
29Preservation Description Information. Framework for October 1999 Archival
Provenance Information Describes the Workshop on Ingest, Identification, and
source of Content Information, who has had Certification (AWIICS) hosted by NARA
custody of it, what is its history Context http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/isoas/awii
Information Describes how the Content s/ws.html.
Information relates to other information 55DADs Workshop Recommendations. Working
outside the Information Package Reference groups identified several ‘best practices’
Information Provides one or more and standards desired, including:
identifiers, or systems of identifiers, by Recommended data ingest methodology Best
which the Content Information may be practices for digitizing analogue data
uniquely identified Fixity Information Best practices for media selection,
Protects the Content Information from testing and usage Best practices for error
undocumented alteration. control through the archive Archival
30Example of Preservation Description Submission Information Package standard
Information. Content Information Type. Consumer Archive Interface standard Unique
Reference. Provenance. Context. Fixity. Archival Information Package Identifier
Space Science Data Bibliographic standard AIP Content Layered Model and
Information Software Package. Object Standard APIs report Plenary recommended a
Identifier Journal Reference Mission, coordination function be established
instrument, and title attribute set ISBN Promote the reference model Promote
Title Author Name Author Version number coordination of work on best practices and
Serial Number. Instrument Description standards Promote development of an
Processing History Sensor Description archive accreditation method.
Instrument Instrument mode Decommutation 56AWIICS Conclusions. A diverse
map Software Interface Specifications community of science data centers,
Printing history Copyright Position in libraries, electronic records and
series Manuscripts References Revision traditional archives sees the benefit, and
Histroy License holder Registration is willing to participate, in developing
Copyright. Calibration history Related standards in the following areas: Ingest
data sets Mission Funding history Related Methodology for producer interactions with
References Dewy Decimal System Publishing the archive Certification of digital
Data Publisher Help file User Guide archives and preservation methodology
Related Software Language. CRC Checksum Access scenarios and derived requirements
Reed-Solomon coding Author Digital for identification of, and access to,
signature Cover Certificate Checksum archived information.
Encryption CRC. 57Reference Model Status. Ultimate
31Descriptive Information. Contain the success of OAIS Reference Model effort
data that serves as the input to documents depends on obtaining adequate review and
or applications called Access Aids. Access comment CCSDS Reference Model Red Book
Aids can be used by a consumer to locate, released August 1999
analyze, retrieve, or order information http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/isoas/ref_
from the OAIS. odel.html ISO Draft International Standard
32Packaging Information. Information (DIS) expected May 2000 Same content as
which, either actually or logically, binds CCSDS Red Book Held up by ISO TC20
and relates the components of the package secretariat backlog Comments are actively
into an identifiable entity on specific solicited Participate in various ways: ISO
media Examples of Packaging Information TC20/SC 13 review in your country CCSDS
include tape marks, directory structures review by your space agency Send comments
and filenames. to donald.sawyer@gsfc.nasa.gov All
33OAIS Archival Information Package. comments will be considered and
Archival Information Package (AIP). non-editorial comments will get a
Packaging Information. Package Descriptor. response.
ISO Reference Model For an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Tutorial Presentation Lou Reich CSC Don Sawyer NASANSSDC May 2000.ppt
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