Английская грамматика
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Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Use Case Diagram
Use Case Diagram
Use Case Diagram
Use Case Diagram
High-Level Use Case Narrative
High-Level Use Case Narrative
High-Level Use Case Narrative
High-Level Use Case Narrative
Expanded Use Case Narrative
Expanded Use Case Narrative
Expanded Use Case Narrative
Expanded Use Case Narrative
Associations Between Use Cases
Associations Between Use Cases
Associations Between Use Cases
Associations Between Use Cases
Associations Between Use Cases (continued)
Associations Between Use Cases (continued)
Associations Between Use Cases (continued)
Associations Between Use Cases (continued)
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
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1Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented 19Components of a Use Case Diagram. ©
Systems Analysis and Design with UML. . © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-19.
2005 Prentice Hall. 4-1. 20Step 3 of Object-Oriented Systems
2Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Analysis. Write a use case narrative
Systems Analysis and Design with UML. . © describing the system’s response to each
2005 Prentice Hall. 4-2. business event. © 2005 Prentice Hall.
3Learning Objectives. Identify use 4-20.
cases based on prior event analysis. 21High-Level Use Case Narrative. . ©
Derive a use case diagram from an event 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-21.
table. Draw a use case diagram. Discover 22Expanded Use Case Narrative. . © 2005
use case scenarios. © 2005 Prentice Hall. Prentice Hall. 4-22.
4-3. 23Parts of an Expanded Use Case
4Learning Objectives (continued). Write Narrative. Use Case Name: Actors: Purpose:
both high-level and expanded essential use Overview: Type: (Essential) Preconditions:
case narratives. Define system inputs and Postconditions: Special Requirements: Flow
outputs. Draw a system sequence diagram of Events: Actor Action System Response
for a use case scenario. © 2005 Prentice Alternative Flow of Events: © 2005
Hall. 4-4. Prentice Hall. 4-23.
5Overview. Chapter 4 discusses Steps 2, 24Terms in an Expanded Use Case
3, and 4 of the process for Narrative. Precondition: A condition which
object-oriented analysis. It introduces must be true in order for the use case to
the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a begin and produce the desired results.
standard notation for describing Postcondition: A condition which must be
object-oriented systems. The use case true after the use case has been
model and system sequence diagrams completed. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-24.
presented here begin to describe the 25Terms in an Expanded Use Case
system’s required response to events in Narrative (continued). Special
its environment. © 2005 Prentice Hall. Requirements: A requirement which is
4-5. critical to users’ acceptance and use of
6Overview (continued). Use case the system. Alternative Flow of Events:
diagrams show the use cases within the What the system should do in the case of
scope of the system and the actors in the exceptional conditions or errors. © 2005
environment with which each use case is Prentice Hall. 4-25.
associated. There is a least one use case 26Associations Between Use Cases. The
narrative for each use case. A use case «includes» association always occurs when
narrative is a structured narrative the use case which includes it occurs. ©
showing what the system must do to respond 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-26.
to a specific event. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 27Associations Between Use Cases
4-6. (continued). The occurrence of an
7Overview (continued). We write an «extends» association depends on a true
expanded use case narrative for every use condition in the use case which it
case corresponding to an external event; extends. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-27.
these are the use cases in which there is 28Use Case Scenarios. A use case
input to the system. An expanded use case scenario is a narrative of a single
narrative captures the sequence of occurrence of a use case. It describes
messages from an actor to the system as specifics of a real-world enactment of the
well as the system’s response to each use case. Use case scenarios can help
message. The narrative also reveals the discover alternative paths through a use
structure and content of the messages. © case or test the completeness or
2005 Prentice Hall. 4-7. correctness of a use case narrative. ©
8Overview (continued). Use case 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-28.
narratives for analysis should be 29Shortcomings of a Use Case Diagram. No
essential – they should not mention any distinction between an initiating actor
possible implementing technology. A system and a participating actor in the UML
sequence diagram shows graphically the standard Does not show the system input or
sequence, structure, and content of each output No clear indication of the
message from an actor to the system. It difference between a temporal and an
also shows messages from the system to external event. © 2005 Prentice Hall.
external systems. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-29.
4-8. 30Step 4 of Object-Oriented Systems
9Overview (continued). There is one Analysis. Draw a system sequence diagram
system sequence diagram for each use case for each use case scenario. © 2005
corresponding to an external event. If the Prentice Hall. 4-30.
use case is complex, several system 31System Sequence Diagram. A system
sequence diagrams may be desirable. The sequence diagram shows the interaction
specific data elements contained in each between an actor and the system for one
message are usually shown in a system use case scenario. It shows: The system
sequence diagram. © 2005 Prentice Hall. (as a black box) The initiating actor Each
4-9. external system which sends messages to
10Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems the system The messages into and out of
Analysis. Step 1. Identify the business the system The sequence in which the
events and make an event table. Step 2. messages occur. © 2005 Prentice Hall.
Identify the use cases and produce a use 4-31.
case diagram for the system. Step 3. Write 32System Sequence Diagram (continued).
a use case narrative describing the Note carefully the UML conventions for the
system’s response to each business event. arrows and arrowheads. © 2005 Prentice
© 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-10. Hall. 4-32.
11Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems 33System Sequence Diagram (continued). A
Analysis (continued). Step 4. Draw a system sequence diagram focuses on the
system sequence diagram for each use case content and structure of the system input.
scenario. Step 5. Produce a domain model It should show whether any messages are
showing the concepts, attributes and repeated or are alternatives. A system
associations in the problem domain of the sequence diagram is not the place to show
system. Step 6. Write a contract for each the design of the detailed interaction
system operation. © 2005 Prentice Hall. between the user and the system. © 2005
4-11. Prentice Hall. 4-33.
12Step 2 of Object-Oriented Systems 34Creating a System Sequence Diagram.
Analysis. Identify the use cases and Draw a rectangle representing the system.
produce a use case diagram for the system. Label the rectangle and draw a lifeline
© 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-12. beneath it. At the left, draw a stick
13Use Cases. A use case is the sequence figure for each actor. Label it with the
of actions which occur when an actor uses actor’s name and draw a lifeline beneath
a system to complete a process. A use case it. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-34.
is a model of a requirement. A use case 35Creating a System Sequence Diagram
name is a short phrase beginning with a (continued). For each system input, draw a
verb. Each event corresponds to at least message arrow from the actor’s lifeline to
one use case. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-13. the system’s lifeline. Label it with the
14Events and Use Cases. Event Department message name and parameters. Confirm that
submits class schedule. Time to produce the sequence of messages (from top to
University Class Schedule Student bottom) is correct. © 2005 Prentice Hall.
registers for classes. Time to produce 4-35.
Class Roster. Use case Submit Department 36Message Formats in System Sequence
Class Schedule. Produce University Class Diagrams. The UML format for a message
Schedule. Register for Classes. Produce consists of a message name followed (in
Class Roster. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-14. parentheses) by a parameter list. All
15Identifying Actors. An actor is a names begin with a lower-case letter.
person, organization, or system which There are no spaces in a name. Upper-case
interacts with a system by sending letters separate the words within a name.
messages to the system or receiving Names in the parameter list are separated
messages from the system. Actors play by commas. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-36.
roles with respect to the system. The 37Outgoing Messages (System Outputs).
actors were identified during event There are two types of outgoing messages:
analysis. © 2005 Prentice Hall. 4-15. A response of the system which completes
16Types of Actors. An initiating actor an event. A message from the system to an
initiates a use case by initiating an external system requesting action and a
external event. Thus, initiating actors reply. Remember that every output must be
provide system inputs. A participating derivable from the input to the use case
actor is involved in a use case but does combined with stored data. © 2005 Prentice
not initiate it. Thus, participating Hall. 4-37.
actors receive system outputs. © 2005 38Summary. Step 2 of object-oriented
Prentice Hall. 4-16. systems analysis identifies the use cases
17The Use Case Model. A use case diagram and produces a use case diagram for the
for the entire system – a graphic model system. Step 3 of object-oriented systems
One or more use case narratives for each analysis writes a use case narrative
use case – descriptions in text high-level describing the system’s response to each
expanded In the UML, use cases are part of business event. Step 4 of object-oriented
the User View Model. © 2005 Prentice Hall. systems analysis draws a system sequence
4-17. diagram for each use case scenario. © 2005
18Use Case Diagram. . © 2005 Prentice Prentice Hall. 4-38.
Hall. 4-18.
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