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Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,
Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,
Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,
Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,
INTRODUCTION IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
INTRODUCTION IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious
Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious
Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious
Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious
CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS
CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS
Morphology of Bacteria
Morphology of Bacteria
Spherical (cocci) bacteria
Spherical (cocci) bacteria
Representatives of pathogenic cocci
Representatives of pathogenic cocci
Representatives of pathogenic cocci
Representatives of pathogenic cocci
Electron Micrograph of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Electron Micrograph of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
ARRANGEMENT OF ROD-SHAPED BACTERIA
ARRANGEMENT OF ROD-SHAPED BACTERIA
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
SPIRAL FORMS
SPIRAL FORMS
SPIRAL FORMS
SPIRAL FORMS
2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria
2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria
2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria
2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
BACTERIAL CELL
BACTERIAL CELL
FLAGELLA
FLAGELLA
FLAGELLA
FLAGELLA
CAPSULE
CAPSULE
CAPSULE
CAPSULE
SPORE
SPORE
SPORE
SPORE
Gram Staining Technique
Gram Staining Technique
Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus
Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus
Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus
Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of viruses
Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of chlamydia
Morphology of chlamydia
Methods of laboratory diagnosis
Methods of laboratory diagnosis
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Kharkov National Medical University

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1Kharkov National Medical University. 16which resemble a comma in appearance
Head of Microbiology, Virology and (curved rods). Typical representative of
Immunology Department Minukhin Valeriy this group is Vibrio cholerae.
Vladimirivich. 172. Spirilla – are coiled forms of
2Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, bacteria. Pathogenic species: Spirillum
21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12, 25, 29 minus (1) – which is responsible for a
Siritsa Anna 6, 8, 15, 16, 20, 22, 28 Kon disease in humans transmitted through the
Katerina 3, 7, 10, 18, 24, 26, 27 bite of rats – rat-bite fever – sodoku;
Mozgovaya Yulia 4, 9, 13, 17, 23. Helicobacter pylori (2) – causative agent
3INTRODUCTION IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY. of ulcer disease of stomach. 2. 1.
Medical microbiology Classification of 18SPIROCHAETES. Treponema – exhibits,
microorganisms Morphology of bacteria thin, flexible cells with 6-14 regular
Bacterial anatomy Morphology of viruses twists. The size of Treponema varies from
Morphology of rickettsiae Morphology of 10-18 ? (T.pallidum). Leptospira – are
chlamidia Methods of laboratory diagnosis. characterized by very thin cell structure.
4Medical microbiology is the study of The leptospirae form 12-18 regular coils
causative agents of infectious diseases of (primary spirals) (L.interrogans) and C-
humans and their reactions to such or S- shape according secondary twist.
infections. In other words it deals with Borrelia – have large irregular spirals,
etiology, pathogenesis, laboratory the number of which varies from 3 to 10.
diagnosis, specific treatment and control (B.recurrentis, B.persica).
of infection (immunization). 193. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral
5Modern medical microbiology. forms which include: Treponema
Bacteriology – the science of bacteria, (T.pallidum) (1), Borrelia (B.recurrentis)
the causative agents of a member of (2), Leptospira (L.interrogans) (3). 1. 3.
infectious diseases. Virology – the 2.
science of viruses, non-cellular living 20BACTERIAL CELL.
systems, capable of causing infectious 21FLAGELLA. Electron Micrograph of
diseases in man. Immunology – the science Bacteria with Flagella.
which concerned with mechanisms of body 22CAPSULE. Enterobacter aerogenes.
protection against pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae.
microorganisms and foreign cells and 23SPORE. Bacillus anthracis. Bacillus
substances. Mycology – the study of fungi megaterium.
pathogenic for man. Protozoology – which 24Cell wall. In addition to conferring
deals with pathogenic unicellular animal rigidity upon bacteria, the cell wall
organisms. protects against osmotic damage
6CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS. Chemically, the rigid part of the cell
Protista Vira DNA-viruses and RNA-viruses wall is peptidoglycan First described by
Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Fungi Blue-green Gram in 1884. It is' used to study
algae Algae Bacteria Protozoa morphologic appearance of bacteria. Gram's
Scotobacteria Photobacteria Slime moulds stain differentiates all bacteria into two
1. Class Bacteria 2. Class Rickettsias 3. distinct groups: a. Gram-positive
Class Mollicutes. organisms b. Gram-negative organisms.
7Microbiological nomenclature. In 25Gram Staining Technique. fuchsine.
microbiology the binominal system of 26
nomenclature is accepted where each 27Bacteria with deficient cell walls.
species has a generic and a specific name. Mycoplasma: a genus of naturally occurring
The generic name is written with a capital bacteria which lack cell walls L-forms:
letter, and the specific name – with a cell-wall-deficient forms of bacteria,
small letter. For example: the anthrax usually produced in the body of patients
bacillus – Bacillus anthracis; the tetanus treated with penicillin Spheroplasts:
bacillus – Clostridium tetani. derived from Gram-negative bacteria;
8The size of bacteria. The size of produced artificially by lysozyme or by
bacteria is measured in micrometer (?m) or growth with penicillin or any other agent
micron (?) (1 micron or micrometer is one capable of breaking down the peptidoglycan
thousandth of a millimeter) and varies layer Protoplasts: derived from
from 0.1 ? to 16-18 ?. Most pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria and totally lacking
bacteria measure from 0.1 to 10 ?. The cell walls; produced artificially by
other units of measurement of lysozyme and hypertonic medium.
microorganisms are millimicron (m?) or 28Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells
nanometer (nm) (one millionth of a (1) and L-forms of Proteus mirabilis (2).
millimeter) and 1 Angstrom (?) (one tenth 1. 2.
of nanometer). 29Morphology of viruses. Do not possess
9Morphology of Bacteria. Bacteria are cellular organization Contain one type of
intracellular free-living organisms having nucleic acid either RNA or DNA Lack
both DNA and RNA. Their biological enzymes necessary for protein and nucleic
properties and predominant reproduction by acid synthesis machinery of host cells
binary fission relates them to They multiply by complex process and not
prokaryotes. Spherical (cocci) Rod-shaped by binary fission. They are unaffected by
(bacteria, bacilli, and clostridia) antibiotics. They are sensitive to
Spiral-shaped (vibriones, spirilla, interferon.
spirochaetes). 30
10Spherical (cocci) bacteria. Micrococci 31Morphology of viruses.
Diplococci Streptococci Staphylococci 32Morphology of Rickettsiae. They are
Tetracocci Sarcine. minute organisms having properties in
11Representatives of pathogenic cocci. between bacteria and viruses. It contains
1. 2. 1.Scanning Electron Micrograph of both DNA and RNA. Contains enzymes for
Streptococcus pneumoniae 2.Scanning metabolic functions. Multiplies by binary
electron micrograph of a Staphylococcus fission. It is coccobacilli 300x600 nm in
aureus. size, non-motile, non-capsulated and is
12Electron Micrograph of Neisseria Gram-negative. Sensitive to many
gonorrhoeae. antibiotics. Can multiply only inside
13Rod-shaped bacteria. Bacteria (1) living cells.
include those microorganisms, which, as 33Morphology of Rickettsiae.
rule, do not produce spores (E.coli, 34Morphology of chlamydia. Chlamydiae
Salmonella, Shigella). Bacilli (2) are Gram-negative. They lack some
(B.anthracis) and clostridia (3) important mechanisms for the production of
(C.tetani, C.botuli-num) include organisms metabolic energy, so they are
the majority of which produce spores. Size intracellular parasites. There are 2
of rod-shaped bacteria varies 2-10 ?m: morphological forms of chlamydia:
small rods are 2-4 ?m; long rods are 5-10 Elementary bodies Initial bodies.
?m. 1. 2. 3. 35Methods of laboratory diagnosis.
14ARRANGEMENT OF ROD-SHAPED BACTERIA. Bacterioscopical Bacteriological Detection
15Rod-shaped bacteria. 2. 1. Single Rod sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics
Streptobacillus. Serological Biological DNA-technology test
16SPIRAL FORMS. 1. Vibrios – are cells, (PCR).
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