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Where does all this diversity come from
Where does all this diversity come from
Edward Sapir (1884-1939), anthropologist-linguist
Edward Sapir (1884-1939), anthropologist-linguist
EUROPE
EUROPE
Baltic languages: Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian (extinct)
Baltic languages: Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian (extinct)
Slavic (Slavonic) languages: Eastern branch: Russian, Ukranian,
Slavic (Slavonic) languages: Eastern branch: Russian, Ukranian,
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Minoan eruption  Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation
Minoan eruption Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation
Minoan eruption  Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation
Minoan eruption Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation
CELTS AND CELTIC LANGUAGES
CELTS AND CELTIC LANGUAGES
CELTIC LANGUAGES (insular Celtic) Brythonic: Welsh (Cymric) Cornish
CELTIC LANGUAGES (insular Celtic) Brythonic: Welsh (Cymric) Cornish
GERMANIC LANGUAGES (expansion of the territory from 750 BC and 200 A)
GERMANIC LANGUAGES (expansion of the territory from 750 BC and 200 A)
GOTHS migration from the Baltic to the Black Sea Wulfila (4th c. AD)
GOTHS migration from the Baltic to the Black Sea Wulfila (4th c. AD)
Ostrogothic and Visigothic attacks on the Roman Empire
Ostrogothic and Visigothic attacks on the Roman Empire
Gothic art
Gothic art
Noth Germanic languagaes: Old Norse > eastern (Swedish, Danish)
Noth Germanic languagaes: Old Norse > eastern (Swedish, Danish)
ROMANCE LANGUGES
ROMANCE LANGUGES
Italic languages: first attested in 7th c. BC in old Italic script on
Italic languages: first attested in 7th c. BC in old Italic script on
ETRUSCAN
ETRUSCAN
BASQUE LANGUAGE  EUSKARA Basque country  Euskal Herria:
BASQUE LANGUAGE EUSKARA Basque country Euskal Herria:
URALIC LANGUAGES
URALIC LANGUAGES
SAMI
SAMI
SAMI
SAMI
SAMOYEDIC (30
SAMOYEDIC (30
17th vs 20th c
17th vs 20th c
ALTAIC LANGUAGES
ALTAIC LANGUAGES
ALTAIC LANGUAGES: TURKIC Turkish (83 millions), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek,
ALTAIC LANGUAGES: TURKIC Turkish (83 millions), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek,
SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES CHINESE LANGUAGES TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES
SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES CHINESE LANGUAGES TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES
CHINESE CHARACTERS (h
CHINESE CHARACTERS (h
CHINESE CHARACTERS (h
CHINESE CHARACTERS (h
PHONO-SEMANTIC COMPOUNDS radical + phonetic clue mother = woman +
PHONO-SEMANTIC COMPOUNDS radical + phonetic clue mother = woman +
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
? ??
? ??
? ??
? ??
? ??
? ??
? ??
? ??
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
27 language families 150 languages many ergative mother-in-law
27 language families 150 languages many ergative mother-in-law
LANGUAGES IN AFRICA
LANGUAGES IN AFRICA
AFRO-ASIATIC languages (Hamito-Semitic languages) Semitic, Berber,
AFRO-ASIATIC languages (Hamito-Semitic languages) Semitic, Berber,
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES
NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES
KHOISAN LANGUAGES
KHOISAN LANGUAGES
Native American languages 45
Native American languages 45
Native American languages 45
Native American languages 45
Pine Ridge Reservation, Wounded Knee incident in 1973
Pine Ridge Reservation, Wounded Knee incident in 1973
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975
Eskimo-Aleut: Inuit, Inuktikut, Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) Na-Dene
Eskimo-Aleut: Inuit, Inuktikut, Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) Na-Dene
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
wigwam words
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

: User. , . , LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.ppt zip- 4181 .

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.ppt
1LANGUAGE AND CULTURE. 67ALTAIC LANGUAGES.
2CULTURE: integrated human knowledge, 68ALTAIC LANGUAGES: TURKIC Turkish (83
belief and behaviour, which depends on the millions), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek,
capacity of symbolic thought and social Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Uigur, Chuvash
learning (pan-human or shared by different (Bulgarian), Yakut (360.000) MONGOLIAN
groups). LANGUAGE is a system of (verbal) Mongolian (Khalka), Kalmyk, Buryat
signs embedded in social and cultural TUNGISIC Evenki, Manchu.
reality of language users. The structures 69TYPOLOGY vowel harmony agglutination
of language reflect (and shape?) COGNITIVE SOV word order. Vowel harmony: result of
STRUCTURES. CULTURE MIND LANGUAGE. distant assimilation of vowels in
3LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS : All languages neighbouring syllables adjustment of the
share the same universal matrix of vowels in the bound morpheme to the vowel
syntactic patterns and in the stem Turkish ev house - ev-ler
generative-transformational rules. houses kadin woman - kadin-lar
LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY: 1. Languages, women. Agglutination: ev N. Sg. ev-i
especially those genetically unrelated, D. sg. ev-ler N. pl. ev-ler-i D. pl.
differ significantly. 2. The structure and 70SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES CHINESE
the lexicon of a language reflect and LANGUAGES TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES.
affect the cognitive processes and 71CHINESE CHARACTERS (h?nzi).
conceptualization of reality. 72PHONO-SEMANTIC COMPOUNDS radical +
4LANGUAGE DIVERSITY 6.000-7.000 phonetic clue mother = woman + sounds
languages in the world Languages by the like horse.
number of speakers: Mandarine Chines e 73
847,000.000 Hindi 366,000.000 English 74CHINESE LANGUAGES Han languages -
341,000.000 Spanish 330.000,000 Bengali H?ny? W?n-y?n 1500 BC logographic
Arabic Portuguese Russian Japanese German writing system B?ihu? 1917 reformed
. 2000 languages less than 1000 languages (written) Simplified Chinese
speakers. since 1956 (2.238 characters simplified)
5Distribution/concentration of P?t?ngu? common language -1949 spoken
languages: English official language in standardized language based on Mandarin
52 countries 900 languages on Papua New (official in China and Taiwan, Singapore
Guinea (5-10 million people) high density and UN) Mandarin (850) Cantonese (Yue)
also in Caucasus, (Native) California ? (70) Guangong, Hong Kong, Macau,
of languages no longer used by children overseas Wu (90) - Shanghai Min (50)
1/3 of languages less than 1000 speakers Taiwan (Taiwanese), Southeast Asia Hakka -
English: 615.000 non-technical words (over southern China, Xiang Hunan (central
2,000.000, if slang and techical words China).
added) (imported from more than 240 75
languages) average use in daily speech 76Typology of Chinese languages
800-1000 words college graduates isolating languages SVO tonal languages
10.000-20.000. classifiers. In isolating languages free
6Where does all this diversity come morphemes prevail. Words are mostly
from? Franz Boas (1858-1942), monomorphemic. khi t?i d?n nh? ban t?i,
anthropologist Since the total range of ch?ng t?i b?t d?u l?m b?i. when I come
personal experience which language serves house friend I plural I begin do lesson
to express is infinitely varied, and its article.
whole scope must be expressed by a limited 77Tonal languages have tonemes, i. e.
number of phonetic groups, it is obvious phonemes which differe only in the
that an extended classification of register (pitch) and/or its contour
experience must underline all articulate (shift). Tonal languages: Chinese, Thai,
speech.. Vietnamese, sub-Saharan African languages,
7Where does all this diversity come Native American languages. ???????????????
from? Different languages different IPA: /m?i m?i m?i m?i/ "Does new silk
implicit classification of experience: burn? (Thai tong-twister).
Inuit: aput snow on the ground qana ????????/???????? Pinyin: m?ma m? m? de m?
falling snow piqsirpoq drifting snow ma? "Is mom scolding the horse's
qimuqsuq snow drift Linguistic hemp? (Mandarin).
classifications reflect, not dictate 78Classifers are morphemes which refer
thought. to some innate semantic feature of the
8Edward Sapir (1884-1939), content word they are used with. They can
anthropologist-linguist. formal be used with different word classes.
completeness of each language as a Classifier languages: Chinese, Thai,
symbolic system: Australian languages, Mayan Murrinhpatha
9The outstanding fact about any (Australian): Nanti kamarl : C:generic +
language is its formal completeness [...] eye = eye Kura kamarl : C:water + eye =
[W]e may say that a language is so pond Mi kamarl: C:non-meat food + eye =
constructed that no matter what any seed. Nominal: (Yidini) bama waguja:
speaker of it may desire to communicate C:human + man Numerical: (Thai) luuk saam
[...] the language is prepared to do his khon: child + three-C:human Verbal:
work. The Hopi language is capable of (Waris) sa ka-m put-ra-ho-o coconut + me +
accounting for and describing C:kokos + meni + C:round + give .
correctly...all observable phenomena of 79Chinese classifers (measure words)
the universe... Just as it is possible to between numerals/demonstratives and nouns.
have any number of geometries other than general classifer, books, flat objects,
the Euclidean. Linguistic classifications animals, large buildings and mountains,
channel thought: Language is guide to domestic animals, long and flexible
social reality [...] Human beings do not animals, horses ?w? five. ?t?u CL. ?ni?
live in the objective world alone [...] cattle.
but are very much at the mercy of the 80JAPANESE many typological
particular language which has become the characteristic of Altaic languages
medium of expression for their society (agglutination, SOV word order) Chinese
[...] No two languages are ever influence lexicon, writing system
sufficiently similar to be considered as Chinese characters kanji (< hanzi)
representing the same social reality.... (several thousands) 2 syllabaries: kana
10Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) known scripts: katakana, hiragana (46 basic
for his descriptions of Nahuatl, Hopi, characters each) Latin script: romaji.
Mayan and other native American languages 81? ?? ??? ???? JAPANESE many
the need for calibration objective typological characteristic of Altaic
non-linguistic evaluation (physical languages (agglutination, SOV word order)
sciences?) The very natural tendency to Chinese influence lexicon, writing
use terms derived from traditional system Chinese characters kanji 2
grammar, like verb, noun, adjective, syllabaries: kana script: katakana,
passive voice, in describing languages hiragana Latin script: romaji: Watashi-wa
outside of Indo-European is fraught with kissaten-de koohi-o nam-da.
grave possibilities of misunderstanding. 82JAPANESE many typological
11We cut nature up, organize it into characteristic of Altaic languages
concepts, and ascribe significances as we (agglutination, SOV word order) Chinese
do, largely because we are parties to an influence lexicon, writing system
agreement to organize it in this way an Chinese characters kanji 2 syllabaries:
agreement that holds throughout our speech kana script: katakana, hiragana Latin
community and is codified in the patterns script: romaji WATASHI wa KISSATEN de
of our language. The agreement is, of koohi o NAM da.
course, and implicit and unstated one, but 83HONORIFICS grammatical or
its terms are absolutely obligatory morphosyntactic encoding of the relative
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis = the structure of social status of the addressee the
a language affects the way in which its referent the bystander the circumstances
speakers conceptualize the World. Examples: T-V distinction in many
12Categorization of the World comparison Indo-European languages 3 different
of things (phenomena) that are not alike linguistic styles in Japanese, 4 in
but similar in (at least) one important Javanese and Nahuatl, 6 in Korean
way conceptual metaphor source domain avoidance speech: Australian,
(more concrete > target domain (more Austranesian, American, Cushitic and Bantu
abstract) metaphor mapping: = a systematic languages (e.g. different words used in
set of correspondences that exist between the presence of opposite sex
constituent elements of the source and the parents-in-law, children-in-law,
target domain [] To know a conceptual cross-cousins in Dyrbal).
metaphor is to know the set of mappings 84Honorifics in English: Mr,, Mrs., Ms,.
that applies to a given source-target Miss, Doctor, Captain, Coach, Officer,
pairing. Time is a path. I fear the days Reverend, Father, Professor Sir, Madam,
ahead. Time is money. Dont waste my time. Your Honour, Your Majesty, Your Highness
13Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (below royalty) Your Excellency (heads of
(1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: state, ambassadors, governors, bishops)
University of Chicago Press How does ones Your Eminence (cardinals).
conceptualization (categorization) of the 85HONORIFIC SPEECH - KEIGO polite
world become culture? (integrated human language: TEI NEIGO desu at the end of the
knowledge, belief and behaviour, which sentence, masu at the end of the verb,
depends on the capacity of symbolic prefixes o- or go- for nouns used by
thought and social learning (pan-human or television presenters, the safest form
shared by different groups). memetic to be learned by non-native speakers
theory: culture and language united by respectful language: SON KEIGO special
memes: meme > Greek m?m?ma something forms or words used, lengthy polite
imitated Richard Dawkings, The Selfish expressions, e.g taberu eat, nomu
Gene (1976) Culture is an aggregate of drink > meshiagaru hito person >
many different meme sets or memeplexes kata: ? > ? when talking about/to
shared by the majority of population. superiors and customers; not used when
Language created by memes and for memes referring to oneself. in business,
is [also] the principal medium used for professional capacity humble language: KEN
spreading memes.. YOOGO similar to respectful language but
14Cultural schemas/frames Did you hear used when referring to oneself.
that the guy who the police were looking 86HONORIFIC WORDS/particles, added to
fors red Cortina got stolen? Will they nouns or names chan children, pets,
deny that a nun who your shopkeeper was close friends little girls kun people of
chatting ups large settee got replicated? lower social status, boys san the most
c) No head injury is too trivial to common marker of respect (Mr. Mrs, also
ignore. for family members) sama esteemed
15Grammar is thick with cultural sensei master, teacher.
meaning. Encoded in the semantics of 87LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN
grammar we find cultural values and ideas, ASIA INDIA Indo-European languages (Hindi,
we find clues about the social Urdu, Bengali) Dravidian languages.
structures. N. J. Enfield: Ethnosyntax. 88LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN
Explorations in Grammar and Culture. OUP ASIA INDIA Indo-European languages (Hindi,
2002. Urdu, Bengali) Dravidian languages
16LANGUAGE FAMILIES AND LANGUAGE INDOCHINA Sino-Tibetan languages (>
TYPOLOGY. Tibeto-Burmese > Burmese) Tai languages
17EUROPE. (Thai, Lao/Laotian) Austro-Asiatic
18EUROPE. Indo-European Uralic languages (Khmer, Mon, Vietnamese?).
(Ugro-Finnic) Altaic Basque Semitic. 89LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA
19INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES from the AUSTRALIA Indo-European languages
Indo-Eropean Parent language, spoken about (English) Australian Aboriginal languages;
5000-3000 AD in south-eastern Russia Tasmanian languages.
patriarchal society > kinship terms, 9027 language families 150 languages
masculine pantheon social stratification: many ergative mother-in-law (avoidance)
slave < warrior, man wulf, birch, languages skin system taboo against naming
beech, bear cow, dog, plough, seed. the dead (a year or more) sign languages.
20inflectional language(s) nouns: 3 91LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA
numbers + collective (?) drevje : INDIAN OCEAN, INDONESIA, MALESIA, PACIFIC
drevesa 3 genders 8 or 9 cases: OCEAN Austronesian languages: Formosan,
nominative, vocative, accusative, Malagasy, Indonesian, Malay, Javanese,
genitive, dative, ablative, locative, Filipino (Tagalog), Maori, Samoan,
directive (?) instrumental verbs: Tahitian, Hawaiian, Tongic . Papuan
tense/aspect: present, imperfect, aorist, languages 800 languages, 60 families, only
perfect, pluperfect, future mood: a few more than 100.000 speakers
indicative, imperative, subjunctive, polysynthetic some are tonal PIDGIN AND
optative voice: active, middle persons: 3. CREOLE LANGUAGES.
21Indo-Iranian languages: Indic: Vedic, 92PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGES
Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu, Romany SOCIO-LINGUISTIC DEFINITION: pidgin:
chakra, ashram, guru, karma, caste auxiliary language, emerging where more
Iranian:Avestan, Iranian, Pashto, Kurdic, than two languages in contact, no native
Ossetic, Tadjik Balkan (upper house), speakers, the use restricted to certain
Bagdad (given by God), balcony, caravan, fields of life (e.g. trade) creole: first
candy, dervish, mag(ic), paradise. language of communication GEOGRAPHIC
22Armenian attested from 5th c. AD Bible DISTRIBUTION: Pacific and Indian Ocean,
translation by St Mesrob Grabar Australia, West Africa, Caribean islands,
classical Armenian Armenian Apostolic South America
Church Christianity as national religion 93LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS: lexifier
(301) language: strong Iranian influence, language, common grammatical features
convergeance with Caucasic languages pidgin: the number of grammatical
glottalized consonants (ejectives). categories reduced, the encodement
23Albanian descended from Illyrian? transparent, poor morphology creole:
Thracian? Ptolomy (150 AD) Illyrian reassertion of grammatical categories,
tribe Albani Middle Ages Arb?r, Arb?resh grammaticalization of lexemes, basic
16th c. - Shqip?ria land of eagles(?) morphology Tok Pisin: balus bird kaikai
shqip understand each other Arnaut eat bubu great parent/child lotu
Turkish name. church rokrok frog tambu in-laws
241190 independent state Gheg since (< taboo) pikinini child kantiri
16th c. (north) Tosk official Albanian sisters child, uncle.
(south). 94belo kaikai belhat manki gras bilong
25Baltic languages: Latvian, Lithuanian, fes gras no gut maus gras sit haus, liklik
Old Prussian (extinct). haus haus moni manmeri solwara gat bel
26Anyone wishing to hear how hevi.
Indo-Europeans spoke should come and 95Papa bilong mipela, Yu stap long
listen to a Lithuanian peasant. (Antoine heven. Nem bilong yu i mas i stap holi.
Meillet) pitch accent, free accent two Kingdom bilong yu i mas i kam. Strongim
grammatical genders (masculine and mipela long bihainim laik bilong yu long
feminine). graun, olsem ol i bihainim long heven.
27Slavic (Slavonic) languages: Eastern Givim mipela kaikai inap long tude.
branch: Russian, Ukranian, Belarusian Pogivim rong bilong mipela, olsem mipela i
Western branch: Polish, Czech, Slovakian, pogivim ol arapela i mekim rong long
Sorbian Southern branch: Old Church mipela. Sambai long mipela long taim
Slavonic (extinct), Bulgarian, Macedonian, bilong traim. Na rausim olgeta samting
Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian. nogut long mipela. Kingdom na strong na
28GREEK LANGUAGE(S) Minoan civilization glori, em i bilong yu tasol oltaim
on Crete (settled 128.000 BC, signs of oltaim.Tru.
agriculture 5000 BC) named by Arthur Evans 96decreolisation: basilect mezolect
Linear A Minoan eruption (Thera, acrolect.
Santorinin) - 2nd millenium BC, tsunami. 97LANGUAGES IN AFRICA.
29 98AFRO-ASIATIC languages (Hamito-Semitic
30Minoan eruption Thera (Santorini) languages) Semitic, Berber, Cushitic,
ashes, tsunami, deforestation Mycenaean Chadic, Omotic, Egyptian.
conquest. 998th BC Aramaic becomes the common
31Mycenean Greek Linear B Ancient language of communication in the Middle
Greek: Aeolic Ionic (Asia Minor, Attic) East > after 3rd BC, also the spoken
Doric Greek alphabet < Phoenician language of Jews Hebrew remains the
syllabary Katharevousa Hellenistic Koin? literary and liturgical language of Jews
> modern Greek Demotic (official in 19th c. Eliezer ben Yehuda 4000 new
Greece, Cyprus). words, 1959 dictionary of modern Hebrew
32CELTS AND CELTIC LANGUAGES. core Ivrit Arabic until 7th c. on the Arabian
territory 6th century BC. maximal penninsula with expansion of Islam 8th
expansion by 275 BC. c. > northern Africa, Spain, India 610
33CELTIC LANGUAGES (insular Celtic) Muhammad recieved revelations by Gabriel
Brythonic: Welsh (Cymric) Cornish Breton (Jibril) Koran (Quran) classical Arabic
Gaelic: Irish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic Manx. > modern literary Arabic algebra,
34Brehon Law the early Celtic law alcohol, alchemy, zenith, nadir, zero,
womens rights to property, the kings cipher
position and duties, status grading of 100
clerics, lay men and poets, payment for 101Amharic Ethiopia, (from Geez).
injury, sick maintenance. 102Typology of Semitic languages
35linguistic typology of Celtic introflection
languages: V-S-O order consonant mutation (nonconcatanative/discontinuous
vigesimal numeric system. 20 as the base morphology) kit?b "book" kutub
number: French (quatre-vingts) Resian "books" k?tib "writer"
dialect of Slovene (trikart dwesti nu kutt?b "writers" kataba "he
deset) English (score). wrote" yaktubu "he writes"
36counting base: no base (Melanisia: VSO word order some dialects only 3 vowels
thumb, wrist, elbow, shoulder) most dialects 3 numbers 2 genders
quarternary: (Maori, Papua New Guinea, masculine and feminine.
other Austronesian languages) quinary: 103Berber, Cushitic, Chadic, Omotic,
sub-base of vigesimal systems octal: Egyptian (formerly Hamitic languages).
American languages vigesimal: Mayan, 104NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES.
Nahualt, Celtic. decimal, duodecimal 105Niger-Congo (1350) Yoruba, Fula, Akan
37GERMANIC LANGUAGES (expansion of the BANTU languages (535, 250 mutually
territory from 750 BC and 200 A). intelligible) Cameroon (proto-Bantu
38Western: Northern: German Danish language) 2000-3000 years ago eastward and
Yiddish Faroese Plattdeutsch (Low German) southward Swahili Xhosa Zulu Rwanda Swazi
Islandic Swiss German (Alemannic) Kongo Shona Ndebele
Norwegian (Nynorsk, Bokmal) Dutch Swedish 106Class languages. Swahili: class.
Afrikaans Flemish Frisian English Scots semantics. prefix. singular. translation.
Eastern: Gothic Vandalic . plural. 1, 2. persons. m-/mu-, wa-. mtu.
39GOTHS migration from the Baltic to the person. watu. 3, 4. trees, natural forces.
Black Sea Wulfila (4th c. AD) Crimean m-/mu-, mi-. mti. tree. miti. 5, 6.
Gothic. groups, AUG. ?/ji-, ma-. jicho. eye.
40Ostrogothic and Visigothic attacks on macho. 7, 8. artefacts, DIM. ki-, vi-.
the Roman Empire. Visigoths in Iberia kisu. knife. visu. 9, 10. animals,
(till 711) Ostrogoths In Italy loanwords, other. ?/n-, ?/n-. ndoto.
(493-553). dream. ndoto. 11, 12. extension. u-, ?/n-.
41Gothic art. ua. fence, yard. nyua. 14. abstraction.
42Noth Germanic languagaes: Old Norse u-. utoto. childhood.
> eastern (Swedish, Danish) western 107AGREEMENT, CONCORD AGGLUTINATION.
(Norwegian > Faroese, Icelandic) Mtoto mdogo amekisoma. a small child has
Dansk-Norsk, Riksmal, Bokmal Landnorsk, read it Watoto wadogo wamekisoma small
Nynorsk. children have read it amekisoma: a =
43West Germanic languages Bavarian class marker of the subject me = perfect
Alemanic High German High Franconian tense ki = class marker of the object
Frankish Low Franconian Dutch North Sea (< kitabu book) soma = root morpheme
(Ingvaeonic) Frisian English Saxon (Low read.
German, Plattdeutsch). 108KHOISAN LANGUAGES.
44ROMANCE LANGUGES. 109Khoi-Khoi first people Khoi-Khoi
45Italic languages: first attested in > many speak Bantu languages Nama
7th c. BC in old Italic script on the (Namibia), a.k.a. Hottentot San
basis of Etruscan/Greek alphabet. outsiders, Bushmen Kalahari, about
46Oscan , Umbrian, Latin Archaic Latin 75.000 still hunters gatherers land
(7th-2nd c. BC): scattered inscriptions, conflict with Botswana. Clicks
Plautus, Terence, Cato the Elder reduplication for plural 3 tones 3
Classical Latin (Golden and Silver Age): genders, feminine and masculine nouns 3
Cicero, Caesar, Horace, Vergil, Ovid, numbers, neuter nouns 2 numbers SOV.
Seneca Vulgar Latin (spoken Latin, from 110Native American languages 45.000
3rd c.) > Romance languages: 14.000 BC across the Beringia land bridge
Gallo-Romance languages: French (attested one wave, several waves?
since 9th c.): langue do?l, langue doc 111Native American languages 45.000
Central French, Norman French 14.000 BC across the Beringia land bridge
(Anglo-Norman), Walloon Occitan > one wave, several waves? macro families
Proven?al Corsican? (Joseph Greenberg) Eskimo-Aleut Na-Dene
47Ibero-Romance languages: Spanish Amerind.
Castilian (standard Spanish), attested 112preColumbian America: over 1500
since 11th c. Catalan (official language languages, 10 million in North America, 30
in Andorra, co-official in Catalonia, million Central America 50 million South
Balearic Islands and Valencia, spoken also America today: North America: 200.000
in Alghero on Sardinia) Portuguese Ladino speakers Central America: 6 million
(Judaeo-Spanish) Italian (since 10th c. speakers South America: 12 million
dialects of Tuscany) Sardinian? speakers Most populous: Navajo, Inuit,
Rhaeto-Romance languages: Ladin Friulian Nahuatl, Mayan, Quechua Aymara, Guarani
Romansch Istriot? Romanian. Mayan 6 million Nahuatl 1,5 million
48ETRUSCAN. Tusci, Etrusci (Latin) Guarani 5 million Quechua 6-7 million
Tyrrennioi (Greek) Rassena, Rasna Navajo 170.000 speakers.
(Etruscan) since 8th c. BC 3rd c. BC. 113History of Native American European
49BASQUE LANGUAGE EUSKARA Basque relations. Columbus: They traded with us
country Euskal Herria: Spanish-French and gave us everything they had, with good
border 700.000 speakers, most bilingual, will..they took great delight in pleasing
the first printed book in 1545 Basque us..They are very gentle and without
language unrelated to any other known knowledge of what is evil; nor do they
language DNA shows close relations to murder or steal..Your highness may believe
other Europeans. that in all the world there can be no
50ergative-absolutive language complex better people ..They love their neighbours
agreement system: the auxiliary agrees as themselves, and they have the sweetest
with the subject, direct and indirect talk in the world, and are gentle and
object very complex nominal paradigm, (9 always laughing
cases, 2 numbers, postpositioned article). 114Leyes de Burgos 1512 Leyes nuevas
51ergative-absolutive languages. It 1542: forbade maltreatment, endorsed
rains. PREDICATEverb. He kicked the ball. conversion to Catholicism, pregnant women
He sleeps. He gave her a flower. VALENCY - protected hammock provided, meat on
THE NUMBER OF Sundays, sacred dances allowed, no
ARGUMENTS/ACTANTS/COPMPLEMENTS CONTROLLED physical abuse allowed typhus, influenza,
BY THE PREDICATE. smallpox, measles
52impersonal no argument It rains. 115Indian Removal Act 1830 (Andrew
intransitive one argument He sleeps. Jackson) Trail of Tears
verb. transitive two arguments He kicked http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nfo_LnuDJ1c
the ball. He gave her a flower amp;feature=related.
ditransitive three arguments. 116Pine Ridge Reservation, Wounded Knee
53ARGUMENTS HAVE SEMANTIC ROLES: agent, incident in 1973.
patient, recipient, beneficiary, 117Indian Self-Determination and
means/instrument. impersonal no Education Assistance Act of 1975.
argument It rains. intransitive one 118Eskimo-Aleut: Inuit, Inuktikut,
argument He sleeps AGENT. verb. transitive Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) Na-Dene
two arguments He kicked the ball AGENT, Athabascan Navajo, Apache Amerind
PATIENT. He gave her a flower ditransitive Algonquian: Cree, Algonquin, Blackfoot,
three arguments AGENT, RECIPIENT, Ojibwe, Shawnee.. Siouan: Sioux (Dakota,
PATIENT. Lakota), Crow Iroquian: Iroquois,
54semantic roles grammatical (syntactic) Cherokee, Chocktaw Uto-Aztek: Nahuatl
function agent, doer subject instrument Mayan: Mayan, Yucatec Arawakan, Caribean
subject recepient indirect object Andean: Quechua, Aymara, Guarani.
benefactor patient direct object . ROLE 119http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUi
ASSIGNEMENT SYNTACTIC OR MORPHOLOGICAL. v20. implosive, ejective phonemes.
55ROLE ALIGNMENT ergative - absolutive : 120http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUi
nominative accusative intransitive v20. implosive, ejective phonemes
agent/subject intransitive agent/subject polysynthetic.
transitive patient/object transitive 121http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUi
agent/subject ABSOLUTIVE CASE NOMINATIVE v20. implosive, ejective phonemes
CASE transitive agent/subject transitive polysynthetic ergative.
patient/object ERGATIVE CASE ACCUSATIVE 122http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUi
CASE Basque: Gizona etorri da. Gizonak v20. implosive, ejective phonemes
mutila ikusi du. man-ABS arrived-AUX polysynthetic ergative classifiers.
man-ERG boy-ABS saw-AUX Japanese Otoko ga 123http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUi
tsuita. Otoko ga kodomo o mita man-NOM v20. implosive, ejective phonemes tonemes
arrived man-NOM child-ACC saw. polysynthetic ergative classifiers
56ergative languages: Basque Caucasian alienable/inalienable possession animacy
(Kartvelian=Georgian) Tibetan Native marking many mood, tense and aspect
American (Chinook, Eskimo-Aleut, Mayan) distinctions.
Australian. 124http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUi
57URALIC LANGUAGES. v20. from Nahuatl: Nimitzt?tlamaquilt?z
58URALIC LANGUAGES proto-Uralic (the ni-mits-te?-tla-maki-lti?-s'
Ural Mountains) UGRO-FINNIC Finnic: I-you-someone-something-give-CAUSATIVE-FUT
Finnish, Estonian, Sami (Lappish) Ugric: RE "I shall make somebody give
Hungarian SAMOYEDIC. something to you"[6].
59FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in 125Classifier+Stem. Label . Explanation.
Finland Finland settled at least 8500 BC Examples. -'? SRO. Solid Roundish Object.
Swedish rule from 12th century 1249 bottle, ball, boot, box, etc. -y? LPB.
Swedish the dominant language of higher Load, Pack, Burden. backpack, bundle,
classes 17th century Sweden and Russia sack, saddle, etc. -?-jool. NCM.
fought over Finland 1809 Finland becomes Non-Compact Matter. bunch of hair or
an autonomous Great Duchy of Russia grass, cloud, fog, etc. -l? SFO. Slender
Finnish language gains recognition Flexible Object. rope, mittens, socks,
Kalevala 1835 (Elias L?nnrot) pile of fried onions, etc. -t? SSO.
independence delared on December 6, 1917. Slender Stiff Object. arrow, bracelet,
60FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in skillet, saw, etc. -?-tsooz. FFO. Flat
Finland Finland settled at least 8500 BC Flexible Object. blanket, coat, sack of
Swedish rule from 12th century 1249 groceries, etc. -t???'. MM. Mushy Matter.
Swedish the dominant language of higher ice cream, mud, slumped-over drunken
classes 17th century Sweden and Russia person, etc. -nil. PLO1. Plural Objects 1.
fought over Finland 1809 Finland becomes eggs, balls, animals, coins, etc. -jaa'.
an autonomous Great Duchy of Russia PLO2. Plural Objects 2. marbles, seeds,
Finnish language gains recognition sugar, bugs, etc. -k? OC. Open Container.
Kalevala 1835 (Elias L?nnrot) glass of milk, spoonful of food, handful
independence delared on December 6, 1917. of flour, etc. -?-t? ANO. Animate Object.
61SAMI. Sapmi area: settlements since microbe, person, corpse, doll, etc.
10.000 BC fishermen, raindeer hunters, 126Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop
since 1500 raindeer herders 19th, 20th jahuacte tree - tek = plant untsit wop
century: pressure to wipe out Sami culture a stick from that tree tsit = elongated
(Norwegian names, language, sterilization object.
of Sami women in Sweden logging, mineral 127Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop
mining, military activitities, Chernobyl jahuacte tree - tek = plant untsit wop
9 varieties of Sami language: Northern a stick from that tree tsit = elongated
Sami (15000), the rest 3500 (400-600). object. Animacy scale in Navajo:
62HUNGARIAN Ugric language Pannonia humans/lightning ? infants/big animals ?
(9th BC end of 4th AD) Roman province mid-size animals ? small animals ? insects
Huns, Ostrogoths, Lombards, Gepids, Avars ? natural forces ? inanimate
and Slaves Magyars led by Arpad since objects/plants ? abstractions.
895 federation of tribes Saint Stephan I 128Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop
Hungary integrated into feudal Christian jahuacte tree - tek = plant untsit wop
Europe Latin official language until 19th a stick from that tree tsit = elongated
c. 1200 funeral oration 1430s Bible object contrast between alienable and
translation 1533 first printed book inalienable possession. Animacy scale in
(letters of St. Paul) agglutinative Navajo: humans/lightning ? infants/big
language, up to 18 cases 2 conjugations: animals ? mid-size animals ? small animals
definite for transitive, indefinite for ? insects ? natural forces ? inanimate
intransitive verbs four levels of objects/plants ? abstractions.
politeness kinship terms depend on the 129wigwam words. hickory, pecan,
relative age (younger/older) separate chipmunk, papoose, moose, squaw, igloo,
prefixes for up to eleventh ancestors and kayak , pow-wow, moccasin, racoon,
tenth descendants surname generally comes tomahawk, totem chocolate, tomato,
first. condor, coke, chili, hammock
63SAMOYEDIC (30.000 70.000) Nenets. 130Native American toponyms: Arkansas
6417th vs 20th c. (Arkans - tribe), Oklahoma (red people),
65TYPOLOGY OF URALIC LANGUAGES Arizona (little springs), Michigan (great
nominative-accusative alignment elaborate water), Chicago (place of onions),
case systems agglutination no grammatical Mississippi (big river), Missouri (person
gender dual in Samoyedic and Sami who has a canoe), Utah (mountain top
languages vowel harmony. dwellers), Wyoming (place of the big
66FINNISH NOUN CASES nominative talo plain), Dakota (another name for Sioux),
house genitive talon of the house Idaho (tribe),
accusative talo (object, complete) 131Nebraska (flat river), Texas (via
partitive taloa (object, part, incomplete) Spanish tejas = friends), Iowa (tribe),
translative taloksi into (change) a house Kansas (tribe), Minnesota (cloudy river),
instructive taloin with, using the house Illinois (tribe), Ohio (fine river),
abessive talotta without a house essive Tennessee (after a Cherokee village
talona as a house comitative taloineen Tanase), Kentucky (meadowland), Alabama
together with the house LOCATIVE internal: (tribe Alibamon), Wisconsin (gathering of
inessive talossa in the house elative waters), Connecticut (beside the long
talostani from inside of the house tidal river), Canada (village, community),
illative taloonsa into the house LOCATIVE Manitoba (great spirit), Ontario
external adessive talolla at the house (beautiful lake), Manhattan (island of
ablative talolta from the house allative many hills) etc.
talolle to the house.
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LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

Language Link - . . - . . . . . Language Link. Language Link . . .

Net languages - . Net Languages - . - , . . Net Languages.

- , . . . . . . Youre the best. Casual English. . .

- . . . . , .

English for you - . ENGLISH FOR YOU. . . . ? . .

- counter. . . 9 . . . . descendant. . environs. salary. slippery. assembly hall. sultry. chapel. ensemble. Shopping. Family. Sightseeing. - .

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