Курсы английского
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Low-level techniques applied in experiments looking for rare events
Low-level techniques applied in experiments looking for rare events
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
3. Radon detection
4. Mass spectrometry
4. Mass spectrometry
4. Mass spectrometry
4. Mass spectrometry
4. Mass spectrometry
4. Mass spectrometry
2. Germanium spectroscopy
2. Germanium spectroscopy
Картинки из презентации «Low-level techniques applied in experiments looking for rare events» к уроку английского языка на тему «Курсы английского»

Автор: Grzegorz Zuzel. Чтобы познакомиться с картинкой полного размера, нажмите на её эскиз. Чтобы можно было использовать все картинки для урока английского языка, скачайте бесплатно презентацию «Low-level techniques applied in experiments looking for rare events.ppt» со всеми картинками в zip-архиве размером 3283 КБ.

Low-level techniques applied in experiments looking for rare events

содержание презентации «Low-level techniques applied in experiments looking for rare events.ppt»
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1Low-level techniques applied in 10(STP) [1 atom in 4 m3]. A combination of
experiments looking for rare events. 222Rn pre-concentration and low-background
Grzegorz Zuzel Max Planck Institute for counting gives the most sensitive
Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. technique for radon detection in gases.
Introduction. Germanium spectroscopy. Great importance for BOREXINO, GERDA, EXO,
Radon detection. Mass spectrometry. XENON, XMASS, WARP, CLEAN, … 222Rn
Conclusions. extraction from 350 liters 222Rn and 226Ra
21. Introduction. Low-level techniques: measurements possible. 222Rn detection
experimental techniques which allow to limit: ~0.1 mBq/m3 226Ra detection limit:
investigate very low activities of natural ~0.8 mBq/m3. Production rate: 100 m3/h
and artificially produced radio-isotopes. 222Rn ?0.5 ?Bq/m3 (STP). Introduction.
material screening (Ge spectroscopy, Germanium spectroscopy. Radon detection.
ICPMS, NA) surface screening (?,?,? Mass spectrometry. Conclusions.
spectroscopy) study of radioactive noble 113. Radon detection. 222Rn emanation
gases (emanation, diffusion) purification and diffusion. Blanks: 20 l ? 50 ?Bq 80 l
techniques (gases, liquids) background ? 80 ?Bq. Absolute sensitivity ~100 ?Bq
events rejection techniques modeling of [50 atoms]. Sensitivity ~ 10-13 cm2/s.
background in experiments (Monte Carlo) Introduction. Germanium spectroscopy.
Low-level techniques are “naturally” Radon detection. Mass spectrometry.
coupled with the experiments looking for Conclusions.
rare events (detection of neutrinos, 123. Radon detection. BOREXINO nylon
search for dark matter, search for 0?2? foil. 1 ppt U required (~12 ?Bq/kg for
decay, search for proton decay, ...), 226Ra) Ddry = 2x10-12 cm2/s (ddry= 7 ?m)
where the backgrounds identification and Dwet = 1x10-9 cm2/s (dwet = 270 ?m) Adry=
reduction plays a key role. Introduction. Asf + 0.14 ? Abulk Awet= Asf +Abulk
Germanium spectroscopy. Radon detection. Separation of the bulk and surface 226Ra
Mass spectrometry. Conclusions. conc. was possible through 222Rn emanation
32. Germanium spectroscopy. Germanium Very sensitive technique: (CRa ~ 10
spectroscopy is one of the most powerful ?Bq/kg). Bx IV foil: bulk ? 15 ?Bq/kg
techniques to identify ?-emmiters (U/Th surface ? 0.8 ?Bq/m2 total = (16 ? 4)
chain, 40K, 60Co,...). excellent energy ?Bq/kg (1.2 ppt U eqiv.). Introduction.
resolution (~ 2 keV) high purity detectors Germanium spectroscopy. Radon detection.
(low intrinsic background). In order to Mass spectrometry. Conclusions.
reach high sensitivity it is necessary: 133. Radon detection. Online 222Rn
reduce backgrounds originating from monitoring: electrostatic chamber (J.
external sources - active/passive Kiko). 222Rn monitoring in gases Shape
shielding (underground localizations) - adopted to the electrical field Volume:
reduction of radon in the sample chamber 750 l Sensitivity goal: ~ 50 ?Bq/m3.
assure (reasonably) large volumes of Introduction. Germanium spectroscopy.
samples assure precise Radon detection. Mass spectrometry.
calculations/measurements of detection Conclusions.
efficiencies. Highly sensitive Ge 143. Radon detection. 222Rn daughters on
spectroscopy is a perfect tool for surfaces (M. Wojcik). Screening of 210Po
material screening. Introduction. with an alpha spectrometer 50 mm
Germanium spectroscopy. Radon detection. Si-detector, bcg ~ 5 ?/d (1-10 MeV)
Mass spectrometry. Conclusions. sensitivity ~ 20 mBq/m2 (100 mBq/kg,
42. Germanium spectroscopy. GeMPIs at 210Po) Screening of 210Bi with a beta
GS (3800 m w.e.). Sensitivity: ~10 ?Bq/kg. spectrometer 2?50 mm Si(Li)-detectors, bcg
GeMPI I operational since 1997 (MPIK) ~ 0.18/0.40 cpm sensitivity ~ 10 Bq/kg
GeMPI II built in 2004 (MCavern) GeMPI III Screening of 210Pb (46.6 keV line) with a
constructed in 2007 (MPIK/LNGS) Worlds gamma spectrometer 25 % - n-type HPGe
most sensitive spectrometers GeMPI I: detector with an active and a passive
Crystall: 2.2 kg, ?r = 102 % Bcg. Index shield sensitivity ~ 20 Bq/kg Only small
(0.1-2.7 MeV): 6840 cts/kg/year Sample samples can be handled – artificial
chamber: 15 l. Introduction. Germanium contamination needed: e.g. discs loaded
spectroscopy. Radon detection. Mass with 222Rn daughters. Copper cleaning
spectrometry. Conclusions. tests. Etching removes most of 210Pb and
52. Germanium spectroscopy. 210Bi (> 98 %) but not 210Po
Sensitivity: ~1 mBq/kg. Detectors at Electropolishing is more effective for all
MPI-K: Dario, Bruno and Corrado. MPI-K elements but proper conditions have to be
LLL: 15 m w.e. Introduction. Germanium found (e.g. 210Po reduction from 30 up to
spectroscopy. Radon detection. Mass 200) Etching: 1% H2SO4 + 3% H2O2
spectrometry. Conclusions. Electropolishing: 85 % H3PO4 + 5 %
62. Germanium spectroscopy. Selected 1-butanol. Introduction. Germanium
results: different materials. 228Th. spectroscopy. Radon detection. Mass
226Ra. 40K. 210Pb. Copper. ? 0.012. ? spectrometry. Conclusions.
0.016. ? 0.088. Lead DowRun. ? 0.022. ? 154. Mass spectrometry. Noble gas mass
0.029. 0.044 ? 0.014. (27? 4)?103. Ancient spectrometer. VG 3600 magnetic sector
lead. ? 0.072. ? 0.045. ? 0.27. ? 1300. field spectrometer. Used to investigate
Teflon. 0.023 ? 0.015. 0.021 ? 0.009. 0.54 noble gases in the terrestial and
? 0.11. Kapton cable. ? 4. 9 ? 6. 130 ? extra-terrestial samples. Adopted to test
60. Introduction. Germanium spectroscopy. the nitrogen purity and purification
Radon detection. Mass spectrometry. methods. Detection limits: Ar: 10-9 cm3
Conclusions. Specific activities in Kr: 10-13 cm3. Introduction. Germanium
[mBq/kg] G. Heusser et al. spectroscopy. Radon detection. Mass
72. Germanium spectroscopy. Selected spectrometry. Conclusions.
results: steel for the GERDA cryostat 164. Mass spectrometry. Ar and Kr in
(MPIK/LNGS). Introduction. Germanium nitrogen for the BOREXINO experiment
spectroscopy. Radon detection. Mass (SOL). Requirements: 222Rn: < 7 ?Bq/m3
spectrometry. Conclusions. 39Ar: < 0.5 ?Bq/m3 85Kr: < 0.2
83. Radon detection. Radon 222Rn and ?Bq/m3 Ar: < 0.4 ppm Kr: < 0.1 ppt.
its daughters form one of the most 222Rn: 8 ?Bq/m3 Results: Ar: 0.01 ppm Kr:
dangerous source of background in many 0.02 ppt. Introduction. Germanium
experiments inert noble gas belongs to the spectroscopy. Radon detection. Mass
238U chain (present in any material) high spectrometry. Conclusions.
diffusion and permeability wide range of 174. Mass spectrometry. Kr in nitrogen:
energy of emitted radiation (with the purification tests. Introduction.
daughters) surface contaminations with Germanium spectroscopy. Radon detection.
radon daughters (heavy metals) broken Mass spectrometry. Conclusions.
equilibrium in the chain at 210Pb level. 18Low-level techniques have “natural”
Introduction. Germanium spectroscopy. application in experiments looking for
Radon detection. Mass spectrometry. rare events. There is a long tradition and
Conclusions. a lot of experience at MPI-K in this field
93. Radon detection. Proportional (GALLEX/GNO, HDM, BOREXINO, GERDA).
counters. Developed for the GALLEX/GNO Several detectors and experimental methods
experiment Hand-made at MPI-K (~ 1 cm3 were developed allowing measurements even
active volume) In case of 222Rn only at a single atoms level. Some of the
?-decays are detected 50 keV threshold - developed/applied techniques are
bcg: 0.1 – 2 cpd - total detection world-wide most sensitive (Ge
efficiency of ~ 1.5 Absolute detection spectroscopy, 222Rn detection). The
limit ~ 30 µBq (15 atoms). Introduction. ”low-level sub-group” is a part of the new
Germanium spectroscopy. Radon detection. division of M. Lindner. 5. Conclusions.
Mass spectrometry. Conclusions. Introduction. Germanium spectroscopy.
103. Radon detection. 222Rn in gases Radon detection. Mass spectrometry.
(N2/Ar) - MoREx. 222Rn/226Ra in water - Conclusions.
STRAW. 222Rn adsorption on activated 192. Germanium spectroscopy. Comparison
carbon several AC traps available of different detectors. Introduction.
(MoREx/MoRExino) pre-concentration from Germanium spectroscopy. Radon detection.
100 – 200 m3 purification is possible Mass spectrometry. Conclusions. Slide from
(LTA). 222Rn detection limit: ~0.5 ?Bq/m3 M. Hult.
Low-level techniques applied in experiments looking for rare events.ppt
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