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I. IMACS capabilities: 1. IMACS has the largest field of an imaging
I. IMACS capabilities: 1. IMACS has the largest field of an imaging
IMACS Cluster Building Survey - Dressler, Oemler, Gladders, Poggianti
IMACS Cluster Building Survey - Dressler, Oemler, Gladders, Poggianti
IMACS Cluster Building Survey - Dressler, Oemler, Gladders, Poggianti
IMACS Cluster Building Survey - Dressler, Oemler, Gladders, Poggianti
MOE spectrum of a red-giant star in the Carina dwarf galaxy, showing
MOE spectrum of a red-giant star in the Carina dwarf galaxy, showing
1. IMACS capabilities (cont
1. IMACS capabilities (cont
1. IMACS capabilities (cont
1. IMACS capabilities (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
2. Optical Performance (cont
3. Mechanical Performance: Flexure (cont
3. Mechanical Performance: Flexure (cont
7. Multislit Masks: Design and Production Clardy has developed a
7. Multislit Masks: Design and Production Clardy has developed a
7. Multislit Masks: Design and Production Clardy has developed a
7. Multislit Masks: Design and Production Clardy has developed a
7. Multislit Masks: Design and Production Clardy has developed a
7. Multislit Masks: Design and Production Clardy has developed a
8. Software observing tools -- website Very poor preparation for
8. Software observing tools -- website Very poor preparation for
8. Software observing tools -- “cookbooks”
8. Software observing tools -- “cookbooks”
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Mage quality and throughput Mechanical performance: Devices and Flexure

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1IMACS Commissioning Report to the 180.59 0.78 V 27.29 26.82 -0.47 0.24 0.69
Magellan SAC Performance and Operation 2+ 0.80 R 27.52 27.12 -0.40 0.22 0.60 0.87 I
years after installation Alan Dressler and 26.83 26.35 -0.47 0.14 0.85 0.38 Assume
Tyson Hare, April 8, 2006 Capabilities telescope, CCD same, remove ADC (5% loss)
Optical performance: Image quality and ==> IMACS optics are 0.70 (30%, not 20%
throughput Mechanical performance: Devices loss). (0.89 x 0.82 x 0.89 x 0.95). Note:
and Flexure Mosaic CCD Camera performance LDSS-3 reaches 30% with similar type
Operating software performance Telescope grisms! These filters have been scanned by
interface, including Shack-Hartmann Gabriel Martin. Perez measured.
Multi-slit masks, design and production 193. Mechanical Performance: Devices
Software observing tools Summary of Guiders -- excellent, very few problems
remaining issues and future work Data Shutters -- excellent, essentially no
reduction pipeline: COSMOS Support problems Slit-mask server -- good until
Agreement: Tasks, responsibilities, late in 2004, at which point lots of
personnel. (sometimes serious) positioning errors
2I. IMACS capabilities: 1. IMACS has occurred. Problem has been traced to
the largest field of an imaging optical encoder on the translation stage,
spectrograph on any 8-m class telescope. and a new one has been ordered. Filter
IMACS f/2: 670 sq arcmin; IMACS f/4: 236 servers -- poor at first, good for the
sq arcmin Comparisons: VIMOS on VLT: 224 last year. f/2 filter server has been
sq arcmin DEIMOS on Keck 85 sq arcmin working without problems for at least the
GMOS: 30 sq arcmin. last year. Recent problem with f/4 filter
3I. IMACS capabilities (cont.) 2. IMACS server -- can’t make the uphill push! --
has the largest range of spectral new small air cylinders ordered.
resolutions of any spectrograph on an 8-m Workaround in place, and service planned
class telescope f/2 grisms: R = 450, 600, for May ‘06. Disperser Server -- First
900 (1”, slit@6000A: 150-l, 200-l, 300-l) year, some problems latching up. Latches
f/4 gratings: R = 1350, 2650, 5150 (1”, were serviced (synchronized) early-2005,
@5000A: 300-l, 600-l, 1200-l R = 3875, then very good for a while. After
7975 (1”, @7500A: 600-l, 1200-l R = 9375 grating/grism change tool in use, problems
(1”, @4500A, 1200-l 2nd order blue) again. Diagnosis: need to re-initialize
Multi-Object Echelle (MOE) R = 21,000 the unit after installation. Should be
(0.6” slit, @6000A) Low-Dispersion Prism okay again. Grating Tilt-mechanisms --
(LDP) R = 20 (@8000A) to 150 (@4000A) good, but reports of zero-point drift.
Comparisons: VIMOS R = 180, 600, 2500 Will now be checked at the beginning of
DEIMOS R ~ 1100, 1650, 2200 (1” slit each f/4 run (zero-order test), to see if
@6000A) GMOS R = 335 to 2200 (4 gratings the problem can be isolated. Dewar Focus
available). (Mosaic Camera) -- working, but not much
41. IMACS capabilities (cont.) 3. margin (and probably deteriorating).
Multislit Spectroscopy IMACS “bread and Rebuild when second Mosaic Camera become
butter” is multislit spectroscopy, which available? Need to empirically determine
has now been carried out by dozens of focus = ?(temp).
observers at both f/2 and f/4. Powerful 203. Mechanical Performance: Flexure
mask design software: Ken Clardy has Flexure from the focal plane to the Mosaic
developed an elaborate, well-documented, CCD Camera Already small, corrected by
easy-to-use program for designing slit open loop control of piezo stage, but
masks. It has been distributed, and used, bolts added (Osip and Hare) to mount of
at all Consortium Partner institutions. Mosaic Camera to optical cameras have
Typical Multi-slit masks are 100-1000 reduced the flexure. Now: 3 x 5 pixel
objects covered by 1” x 8” slits, but many “ellipse” for f/4, 2 x 3 ellipse for f/2
variations have been made by users. Note: Even without control these are
Laser-milling machine in regular use at comparable to size of seeing disk in
Las Campanas. Software provided by Ken median seeing for a complete rotation of
Clardy, with some modifications made at the instrument -- not bad! New flexure
LCO. Some glitches (cutting 8000 slits on tables for f/4 ready for test; new f/2
one mask), but the bottom line is that tables in process. Flexure between guiders
approximately 1000 slit-masks have already and focal plane Most data from multi-slit
been cut, and the operation is almost alignments and observations, where fields
routine. (What problems persist are are followed for hours. General agreement
bascially machine-related). Excellent mask now that alignment of objects to their
alignment software (Mark Phillips). slits holds at < 0.2” per hour when
Alignments of ~0.1 arcsec in RA and DEC, IMACS moves through modest rotation, but
~0.005° obtained in 5-10 minutes misalignments of several pixels, typically
Comparisons: DEIMOS & VIMOS, smaller 0.5”, when crossing the meridian. Since
fields, fewer dispersion choices. there is closed-loop rotation guiding now,
5IMACS Cluster Building Survey - this should be zero if the guiders are not
Dressler, Oemler, Gladders, Poggianti. moving with respect to the slit mask. We
IMACS Deep Survey -- McCarthy & believe that this is true for the
Collaborators. Principal Guider, but that the
61. IMACS capabilities (cont.) 4. Shack-Hartmann guider, which guides
Integral Field Unit (IFU) -- contributed rotation, is too soft (may have loosened
by Durham University 0.20” sampling, two up) because of its greater weight and
1000-fiber bundles cover 5”x7” (f/2) or double-stage. Tyson and Dressler will be
4”x6” (f/4) ==> f/2, f4, means that testing this in May or June of ‘06.
full range of resolutions available IFU 213. Mechanical Performance: Flexure
observations may be mixed with mutli-slit (cont.) Bolton and Schechter see 0.2” per
observations -- IFU requires 3 of the 6 hour motion of object on IFU as object is
slots in the slitmask server. Comparisons: tracked for several hours. Bolton’s
GMOS -- similar unit supplied by Durham observation did cross meridian, so big
DEIMOS: none VIMOS: 54” x 54” at 0.67” change in gravity vector did occur. This
pixel (~6000 fibers). may be related to drift in multi-slit
71. IMACS capabilities (cont.) 5. alignment (and SH guider?), but it may not
Multi-Object Echelle MOE consists of an be. The IFU unit is much heavier than a
echelle grating and cross-dispersing prism slit-mask (30 lbs instead of 5 lbs) and
that mounts in one of the positions of the may itself be shifting -- the total motion
IMACS Disperser Server. MOE provides a 2.5 shown below is 0.2 mm! Dressler thinks he
pixel resolving power of R=21,000 (0.6” got performance better than this in the
slit). Each echelle spectrum is composed lab, but it has not been remeasured since
of 9 orders, from roughly 3400 ? to 9500 IMACS installation and, at any rate, was
?. Typically, 7 or 8 objects in the not considered “a requirement” -- thought
15’x15’ field can be observed with full was that exposures would be centroided and
spectral coverage. An observation of RGB stacked together, and that they would be
stars in Carina with the 480nm-780nm ~0.5 hour, while the data shown below are
blocking filter (4 orders) covered 20 one-hour exposures. Find the problem
stars, and as many as 100 stars can be (likely) and fix it if we can (maybe).
done in a single order. Comparisons: ESI 224. Performance: Mosaic CCD Camera
on Keck. Very similar specifications, but Overall assessment: excellent performance,
without multi-object capability. no major malfunctions of electronics (in
8MOE spectrum of a red-giant star in normal operation) in 3+ years One CCD
the Carina dwarf galaxy, showing the fried, and replaced -- cause unknown, but
detection of the challenging Eu II line. may be related to problems with the
91. IMACS capabilities (cont.) 6. Cryotiger cooling system and working close
Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter (PI, to the cold head when the dewar was open.
Sylvain Veilleux, co-I, Ben Weiner) Early experience with dynamic range and
SDL-Queensgate Fabry-Perot Etalon, 150-mm charge transfer led to fine tuning of the
dia will enable narrow band (6-40?) over system by Thompson and Burley in May ‘05
fields ranging from 10-arcmin x 27 arcmin (some further work done March ‘06).
(full monochromatic spot diameter) to the Nuisance problem of failing to “reset DSP”
full IMACS f/2 field. Wavelength coverage may be fixed -- we’ll see. Major damage to
is from 5000-9200A. Frequency-switching, electronics caused by glycol leak --
synchronized with Mosaic CCD camera electronics box flooded. Boards replaced.
charge-shuffling enable wide-field surveys System continues to leak at fittings,
to unprecedented depths. Ideal for deep despite several fixes, so has been left
redshift surveys (Ly?), tracing dark disconnected (no active cooling). New
matter with planetary nebulae, studying stainless steel hose and fittings (hard
star formation and gas outflow in merging coupling) ready for installation. Read
galaxies (including not only H?, [O III], noise is high on 2 of the 8 chips: some
[S II], but also for fainter [O I], [Fe board swapping and voltage adjustments
VII), [Fe X] over a wide range of will be attemped. Swapping the Mosaic CCD
redshifts. Successful testing completed in Camera between f/2 & f/4 continues to
Pasadena by Veilleux and Weiner in Feb be delicate operation because of Cryotiger
‘06. Pre-ship review conducted in March cooling system -- swaps have been kept to
(passed). Will be shipped to Magellan soon a minimum. New camera for f/2 in process.
and possible commissioning run in May. 235. Performance: Operating Software
MMTF should be available in semester 07A (Birk) Overall assessment: excellent. Very
for general proposals. Comparison: None on few bugs have been found over the last 3+
an 8-m class telescope. years, considering the complexity of
101. IMACS capabilities (cont.) 7. GISMO IMACS. These have been attended to quickly
- Gladders Image-Slicing Option for IMACS and efficiently by Birk. Users rave about
High-multiplexing advantage in a 4’ x 4’ simplicity of operating IMACS. New
central field of IMACS: Through a series capability for Nod-and-shuffle introduced
of mirrors in the focal plane, and lenses in 2005. Now in routine operation, working
above the plane, 16 central areas (each 2’ fine. New software for MMTF has been
x 0.5’) are fully separated to utilize the produced and will be added mid-2006. MMTF
entire 8K x 8K detector. 5-8 times will be operated from within the same
multiplexing advantage, enabling for small CamGUI. Continuing refinements on
field spectroscopy (HDF, HUDF, etc.), TO-IMACS-User interface. Plans to add a
centers of galaxy clusters, globulars in correction of atmospheric dispersion into
nearby galaxies, very deep fields… the guiding system.
Progess: Optics now being delivered, 246. IMACS Interface to Telescope: Two
mechanical design advancing. Available: major problems that complicated
semester 07B Comparisons: no such device commissioning IMACS No ADC/corrector for
available elsewhere. first 9 months Difficulty of aligning
111. IMACS capabilities (cont.) 8. telescope for wide field -- tilts in the
“Other” Imaging -- little used, especially focal plane delivered to IMACS. First
f/2. Problem with f/2 baffling Centerfield problem made it difficult to diagnose
slit-viewing spectroscopy: Enables second problem, and together they made it
traditional slit-viewing spectroscopy for very difficult to make and hold good
brighter objects -- not necessary to use images. Second problem seems to have been
Mosaic CCD Camera for acquisition. Not (mostly? completely?) removed by
much used, but Centerfield Guider has controlling the tilt of the secondary
proven essential for on-axis mirror as Baade is moved in elevation.
Shack-Hartmann testing, and flux (Extensive work by Osip and Perez.) Images
calibrations are routinely done with 7” at IMACS track images with guiders at Clay
hole in slit-viewing mode. Centerfield very well over the last year. Remaining
acquisition also used for setups, problems with Shack-Hartmann correction
particularly IFU. LPD (Low-Dispersion using IMACS off-axis guiders Different
Prism) -- very low dispersion mode, R~ templates are required at different
30-150 -- built by Scott Burles, rotations of IMACS -- should only need
commissioned in Jan ‘06. Very high one! Just by rotating IMACS (changing
multiplexing (thousands of spectra per gravity angle), we can introduce an
exposure). astigmatism signal into the SH correction!
121. IMACS capabilities -- Summary IMACS -- the real puzzle!
is the most versatile spectrograph on an 257. Multislit Masks: Design and
8-m telescope (on any telescope?). It has Production Clardy has developed a mature
a wide range of dispersions, a unrivaled program for designing multislit masks. The
large-field capability for multi-object program has been distributed over the
spectroscopy, and several “accessories” Consortium and upgrades are made available
(IFU, MOE, MMTF, GISMO) -- two of which on a regular basis. Thoroughly documented.
are unique. All of the available modes 267. Multislit Masks: Design and
have been used already, in just 2 years. Production -- remaining issues Clardy
By the way, IMACS cost ~$6M, compared to program also writes the SMF files that
~$10M for DEIMOS and $11M ($91M for 8 drive the laser cutter. and Some
instruments) for VIMOS. IMACS receives a refinements may still need to be made in
fraction of the support that DEIMOS and order to facilitate cutting N > 2000
VIMOS do. object masks and reducing machine failure
132. Optical Performance Imaging (or allow the slit mask cutting to resume
quality: f/4 camera Design was for 0.15” at an arbitrary point, simply. In general,
FWHM central rad < 5’ degrading to the Convergent Prima laser milling machine
0.20” rad ~ 12’ The goal was to achieve has performed brilliantly -- quality of
~0.30” images in “perfect” (0.25” FWHM) slits is very high. Realignment of the
seeing. Pinhole test in Pasadena: pinholes optics was needed in mid-2005 -- company
~ 0.30” FWHM -- unable to confirm, but sent a technician. New components ordered
“unresolved,” a good sign. Best image to allow Magellan personnel to do this.
taken at telescope by Dave Osip, Ongoing problem with maintaining a good
0.45”-0.50” over entire f/4 field, 15’ x air supply. Action? Cutting procedure
15’ This suggests that the image was taken fails at some point every 4th the 5th mask
in ~0.45” seeing, with the camera or so. Needs to be restarted in order to
performing within design specifications. complete. Seems to be due to problem in
Need a better seeing night to push this the way the autofocus feature works. Still
further. Note: The telescope images also trying to diagnose the problem or make a
indicate that the collimator performs as better workaround. Excellent interface
expected, that is, it adds negligibly made to allow uploading files on the web
(~0.10”) to the image size. (Phillips, Osip), and a good bookkeeping
142. Optical Performance (cont.) Imaging system is also on the web. submission of
quality: f/2 camera The f/2 camera was masks: Things are better, but few
designed to have image quality of 0.25” on observers meet the “month-in-advance”
axis, ~0.30” off axis (rms). It was meant requirement. More typical is 2-3 weeks.
to achieve ~0.4” images in “perfect” This remains a major problem for Magellan
seeing. (The sampling of the camera is operation!
0.20”/pixel.) Images of the pinhole mask 278. Software observing tools -- website
(whose images are ~0.30”, smallest the Very poor preparation for observing tools
laser could cut) show that the spec was at beginning of commissioning. The
met in the central (half-radius) part of situation has been rectified slowly,
the field, but that the images degrade thanks to the efforts of Magellan staff,
(elongate) to ~0.45” in the very corners. who have put almost all this together.
The best image has been taken by Dave 288. Software observing tools --
Osip, who achieved ~0.50” FWHM in the “cookbooks”. Of particular note: Excellent
central part of the field degrading to mask-alignment tool by Phillips -- fast,
0.70” FWHM in the outside. Hartmann-mask accurate, simple -- many compliments.
tests have been taken by Osip and 299. Summary of Remaining Issues and
Phillips. These show a clear tilt of the future work Prioritized by Dressler,
focal plane that is the largest discussed with Hare, Perez, Phillips
aberration, specific to the f/2 camera Understand and hopefully fix SH guider
optics. The f/2 camera design has been operation -- one template! Second Mosaic
entered into ZEMAX by Marla Geha and will CCD Camera -- also more sensitive, we
be used by Alan Uomoto to look for think Make the autofocus work better --
sensitivity of the f/2 optics (decenter, empirical calibration as ?(Temp)
tilt) that could account for the test Understand IMACS throughput and increase,
results. if possible to 50-60% (goal: reach 30% or
152. Optical Performance (cont.). A greater including telescope) Add baffle(s)
sensitive test, suggested by Shectman, is to allow f/2 imaging Improve reliability
to measure to take out-of-focus images (less maintenance) of Laser Cutter for
(doughnuts) Dan Kelson has written some slitmasks Diagnose source of f/2 image
excellent software to do the analysis: The aberrations and improve, if possible.
size of the outer ring is a measure of 3010. Data reduction pipeline: COSMOS A
focus, The shape of the outer ring is a complete data reduction pipeline for
measure of astigmatism, and The mutli-slit observations has been written,
decentering of the secondary hole measures distributed, and documented (not
coma. extensive, but usable) by Gus Oemler.
162. Optical Performance (cont.) Imaging Difficulty of use: moderate. Efficiency:
quality: f/2 camera The problems with the excellent. Quality of result: good. Oemler
pinhole images were noted in Pasadena, in has been responsive to questions and
the shop, but no resources were available suggestions. Dan Kelson and Greg have
to pursue it and there was some hope that taken responsibility to “keep” and improve
proper illumination of IMACS by the the software, interfacing with users as
telescope would improve the situation. It problems arise and modifying the code has
is hoped that a simple cause can be found required. 11. Support Agreement &
and corrected (such as moving one of the other requirements Facility Instrument
lens groups), but the problem may not be Support Agreement has been written using
reparable through the optics. For example, template provided by Matt Johns. Reviewed
a wedge in one of the two (strong) and modified by Dressler, Hare, Perez,
aspheres would not be correctable. Phillips, Thompson, Martin, & Osip on
However, significant improvement might be April 13. Agreement covers
made just by tilting detector focal plane. responsibilities, documentation,
The effect of this on performance is communication between Magellan and IMACS
bothersome, but not very significant. team, setups, procedures, maintenance,
172. Optical Performance (cont.) repair, etc. Up-to-date IMACS User Manual
Throughput of IMACS, including telescope from Dressler. Extensive documentation of
(M1,M2,M3,ADC). IMACS systems from Hare. Spare parts are
182. Optical Performance (cont.) on site. List of continuing issues has
Throughput of IMACS is lower than been made and prioritized.
anticipated, peaks at ~21% for 31Action Item for the SAC Report to the
spectroscopy. (peak) Expected Actual. Council that IMACS has finished its
Tyson Hare and Dressler are planning a commissioning period and is now considered
laser test that will measure the IMACS a Facilities Instrument, as described in
collimator, f/2, and f/4 cameras, but even the Facilities Instrumentation Procedure.
if something is found, throughput can only Some new capabilities are still under
rise by 3-4% -- CCD and grisms? M1 x M2 x development, and there are still some
M3 x ADC: 0.60 0.62 IMACS optics (20 problems, but the Magellan staff and IMACS
air-glass) 0.80 0.70 IMACS grism, grating, team commit to continue to work these
filter 0.75 0.60 Mosaic CCD Camera 0.85 issues with present level of effort or
0.84 throughput 0.31 0.22 MAGIC IMACS f/2 greater.
direct filter CCD B 27.35 26.85 -0.77 0.20
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