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Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, “Media, war and peace,” autumn
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, “Media, war and peace,” autumn
The Psychology of Aggression
The Psychology of Aggression
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, “Media, war and peace,” autumn
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, “Media, war and peace,” autumn
This areas shown is the region where aggressive behaviour is reacting
This areas shown is the region where aggressive behaviour is reacting
Killing for the Fun of it
Killing for the Fun of it
'Life is a video game
'Life is a video game
Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, “Media, war and peace,” autumn
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, “Media, war and peace,” autumn
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Media, war and peace

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1Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, 21It stated "We clearly associate
“Media, war and peace,” autumn session, media violence to aggressive behavior. But
2010 Media and Cultural Studies, the impact was very small compared to
University of Wollongong The project other things. Some may not be happy with
report had two components. For details of that, but that’s where the science is.”
the assignment see (1) “Only 12% of those involved in school
http://www.bmartin.cc/classes/MACS390_10ou shootings were attracted to violent video
line.pdf 1. An information pack for an games, while 24% read violent books and
organisation. Lisa Santos’ information 27% were attracted to violent films.”(2)
pack starts on the next slide. 2. A From this data conclusions were drawn then
fictional dialogue on carrying out the that children who were predisposed to acts
project. Lisa Santos’ dialogue is a of violence before their gaming began, are
separate file. This document is located at more likely to take on aggressive actions
http://www.bmartin.cc/classes/MACS390_10to as a result, thus more susceptible to
s/. violent videogames.
2Killology(1). 22Trigger happy. Why is it that teens
3 are so ready to engage in violent
4Aggression. Aggression is behaviour videogames? Because the game is always
intended to harm described as being a there, it is a distraction of everyday
hostile or violent behavior or attitudes life- a nirvana. It has the ability to
toward another; readiness to attack or promote a reliable existence as it is
confront. The action of attacking without ruled by absolute order in terms of a game
provocation. The forceful and sometimes sequence which is not found in everyday
overly assertive pursuit of one's aims and life. (1) Because of reinforcements: Think
interests.(1). of the rat and the cheese analogy-
5The Psychology of Aggression. “In behaviour that is repeated for reward.(2).
psychology, aggression refers to any 23Teaching Kids to Kill. Because of the
behaviour that demonstrates malicious idea that violence in videogames leads to
intent to cause harm. Aggression is aggressive behaviour, there has been a
measure in three stages along a mild to call to action to halt the flooding of the
violent scale of severity an continuum of market of violent videogames available to
Physical, Verbal and Relational violence. the public. Some however point out that
Violence on the other hand refers to the videogames are an integral part of social
physical aggression of which the victim is development as it can be deemed
likely to suffer serious physical “cathartic…[as videogames] provide a sage
injury.”(1). and beneficial outlet for aggressive
6Aggression in terms of gaming! feelings in a non-destructive context…they
Aggression within videogames falls under contribute positively to a child's
two categories, proactive and reactive cognitive development.”(1) They do however
aggression.(1) Proactive aggression is as a result pose addictive elements to
goal oriented. It relies on rewards to continue this cathartic expression (2).
stimulate aggressive acts. (2) Reactive 24Teaching the art of killing. As game
aggression is the automatic response to technology has improved over a the years,
perceived threats. (3) These terms reflect and simulations seem less fake, there is
the top tier of the general aggression an emphasis on the reality of games to
model. These often trigger other issues. assert violent aggressive action. This is
These are detailed on the next slide. seen as cathartic as it provides a secure
7 outlet for the aggressive action of gamers
8How does aggression portrayed in yet all evidence within this slide show
videogames versus television differ? And shows that violent videogames do assist in
the answer is: Interactivity and the creating an atmoshephere where aggression
pursuit of an individualistic goal! (1). is taught. Therefore violent videogames
9What does this mean for your child’s are negative teaching tools. This can be
brain? “There is a causal link between argued with the case of Devin Moore. A
playing the first-person shooting game in case that further highlights this is the
our experiment and brain-activity pattern use of Americas Army 3 in training
that are considered as characteristic for American Soldiers in combat. (1).
aggressive cognitions and affects,” (1) 25Media Guidelines. As a result, there
“Adolescents who play violent video games has been a push to restrict videogame
may exhibit lingering effects on brain sales nationally. Australia however is an
function, including increased activity in interesting case as restriction laws are
the region of the brain that governs quite lax. Did you know that there are no
emotional arousal and decreased activity R18+ rating systems within Australia for
in the brain's executive function, which videogames as it only applies to movies.
is associated with control, focus and This means that games are allowed if they
concentration.”(2). are edited to conform to an MA15+ standard
10This areas shown is the region where or they are refused classification [RC]
aggressive behaviour is reacting to (1).
violent videogame stimulus! This 26
reactivity within brain function affects 27What does this mean for you? That you
the Occipital, Parietal and Temporal need to take action! You need to monitor
sections within the brain. (1) This what your child sees and how they play.
highlights the action of videogame Although you might not have these games at
technology teaching kids to kill.(2). your disposal. Your children's friends
11What does the evidence say? “ might so talk to them about the dangers of
Adolescents who expose themselves to aggression and violent videogames.
greater amounts of video game violence 28What can you do? Reduce the exposure
were more hostile, reported getting into your children have to violent videogames.
arguments with teachers more frequently, Be informed only buy age appropriate games
were more likely to be involved in - check with the game manufacturers for
physical fights, and performed poorly in actual content. Check www.moviereports.org
school.” (1) This can lead to greater long for videogame reviews. Petition for R
term affects as student become anti-social ratings in Australia through
and risk slipping grades or missing school http://www.r18games.com.au/ And finally do
to play violent videogames on different your own research and be a responsible
mediums impacts employability and later on parent. (1).
chances of further education and 29Bibliography. Apple online dictionary-
graduation. Aggression Anderson, C,A. “Video Games and
12Reality vs. Fiction. For adolescents Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings and
who begin gaming at a young age. It is Behaviour in the laboratory and in life,”
becoming more and more difficult for them Journal of Personality and Social
to distinguish reality from fiction. WHY? Psychology. Anderson, C., “EFFECTS OF
Because game aesthetics are improving with VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES ON AGGRESSIVE
greater pixalisation to appear as true to BEHAVIOR, AGGRESSIVE COGNITION, AGGRESSIVE
life as possible. (1) What comes into AFFECT, PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AND
question here is can you then tell the PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A Meta-Analytic Review
difference. The case of Devin Moore leads of the Scientific Literature”,
me to think not! You be the judge… Psychological Science, Vol. 12, No. 5,
13Killing for the Fun of it! Killer September 2001 Brown, H.J. (2008) Video
Profile: Name: Devin Moore Age: 18 Games and Education, M.E Sharpe, London.
Preferred Video game: Grand Theft Auto III Blundell, K. (14/2/2010) War Games and
and G.T.A: Vice City. Aggression, Accessed 1/6/10,
14'Life is a video game. You've got to http://earthsciweb.org/MontessoriMuddle/20
die sometime.'’(1). On June 7th 2003 in 0/02/14/war-games-and-aggression/.
Fayette, Alabama. Devin Moore shot three 30Cargo, T. (31/7/2009) Banned: the
police officers James Crump (40), Arnold absurdity of Australia's game rating
Strickland (55) and Leslie Mealer (38 a regime Accessed 17/5/10
police dispatcher) He committed the crime http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/07
acting out a game sequence from GTA. 31/2319787.htm Commonwealth of Australia
15The facts of the case. Moore was to be (2001-2009) Classification Markings on
arrested on a alleged stolen car charge. Film and Computer Games Accessed 30/5/10
He grabbed one officer's .45 caliber http://www.classification.gov.au/www/cob/c
pistol and killed all three before fleeing assification.nsf/Page/ClassificationMarkin
the station in a police cruiser he stole s_ClassificationMarkingsonFilmandComputerG
from the station. (1) This was a popular mes_ClassificationMarkingsonFilmandCompute
game sequence within G.T.A and known to Games Gentile, D., Saleem, M., &
all players to reward handsomely. He was Anderson, C. (2007). Public Policy and the
eventually caught and sentenced to death Effects of Media Violence on Children.
by lethal injection. The case was lodges Social Issues and Policy Review, 1(1),
in court under Strickland v. Sony. (2). 15-61. Graham, I. (20/3/2010) Studies and
16Grand Theft Auto. Grand Theft Auto Research on Media Effects?Portrayal of
relates to numerous formats of games, Violence Accessed 23/5/10
which over time has changed identity from http://libertus.net/censor/resources/studi
G.T.A to G.T.A: Vice city and most s.html Grossman, D & Degaetano, G.
recently to G.T.A: San Andreas. Vice City (1999) Stop Teaching Our Kids To Kill,
has elements from driving games and Crown Publishers, New York. Grossman, D
third-person shooters, and features & Christensen, L.W. (2008) On Combat:
“open-world” game play that gives the the Psychology and Physiology of Deadly
player more control over their playing Conflict in War and Peace. Worrior science
experience.(1). publications, China.
17G.T.A: Vice City Facts. Grand Theft 31Michigan State University (2005,
Auto: Vice City is an action/adventure October 12). Violent Video Games Lead To
computer and video game.(1) Vice City Brain Activity Characteristic Of
draws much of its inspiration from 1980s Aggression. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June
American culture. It is set in 1986 in 7, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­
Vice City.(2) Story line: Mafia member /releases/2005/10/051012082710.htm Urbano,
Tommy Vercetti has recently released from L.D., 2010. War games and aggression,
prison after being involved in a drug deal Retrieved June 7th, 2010, from Montessori
gone wrong. Tommy then has to seek out Muddle:
those responsible while building a http://earthsciweb.org/MontessoriMuddle/
criminal empire and seizing power from Poole, S. (2000) Trigger Happy: The Inner
other criminal organizations in the Life of Video Games, Fourth Estate,
city.(3). London. Radiological Society of North
18In defense: What does Thompson say America (2006, November 29). Violent Video
about this? Moore's lawyers claimed that Games Leave Teenagers Emotionally Aroused.
Moore had been programmed by frequently ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 7, 2010, from
playing the game GTA Thompson claims http://www.sciencedaily.com­
“Devin Moore was, in effect, trained to do /releases/2006/11/061128140804.htm
what he did. He was given a murder Sapountzis, A. (2007) Can Video Games Lead
simulator," (1 ). “He bought it as a to Murder? Accessed 28/5/10
minor. He played it [For] hundreds of www.gamedefender,com/news/20060306.html
hours… [it] is primarily a cop-killing Serendip, 1994 Brain Structures and their
game. (2) Defense: but for the video-game Functions, Accessed
training, [Moore] would not have done what http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Str
he did.” (3). cture1.html Thompson, J (2005) Games In
19Impact of violent videogames on Moore! The Court – GTA “Life Is A Video Game”
When looking at all the facts of this Accessed 11/5/10
case, how does someone who has never shown http://www.jackthompson.org/games_in_the_c
this behaviour before, who acts out of urt/life_is_a_videogame.htm.
character and who has shot on target but 32Wikipedia the free encyclopaedia.
never held a gun become a killing machine? Strickland v. Sony Accessed 2/6/10
The answer is simple. (1) Violent video http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strickland_v.
games (2). Sony (2008) Australia needs an R18+ Rating
20You decide? Can you see then the for video games Accessed 28/5/10
correlation between aggression in http://www.r18games.com.au/ (2008)
videogames, repetitive conditioning and Rockstargames- vice city Accessed 15/5/10
the inability to distinguish reality from http://www.rockstargames.com/vicecity/
fiction due to photorealism? Critics (2006) Killology, Accessed 18/5/10
however state differently. They state that http://www.killology.com/publications.htm
violence in video games are not always (28/9/09) GTA Vice City, Accessed 6/6/10
causally linked with aggressive http://megaupload.blog.friendster.com/unca
tendencies. A study conducted in the U.S. egorized/gta-vice-city-fully-working-no-cr
Established this. ck-needed.html.
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