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Monarch butterflies
Monarch butterflies
Monarch butterflies
Monarch butterflies
Monarch butterflies
Monarch butterflies
Spiny lobster
Spiny lobster
Salmon
Salmon
Salmon
Salmon
Green turtles
Green turtles
Green turtles
Green turtles
Green turtles
Green turtles
White- bearded Wildebeest
White- bearded Wildebeest
Gray whales
Gray whales
Gray whales
Gray whales
Gray whales
Gray whales
Lesser long-nosed bats
Lesser long-nosed bats
Lesser long-nosed bats
Lesser long-nosed bats
Lesser long-nosed bats
Lesser long-nosed bats
N. American birds
N. American birds
N. American birds
N. American birds
N. American birds
N. American birds
Arctic terns
Arctic terns
Arctic terns
Arctic terns
Landmark orientation
Landmark orientation
Cataglyphis ant homing
Cataglyphis ant homing
3-D path integration by ants
3-D path integration by ants
3-D path integration by ants
3-D path integration by ants
Starlings use a compass
Starlings use a compass
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
A solar compass requires time compensation
A solar compass requires time compensation
Logic of clock-shift experiments
Logic of clock-shift experiments
Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift
Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift
Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift
Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift
Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day
Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day
Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day
Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day
Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass
Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass
Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass
Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Pigeon homing with Helmholz coils
Pigeon homing with Helmholz coils
Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins
Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins
Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins
Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins
Turtles detect magnetism
Turtles detect magnetism
Magnetic field cues
Magnetic field cues
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Migration and Navigation

содержание презентации «Migration and Navigation.ppt»
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1Migration and Navigation. Migration 16m. Wohlgemuth, S. 2001 Nature 411:795.
examples Navigational strategies Piloting 17Starlings use a compass.
Path integration Compass orientation 18Migratory direction is heritable in
Navigational mechanisms Compass cues. blackcap warblers.
2Why migrate? Increase availability of 19Compass cues. Sun Time-compensated
food Avoid cold weather Decrease risk of solar compass Clock-shift experiments
predation on juveniles. Polarized light Stars Nocturnal paths
3Monarch butterflies. 300 million. Planetarium experiments Geomagnetic field
Michoacan, Mexico. Pigeon homing experiments Lateralization
4Spiny lobster. Move from shallow to in robins Turtle swimming.
deep water in the fall in long single file 20A solar compass requires time
lines. Females spawn in deep water in compensation.
spring before returning. 21Logic of clock-shift experiments.
5Salmon. 22Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift.
6Green turtles. Nest on Ascension Is., Each dot represents the bearing chosen by
feed off Brazil and return to same beach. a bird. Black dots are control birds,
7White- bearded Wildebeest. 1.5 million color dots are experimentals. Dashed line
animals per year Low levels of phosphorus is homeward. When the sun is out,
in short grass may stimulate movement. clock-shifted birds go SE rather than SW.
8Gray whales. On a cloudy day, clock-shifted birds do
9Lesser long-nosed bats. Feed on cactus not change direction indicating that they
going north, agave going south. are not using solar cues.
10N. American birds. Radar tracking of 23Polarized light indicates solar
fall migrants. 254 species migrate to the position on a partially cloudy day.
tropics. 24Nocturnal flight paths implicate
11Arctic terns. Fly 40,000 km each year. celestial compass. Veery.
12Navigational strategies. Piloting Use 25Indigo buntings in planetariums.
landmark to locate goal (nest, etc.) Path Planetarium expts show that birds rely on
integration (dead reckoning) compute net rotational point to indicate north.
vector by integrating distance traveled Control sky is no stars.
with compass direction Accumulates errors, 26Pigeon homing with Helmholz coils.
only good for short distances Compass 27Magnetic compass is right eye/left
orientation follow compass heading to goal brain dominant in robins. Orientation
or landmark True navigation Use compass behaviour under monochromatic green light
and map (cognitive) to plot route. with the magnetic field as the only cue.
13Landmark orientation. One landmark The mean headings of the 12 birds are
provides distance, but not direction indicated as triangles at the periphery of
Animal must remember location of goal the circle; the grand mean vector is
relative to two or more landmarks Evidence represented by an arrow proportional to
from bees and pigeons suggests that the the radius of the circle (for numerical
animal has a mental template of landmark values, see Table 1). The inner circles
positions Animals approach landmarks from are the 5% (dotted) and the 1% (solid)
a single compass direction. Consequently, significance border of the Rayleigh
the animal doesn’t have to memorize the test25. a, Binocular control (Bi) tested
template from all directions. in the geomagnetic field. b, Monocular
14Navigation by dead reckoning. Use the left eye (L) tested in the geomagnetic
direction and distance of each successive field. c, d, Monocular right eye tested in
leg during the outbound trip Compute net the geomagnetic field (c; R) and in a
vector and use compass to return home. magnetic field with the vertical component
Home. inverted, so that the inclination was
15Cataglyphis ant homing. When ants are pointing upwards (d; R(UI)). WILTSCHKO, W
picked up and moved, they travel in a et al. 2002 Nature 419, 467 - 470.
parallel direction Ants use path 28Turtles detect magnetism.
integration. Wehner. 29Magnetic field cues. Polarity:
163-D path integration by ants. Ant lobsters, newts, salmon, mole-rats
odometers record horizontal distance moved Inclination: birds, sea turtles in
not actual distance traveled. Thus, they northern hemisphere N is indicated by the
do not use time or energy expended to direction in which the force lines dip
determine distance. Trained toward the earth Intensity: bees,
uphill/downhill with food source 8.7 m. alligators.
Trained on flat track with food source 5.2
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