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Music of South America

содержание презентации «Music of South America.ppt»
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1Music of South America. Early History 5absolute. Age is also important. Music
of Americas. All peoples originating from making governed by yearly agricultural
Asiatic peoples crossing the ice between cycle and the fiestas that govern it.
Alaska and Siberia at the end of the last These fiestas are also religious events
ice age. Within 5,000 years South and which have both a catholic and pagan
North America populated. Pre-conquest in significance – the one superimposed on the
South America – civilisations such as Inca other. Instruments are specific to the
and pre-Inca peoples using music for time of year– rainy season, dry season -
ritual and entertainment purposes. often made for the events, and to the
Instruments suriving are wind (both clay region and fiesta. All play the same tune
and wood) and percussion. No string which is communally developed – rather
instruments. than composed.
2Spanish Conquest. The success of 6Fiestas. Main events for music making
Cortes against the Aztecs prompted – can take days or even week. Communities
Pizaro’s expedition against Peru in 1524 travel to visit each other on mass. Main
and 1531, through which he was able to opportunity for courtship, drinking and
take over the Inca empire. Then Spain fighting. Music making is continuous and
creates a new empire in the New World and unstructured. Important role of patrons
introduces European instruments and music and of the participation of spirit world.
to their new subjects. South Americans To placate and please saints and
unusually good and music. Mixing of races non-Christian gods (Pacha Mama) and to
and cultures. Import of String ensure fertility of land and to bring
Instruments. South America divided up rains. Observe and encourage yearly cycle.
between Portugal and Spain by the Pope in 7Folk Music. Folk music is found across
1530s. Portugese area now Brazil. Huge South America and involves mixing of
mining and plundering of raw materials to instruments and local hybrid traditions.
fund these countries Colonial period Mixing panpipes, guitars, changos, drums
lasted 300 years until early nineteenth is typical and informs the Western
century and age of Bolivar and the conception of Andean music. In other
independence movements across South regions other influences at work – e.g.
America. During this period huge numbers Venezuela plains – Spanish and Portugese
of slaves were imported from Africa to renaissance traditions; Brazil – African
work the plantations that the Indians percussion and dance musics. Ideas of
would or could not work. syncretism and acculturation.
3Mixing of Musical Traditions. All 8Stringed Instrument. Spanish/Portugese
countries and areas of South America have brought traditions of guitars and harps to
a mix of ethnic and cultural identities South America. Some regions are a treasure
that are based on original tribal house for the preservation and development
groupings, colonial history and of these traditions – Venezuala and the
environment. All have urban elites that `quatro’, the harp in Paraguay. Some
are European orientated and have Western effect for recorder type wind instruments.
Art music forms – opera, symphony Song forms often also betray influence of
orchestras etc. All folk musics that are Spanish – romance, villancico.
an amalgum of European and indigenous 9Development of European Dance Forms
traits (typically seen in shopping centres into Something New. In urban areas dance
in Europe). All have remote populations forms based on caf? life developed from
that retain strong elements of language, European to indigenous forms. Originals
culture and religion that go back to are Saraband, Jaroppa, Polca, maszurca and
pre-conquest periods. But which cuadrilla. Best example is Tango which
nevertheless are still hybreds. develops in Argentina with its own dance,
4Example of Bolivia. Communities in style and instrumentation (Bandolion).
towns either Western/American in cultural Afro-Caribbean influences in Portugese
orientation or Mestizo (mixed) who model areas produce Samba (bossa nova), Salza
themselves on Europeans. They speak (carribean) and Carnival culture. Latin
Spanish and live in the lower levels. By dance rhythms exported from 1920s onwards
contrast the populations in the high Andes with huge success.
speak non written languages (Quechua. 10Last Thoughts. Other cultures also
Imara, etc) that relate to Inca languages. present in South America. Argentina has
They do not electricity, sanitation, roads all sorts of enclaves (even Welsh
etc. And live in marginal agricultural speakers?). Gamelan in Surinam. Also
communities that are separated by Americanisation and infuence of MTV is
altitudes. Such communities have strong everywhere. Many countries remain
existences that are governed by music as a chaotic and badly run. Music survives as
means to successful living. an outlet for disposed thought the
5Instruments. In high Andes communities continent.
all play a part – but gender division is
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Music of South America

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