Тексты на английском
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The FLUKA International Collaboration
The FLUKA International Collaboration
The FLUKA International Collaboration
The FLUKA International Collaboration
Code Design I
Code Design I
Thin target example
Thin target example
Heavy ion interaction models
Heavy ion interaction models
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
Compton profile examples
Compton profile examples
Compton profile examples
Compton profile examples
Polarization
Polarization
Photonuclear interactions: benchmark
Photonuclear interactions: benchmark
Bremsstrahlung: benchmark
Bremsstrahlung: benchmark
Electron scattering: benchmark
Electron scattering: benchmark
ionization fluctuations
ionization fluctuations
Muon-induced neutron background in underground labs
Muon-induced neutron background in underground labs
Muon-induced neutron background in underground labs
Muon-induced neutron background in underground labs
Electromagnetic dissociation
Electromagnetic dissociation
Electromagnetic dissociation
Electromagnetic dissociation
Residual nuclei
Residual nuclei
Residual nuclei
Residual nuclei
Benchmark experiment – Instrumentation
Benchmark experiment – Instrumentation
Benchmark experiment – Instrumentation
Benchmark experiment – Instrumentation
Dose rate from induced activity
Dose rate from induced activity
Dose rate from induced activity
Dose rate from induced activity
Shielding studies Attenuation benchmark: beam on a Hg target
Shielding studies Attenuation benchmark: beam on a Hg target
Predicting radiation damage in GlueX experiment (Hall D)
Predicting radiation damage in GlueX experiment (Hall D)
Predicting radiation damage in GlueX experiment (Hall D)
Predicting radiation damage in GlueX experiment (Hall D)
Predicting radiation damage in GlueX experiment (Hall D)
Predicting radiation damage in GlueX experiment (Hall D)
An example of damage to Electronics: Cern Neutrino to Gran Sasso
An example of damage to Electronics: Cern Neutrino to Gran Sasso
Damage to electronics
Damage to electronics
The CERN to Gran Sasso
The CERN to Gran Sasso
The CERN to Gran Sasso
The CERN to Gran Sasso
The CERN to Gran Sasso
The CERN to Gran Sasso
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
A high energy E-M example
A high energy E-M example
A high energy E-M example
A high energy E-M example
LCLS free electron laser
LCLS free electron laser
LCLS free electron laser
LCLS free electron laser
LCLS free electron laser
LCLS free electron laser
LCLS free electron laser
LCLS free electron laser
Effect of a magnetic muon spoiler in the LCLS tunnel
Effect of a magnetic muon spoiler in the LCLS tunnel
Effect of a magnetic muon spoiler in the LCLS tunnel
Effect of a magnetic muon spoiler in the LCLS tunnel
Effect of a magnetic muon spoiler in the LCLS tunnel
Effect of a magnetic muon spoiler in the LCLS tunnel
(3D) Calculation of Atmospheric n Flux
(3D) Calculation of Atmospheric n Flux
Negative muons at floating altitudes: CAPRICE94
Negative muons at floating altitudes: CAPRICE94
Reproduction of subcutoff structure of primary protons as detected by
Reproduction of subcutoff structure of primary protons as detected by
Transport in Gran Sasso rock
Transport in Gran Sasso rock
Transport in Gran Sasso rock
Transport in Gran Sasso rock
Neutrons at 3000 m altitude
Neutrons at 3000 m altitude
Aircrew doses
Aircrew doses
Instrumentation calibration (PTB)
Instrumentation calibration (PTB)
Radiation detector responses
Radiation detector responses
Radiation detector responses
Radiation detector responses
Radiation detector responses
Radiation detector responses
The voxel geometry
The voxel geometry
Bragg peaks vs exp
Bragg peaks vs exp
Proton therapy: A Real Case at MGH*
Proton therapy: A Real Case at MGH*
Proton therapy: A Real Case at MGH*
Proton therapy: A Real Case at MGH*
Spine
Spine
Spine
Spine
Spine
Spine
Spine
Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
Hadron therapy: Spine
The FLUKA Code: Design, Physics and Applications
The FLUKA Code: Design, Physics and Applications
Interface
Interface
Geometry Editor: Interface
Geometry Editor: Interface
SimpleGeo
SimpleGeo
Thick target example
Thick target example
Thick target example
Thick target example
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
FLUKA with modified RQMD-2
Residual Nuclei
Residual Nuclei
Bremsstrahlung: benchmark
Bremsstrahlung: benchmark
Photonuclear Interactions: benchmark
Photonuclear Interactions: benchmark
Photonuclear Interactions: benchmark
Photonuclear Interactions: benchmark
Muon Capture II
Muon Capture II
The TARC experiment
The TARC experiment
Bremsstrahlung: benchmark III Esposito et al
Bremsstrahlung: benchmark III Esposito et al
Energy Deposition spectrum in the Atlas tile-calorimeter prototype
Energy Deposition spectrum in the Atlas tile-calorimeter prototype
Energy Deposition spectrum in the Atlas tile-calorimeter prototype
Energy Deposition spectrum in the Atlas tile-calorimeter prototype
Energy Deposition spectrum in the Atlas tile-calorimeter prototype
Energy Deposition spectrum in the Atlas tile-calorimeter prototype
CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility
CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – LHC collimation region
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Applications – CNGS
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
Combined calorimeter test
An atmospheric muon benchmark
An atmospheric muon benchmark
An atmospheric muon benchmark
An atmospheric muon benchmark
Neutrons on the ER-2 plane at 21 km altitude
Neutrons on the ER-2 plane at 21 km altitude
Neutrons on the ER-2 plane at 21 km altitude
Neutrons on the ER-2 plane at 21 km altitude
FLUKA results
FLUKA results
ICARUS: Simulation
ICARUS: Simulation
ICARUS: Simulation
ICARUS: Simulation
First results: folding with full simulation in ICARUS
First results: folding with full simulation in ICARUS
First results: folding with full simulation in ICARUS
First results: folding with full simulation in ICARUS
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
Applications to Space Radiation Protection
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1The FLUKA Code: Design, Physics and 54geometry. IG5 (Centronics) high-pressure
Applications. ionization chambers (5.2 l, 20 bar)
2www.fluka.org. Main Authors: A.Fass?1, hydrogen or argon gas filling monitor of
A.Ferrari2, J.Ranft3, P.R.Sala4 prompt radiation fields in areas occupied
Contributing authors: G. Battistoni4, F. by personnel response measurements and
Cerutti2, A. Empl5, M.V. Garzelli6, M. simulations in mono-energetic neutron
Lantz7, A. Mairani4, V. Patera8, S. fields (PTB, RCNP Osaka). © C.Theis et
Roesler2, G. Smirnov2, F. Sommerer9, V. al., CERN-SC-2004-023-RP-TN H. Vincke et
Vlachoudis2 1Jefferson Lab, 2 CERN, 3 al., Response of ionization chambers to
University of Siegen, 4 INFN Milan, 5 high-energy mono-energetic neutrons,
University of Houston, 6 INFN and Nuclear Technology, Volume 168 – 1, 2009.
University of Granada, 7 Riken, 8 INFN 55The voxel geometry. The GOLEM phantom
Frascati, 9 HIT Heidelberg Developed and Petoussi-Henss et al, 2002. FLUKA can
maintained under an INFN-CERN agreement embed voxel structures within its standard
More than 4000 users all over the world combinatorial geometry Transport through
Two beginner courses per year, recently an the voxels is optimized and efficient Raw
advanced one. CT-scan outputs can be imported.
3The FLUKA International Collaboration. 56Bragg peaks vs exp. data: 12C @ 270
M. Brugger, F. Cerutti, M. Chin, A. & 330 MeV/n. Dose vs depth
Ferrari, S. Roesler,, G. Smirnov, C. distribution for 270 and 330 MeV/n 12C
Theis, S. Trovati, H. Vincke, H. Vincke, ions on a water phantom. The full green
V. Vlachoudis, CERN A. Fass?, Jefferson and dashed blue lines are the FLUKA
Lab, USA J. Ranft, Univ. of Siegen, predictions The symbols are exp data from
Germany G. Battistoni, F. Broggi, M. GSI. Exp. Data Jpn.J.Med.Phys. 18, 1,1998.
Campanella, P. Colleoni, E. Gadioli, 57Proton therapy: A Real Case at MGH*.
A.Mairani, S. Muraro, P.R. Sala, INFN FLUKA simulation. Treatment planning
& Univ. Milano, Italy M. Carboni, A. system. Planned dose distribution in a
Ferrari, A. Mostacci, V. Patera, M. patient with a spinal tumor. * K. Parodi,
Pelliccioni, R. Villari, INFN Frascati H. Paganetti and T. Bortfeld,
M.C. Morone, Univ. Roma II, Italy A. Massachusetts General Hospital.
Margiotta, M. Sioli, INFN & Univ. 58Spine. L-spine chordoma, 1.8 Gy, DT ~
Bologna, Italy K. Parodi, F. Sommerer, 17 min. K. Parodi et al.
DKFZ & HIT, Heidelberg, Germany A. 59Hadron therapy: Spine. T-spine
Empl, L. Pinsky, Univ. of Houston, USA Chondrosarcoma. K. Parodi et al. Spatial
K.T. Lee, T. Wilson, N. Zapp, correlation between activity and dose
NASA-Houston, USA S. Rollet, ARC profile provides information about
Seibersdorf Research, Austria M. Lantz, particle range, dose localization and
Riken Nishina Center, Wako, Japan. stability of the treatment. PET imaging of
4Applications. A general purpose tool the radioactivity distributions induced by
for calculations of particle transport and therapeutic irradiation is the only
interactions with matter, covering an feasible method for an in vivo and
extended range of applications: proton and non-invasive monitoring of radiation
electron accelerator shielding target treatments with ion beams.
design dosimetry and radiation protection 60
neutronics calorimetry, tracking and 61Interface. active. Mouse: left opens
detector simulation etc. activation on active right select where to view. 2
detector design Accelerator Driven Systems working frames. inactive click to
(e.g., Energy Amplifier) cosmic ray activate. input modified and not saved. +
research space radiation (space related vertical/horizontal = equalize minimize
studies partially funded by NASA) neutrino maximize.
physics hadron therapy etc. 62Geometry Editor: Interface. Tools.
5Particle Interactions and Transport. View. Filter. Filtered Objects. Red.
60 different particles + Heavy Ions Green. Magenta. Properties. Blue.
Hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus Automatically refreshes when the input is
interaction up to 10000 TeV changed. 62.
Electromagnetic and ? interactions 1 keV – 63SimpleGeo.
10000 TeV Nucleus-nucleus interaction up 64END.
to 10000 TeV/n Charged particle transport 65History. The early days. The
and energy loss Neutron multi-group beginning: The name: 1962: Johannes Ranft
transport and interactions 0-20 MeV (Leipzig) and Hans Geibel (CERN): Monte
Neutrino interactions up to 100 TeV Carlo for high-energy proton beams. 1970:
Transport in magnetic fields. study of event-by-event fluctuations in a
6Unique features. Combinatorial NaI calorimeter (FLUktuierende KAskade).
(boolean), Voxel and Lattice (repetitive) Early 70’s to ?1987: J. Ranft and
geometries Accurate handling of MCS step coworkers (Leipzig University) with
near boundaries Double capability to run contributions from Helsinki University of
either fully analogue and/or biased Technology (J. Routti, P. Aarnio) and CERN
calculations On-line evolution of induced (G.R. Stevenson, A. Fass?) Link with EGS4
radioactivity and dose User-friendly GUI in 1986, later abandoned.
interface Flair (FLUKA Advanced 66History. The modern code: some dates
InteRface): for input preparation geometry Since 1989: mostly INFN Milan (A. Ferrari,
editing and debugging analysis and P.R. Sala): little or no remnants of older
presentation of results. versions. Link with the past: J. Ranft and
7Code Design I. Sound and modern A. Fass? 1990: LAHET / MCNPX: high-energy
physics Based, as far as possible, on hadronic FLUKA generator No further update
original and well-tested microscopic 1993: G-FLUKA (the FLUKA hadronic package
models All steps (Glauber-Gribov cascade, interfaced with GEANT3). No further update
(G)INC (1), preequilibrium, evaporation / 1998: FLUGG, interface to GEANT4 geometry
fragmentation / fission) self-consistent 2000: grant from NASA to develop heavy ion
and with solid physical bases Optimized by interactions and transport 2001: the INFN
comparing with experimental data at single FLUKA Project 2003: official CERN-INFN
interaction level: “theory driven, collaboration to develop, maintain and
benchmarked with data” No tuning on distribute FLUKA 2004: FLUKA hadron event
“integral” data such as calorimeter generator interfaced to CORSIKA.
resolution, thick target yields, etc. (1) 67Inelastic hN interactions.
Generalized IntraNuclear Cascade. Intermediate Energies N1 + N2 ? N1’ + N2’
8Code Design II. Final predictions + p threshold around 290 MeV important
obtained with minimal free parameters above 700 MeV p + N ? p’ + p” + N’ opens
fixed for all energies, targets and at 170 MeV Dominance of the D(1232)
projectiles ? FLUKA is NOT a toolkit! Its resonance and of the N* resonances ?
physical models are fully integrated reactions treated in the framework of the
Results in complex cases, as well as isobar model ? all reactions proceed
properties and scaling laws, arise through an intermediate state containing
naturally from the underlying physical at least one resonance Resonance energies,
models. ? Good environment for “exotic” widths, cross sections, branching ratios
extensions (n, nucleon decay…) Basic from data and conservation laws, whenever
conservation laws fulfilled “a priori”. possible High Energies: Dual Parton Model
Energy conserved within 10-10 Correlations Interacting strings (quarks held together
preserved fully within interactions and by the gluon-gluon interaction into the
among shower components ? Predictivity form of a string) Interactions treated in
where no experimental data are directly the Reggeon-Pomeron framework each of the
available. two hadrons splits into 2 colored partons
9Code Design III. Self-consistency Full ? combination into 2 colourless chains ? 2
cross-talk between all components: back-to-back jets each jet is then
hadronic, electromagnetic, neutrons, hadronized into physical hadrons.
muons, heavy ions Effort to achieve the 68Generalized Intra-Nuclear Cascade: the
same level of accuracy: Other features PEANUT model. Main assets of the full GINC
Systematic use of relativistic kinematics as implemented in FLUKA below 5 GeV:
Tabulated total cross sections & other Nucleus divided into 16 radial zones of
integral nuclear and atomic data different density, plus 6 outside the
Differential cross sections: not nucleus to account for nuclear potential,
explicitly tabulated, but reaction plus 10 for charged particles Different
channels and energies sampled by physical nuclear densities for neutrons and protons
models (event generators) (except for Nuclear (complex) optical potential ?
neutrons with E < 20 MeV). No mix and curved trajectories in the mean
match: if a good model is available, use nuclear+Coulomb field (reflection,
the model We want to preserve correlations refraction) Updating binding energy (from
as much as possible! for each component. mass tables) after each particle emission
for all energies. Multibody absorption for p+/0/- K-/0, m-
10Code Design IV. No programming Energy-momentum conservation including the
required All scoring, cutoff setting, recoil of the residual nucleus Nucleon
biasing, etc. are defined by the user Fermi motion including wave packet-like
without any need to write code. Writing uncertainty smearing Quantum effects
user routines is encouraged only in very (mostly suppressive): Pauli blocking,
special, complex cases This has allowed to Formation zone, Nucleon
implement very optimized scoring antisymmetrization, Nucleon-nucleon
algorithms, much more accurate than what a hard-core correlations, Coherence length.
user could write without a special effort 69Preequilibrium in FLUKA. FLUKA
Easy to use. But difficulty to convince preequilibrium is based on GDH (M. Blann
users accustomed to other codes... QA et al.) cast in a Monte Carlo form GDH:
guaranteed more easily: users cannot Exciton model, r, Ef are “local” averages
experiment (not a toolkit!), programming on the trajectory and constrained state
is discouraged and input file is a good densities are used for the lowest lying
documentation. configurations. Modification of GDH in
11The FLUKA hadronic models. P<4-5 FLUKA: cross section sinv from systematics
GeV/c High Energy PEANUT(1): Correlation /coherence length/ hardcore
Glauber-Gribov Sophisticated GINC(2) effect on reinteractions Constrained
Multiple interactions preequilibrium exciton state densities configurations
Coarser GINC(2) Coalescence Coalescence 1p-ih, 2p-ih, 1p-2h, 2p-2h, 3p-1h and
Evaporation/Fission/Fermi break-up g 3p-2h True local r, Ef for the initial
deexcitation (1) PreEquilibrium Approach configuration, evolving into average
to NUclear Thermalization (2) Generalized Non-isotropic angular distribution (fast
IntraNuclear Cascade (3) relativistic particle approximation).
Quantum Molecular Dynamics (4) Boltzmann 70Equilibrium particle emission.
Master Equation. E > 5 GeV/u : Evaporation: Weisskopf-Ewing approach 600
DPMJET-III 0.1< E < 5 GeV/u: possible emitted particles/states
(modified) rQMD-2.4(3) E< 0.1 GeV/u: (A<25) with an extended
BME(4). Hadron-Nucleon. Elastic, exchange evaporation/fragmentation formalism Full
P<3-5 GeV/c low En. p, K High Energy level density formula Inverse cross
Phase shifts, Resonance prod. Special DPM section with proper sub-barrier Analytic
data, eikonal and decay hadronization. solution for the emission widths Emission
Hadron-Nucleus. Nucleus-Nucleus. energies from the width expression with no
12Thin target example. Angle-integrated approximations New energy dependent
90Zr(p,xn) at 80.5 MeV The various lines self-consistent evaporation level
show the total, INC, preequilibrium and densities (IAEA recommendations) New
evaporation contributions Experimental pairing energies consistent with the above
data from M. Trabandt et al., Phys. Rev. point Extension of mass tables till A=330
C39, 452 (1989). using available offline calculations New
13Nuclear interactions in PEANUT: ? shell corrections coherent with the new
deexcitation. Target nucleus description masses Fission: Actinide fission done on
(density, Fermi motion, etc). first principles New fission barrier
14Heavy ion interaction models. calculations (following Myers &
DPMJET-III for energies ? 5 GeV/n DPMJET Swiatecki) Fission level density
(R. Engel, J. Ranft and S. Roesler) enhancement at saddle point washing out
Nucleus-Nucleus interaction model Energy with excitation energy ( following IAEA
range: from 5-10 GeV/n up to the highest recommendations) Fission product widths
Cosmic Ray energies (1018-1020 eV) Used in and asymmetric versus symmetric
many Cosmic Ray shower codes Based on the probabilities better parameterized Fermi
Dual Parton Model and the Glauber model, Break-up for A<18 nuclei ~ 50000
like the high-energy FLUKA hadron-nucleus combinations included with up to 6
event generator Extensively modified and ejectiles g de-excitation: statistical +
improved version of rQMD-2.4 for 0.1 < rotational + tabulated levels.
E < 5 GeV/n rQMD-2.4 (H. Sorge et al.) 71Thick target example. Neutron
Cascade-Relativistic QMD model Energy 2-differential distributions from protons
range: from 0.1 GeV/n up to several on stopping-length targets: 113 MeV on U
hundred GeV/n BME (Boltzmann Master (left) and 500 MeV on Pb (right). Exp.
Equation) for E < 100 MeV/n BME data from Meier et al., Nucl. Sci. Eng.
(Gadioli et al.) Energy range: up to 0.1 110, 299 (1992) and Meigo et al.,
GeV/n Standard FLUKA JAERI-Conf. 95-008.
evaporation/fission/fragmentation used in 72FLUKA with modified RQMD-2.4.
both Target/Projectile final deexcitation 2-differential neutron yield by 400 MeV/n
Electromagnetic dissociation Ar (left) and Fe (right) ions on thick Al
(Weizs?cker-Williams + photonuclear targets Histogram: FLUKA. Experimental
reactions). data points: Phys. Rev. C62, 044615
15FLUKA with modified RQMD-2.4. Fragment (2000).
charge cross section for 1.05 GeV/n Fe 73Residual Nuclei. The production of
ions on Al (left) and Cu (right). ?: residuals is the result of the last step
FLUKA, ? : PRC 56, 388 (1997), ? : PRC42, of the nuclear reaction, thus it is
5208 (1990), ?: PRC 19, 1309 (1979). influenced by all the previous stages
16EMF ElectroMagneticFluka. Residual mass distributions are very well
Photoelectric : fluorescence, angular reproduced Residuals near to the compound
distribution, Auger, polarization Compton mass are usually well reproduced However,
and Rayleigh: atomic bonds, polarization the production of specific isotopes may be
Pair production: LPM, correlated angular influenced by additional problems which
and energy distribution; also for ? have little or no impact on the emitted
Photonuclear interactions; also for ? particle spectra (Sensitive to details of
Bremsstrahlung : LPM, angular evaporation, Nuclear structure effects,
distribution; also for ? Bhabha and M?ller Lack of spin-parity dependent calculations
scattering Positron annihilation at rest in most MC models).
and in flight ? capture at rest Optical 74Bremsstrahlung: benchmark. 12 and 20.9
photon (Cherenkov) production and MeV electrons on a W-Au-Al target,
transport. bremsstrahlung photon spectra in the
17Compton and Rayleigh. Account for forward direction measured (dots) and
atomic bonds using inelastic Hartree-Fock simulated (histos).
form factors (very important at low E in 75Photonuclear Interactions: benchmark.
high Z materials) Recent improvement: Yield of neutrons per incident electron as
Compton with atomic bonds and orbital a function of initial e- energy. Open
motion (as a better alternative to form symbols: FLUKA, closed symbols:
factors) Atomic shells from databases experimental data (Barber and George,
Orbital motion from database + fit Phys. Rev. 116, 1551-1559 (1959)) Left:
Followed by fluorescence Account for Pb, 1.01 X0 (lower points) and 5.93 X0
effect of photon polarization. (upper) Right: U, 1.14 and 3.46 X0.
18Compton profile examples. green = free 76dE/dx atomic interactions. Discrete
electron blue = binding with form factors events Delta-ray production above a
red =binding with shells and orbital user-defined threshold via Spin 0 or ?
motion. Larger effect at very low energies d-ray production (charged hadrons, m’s)
(where, however, the dominant process is Bhabha scattering (e+) M?ller scattering
photoelectric) Visible: shell structure (e-) Continuous energy loss below
near E’=E, smearing from motion at low E’. threshold latest recommended values of
19Polarization. Effect of photon ionization potential and density effect
polarization Deposited dose by 30 keV parameters implemented (Sternheimer,
photons on Water at 3 distances from beam Berger & Seltzer), but can be
axis as a function of penetration depth overridden on user’s request a new general
for 3 orientations with respect to the approach to ionization fluctuations based
polarization direction. on general statistical properties of the
20Pair Production. Angular and energy cumulants of a distribution (Poisson
distribution of e+,e- described correctly distribution convoluted with ds /dE)
(no “fixed angle” or similar integrals can be calculated analytically
approximation) No approximations near and exactly a priori (min CPU) applicable
threshold Differences between emitted e+ to any kind of charged particle the first
and e- at threshold accounted for Extended 6 moments of the energy loss distribution
to 1000 TeV taking into account the LPM are reproduced.
(Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal) effect. 77Muon Photonuclear Reactions. The cross
21Photonuclear interactions. section can be factorized (following
Photon-nucleus interactions in FLUKA are Bezrukov-Bugaev) in virtual photon
simulated over the whole energy range, production and photon-nucleus reaction.
through different mechanisms: The (small) Nuclear screening is taken into account.
photonuclear interaction probability can Only Virtual Meson Interactions are
be enhanced through biasing. Giant modeled, following the FLUKA meson-nucleon
Resonance interaction (special cross interaction models. Nuclear effects are
section database) Quasi-Deuteron effect the same as for hadron-nucleus
Delta Resonance production Vector Meson interactions. Schematic view of a ?
Dominance (? ??,? mesons) at high hadronic interaction. The interaction is
energies. Nuclear effects on the initial mediated by a virtual photon. The final
state (i.e. Fermi motion) and on the final state can be more complex.
state (reinteraction /emission of reaction 78Muon Capture II. Capture on Calcium
products) are treated by the FLUKA Dots: experimental data (Columbia Univ.
hadronic interaction model (PEANUT) ? INC rep. NEVIS-172 (1969), Phys. Rev. C7, 1037
+ pre-equilibrium + (1973), Yad. Fiz. 14, 624 (1972))
evaporation/fission/breakup. Histograms: FLUKA Emitted: 0.62
22Photonuclear interactions: benchmark. neutrons/capture 0.27 protons/capture.
Reaction: 208Pb(g,x n) 20 ? Eg ? 140 MeV 79Muon Capture. An exotic source of
Cross section for multiple neutron neutron background Basic weak process: m—
emission as a function of photon energy, + p ? nm + n m— at rest + atom ? excited
Different colors refer to neutron muonic atom ? x-rays + g.s. muonic atom
multiplicity ? n , with 2 ? n ? 8 Symbols: Competition between m decay and m capture
experimental data NPA367, 237 (1981) by the nucleus In FLUKA: Goulard-Primakoff
NPA390, 221 (1982) Lines: FLUKA. formula Lc ? Zeff4, calculated Zeff ,
23Bremsstrahlung. Energy-differential Pauli blocking from fit to data Lc/Ld =
cross sections based on the Seltzer and 9.2?10-4 for H, 3.1 for Ar, 25.7 for Pb
Berger database, interpolated and extended Nuclear environment (Fermi motion,
to a finer energy mesh, and larger reinteractions, deexcitation…) from the
energies Finite value at tip energy FLUKA intermediate-energy module PEANUT
Extended to 1000 TeV taking into account Slow projectile, low energy transfer
the LPM effect Soft photon suppression (neutron E = 5 MeV on free p)
(Ter-Mikaelyan) polarization effect Experimentally: high energy tails in
Special treatment of positron n-spectra Beyond the simple one-body
bremsstrahlung with ad hoc spectra at low absorption: good results from addition of
energies Detailed photon angular two-nucleon absorption.
distribution fully correlated to energy. 80Low-energy neutron transport. In
24Bremsstrahlung: benchmark. 2 MeV FLUKA, performed by a multigroup
electrons on Iron, Bremsstrahlung photon algorithm: Widely used in low-energy
spectra measured (dots) and simulated neutron transport codes (not only Monte
(histograms) at three different angles. Carlo, but also Discrete Ordinate codes)
25Other e± interactions. Positron Energy range of interest is divided in
Annihilation. Scattering. At rest and in discrete intervals “energy groups”. In
flight according to Heitler In FLUKA, 260 groups. Elastic and inelastic
annihilation at rest, account for mutual reactions simulated not as exclusive
polarization of the two photons In processes, but by group-to-group transfer
preparation: non-collinearity of photons probabilities (down-scattering matrix) The
due to Fermi motion of electrons. Special scattering transfer probability between
multiple-scattering treatment (also for different groups is represented by a
heavier charged particles) Legendre polynomial expansion truncated at
Single-scattering transport on request. e+ the (N+1)th term: m = cosine of scattering
: Bhabha e- : M?ller. angle N = chosen Legendre order of
26Electron scattering: benchmark. anisotropy (in FLUKA, N = 5).
Transmitted (forward) and backscattered 81The TARC experiment. Protons ? 3 GeV/c
(backward) electron angular distributions 334 ton Pb target fully instrumented (64
for 1.75 MeV electrons on a 0.364 g/cm2 detector holes) Simulation: FLUKA + EA-MC
thick Copper foil Measured (dots) and (C. Rubbia et al.) PLB 458, 167 (1999) NIM
simulated (histograms) data. A478, 577 (2002).
27Bremsstrahlung and pair production by 82The TARC experiment. Measured and
muons and charged hadrons. At high simulated neutron fluence distribution in
energies, bremsstrahlung and pair space.
production are important also for muons 83Bremsstrahlung: benchmark III Esposito
and charged hadrons. For instance, in Lead et al., LNF 93-072. ADONE storage ring 1.5
the muon energy loss is dominated by these GeV e- Bremsstrahlung on the residual gas
processes above 300 GeV. Bremsstrahlung: in a straight section Measured with TLD’s
implemented in FLUKA including the effect matrices Here: dose vs. horizontal
of nuclear form factors. The user can set position at different vertical positions ,
an energy threshold for the activation of Distance from straight section: 218 cm.
these processes. Above the threshold, the 84Energy Deposition spectrum in the
processes are described in detail, with Atlas tile-calorimeter prototype. 300 GeV
explicit ? and e± production. Below muons on iron + scintillator structure.
threshold, energy loss is accounted for in 85CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field
a continuous approximation. (CERF) facility. Alfredo Ferrari,
28ionization fluctuations. Below d-ray MCNEG-06. 85. Location of Samples: Behind
threshold, new original approach: a 50 cm long, 7 cm diameter copper target,
Cumulants of Poisson distribution centred with the beam axis.
convoluted with ds /dE. Experimental and 86Analog Monte Carlo. Pros samples from
calculated energy loss distributions for 2 actual physical phase space distributions
GeV/c positrons (left) and protons (right) predicts average quantities and all
traversing 100?m of Si J.Bak et al. statistical moments of any order preserves
NPB288, 681 (1987). correlations (provided the physics is
29Muon-induced neutron background in correct) reproduces fluctuations (-//-) is
underground labs. Stars+line : FLUKA almost safe and sometimes can be used as a
simulations fitted to a power law. PRD64 “black box” Cons is inefficient and
(2001) 013012. Cross section factorized converges very slowly fails to predict
(following Bezrukov-Bugaev) in virtual important contributions due to rare
photon production and photon-nucleus events.
reaction. Nuclear screening taken into 87Biased Monte Carlo. samples from
account. Only Virtual Meson Interactions artificial distributions, and applies a
modeled, following the FLUKA meson- weight to the particles to correct for the
nucleon interaction models. Nuclear bias predicts average quantities but not
effects are the same as for hadron-nucleus the higher moments (on the contrary the
interactions. average ? energy. 20 m.w.e. goal is to minimize the second moment!)
25 m.w.e. C) 32 m.w.e. (Palo Verde) D) 316 Pros same mean with smaller variance ?
m.w.e. E) 750 m.w.e. F) 3650 m.w.e. (LVD) faster convergence allows sometimes to
G) 5200 m.w.e. (LSD). obtain acceptable statistics where an
30Electromagnetic dissociation. Fragment analog Monte Carlo would take years of CPU
charge cross sections for 158 AGeV Pb ions time to converge Cons cannot reproduce
on various targets. ? Nucl. Phys. A662, correlations and fluctuations with a few
207 (2000) Nucl. Phys. A707, 513 (2002) ? exceptions, requires physical judgment,
Scheidenberger et al. PRC70, 014902 (2004) experience and a good understanding of the
Histograms: FLUKA (with DPMJET-III) Dotted problem in general, a user does not get
lines: EM dissociation contribution. the definitive result after the first run,
31Residual nuclei. Also for A-A but needs to do a series of test runs in
interactions. Data from: Phys. Rev. C19 order to optimize the biasing parameters ?
2388 (1979) and Nucl. Phys. A543, 703 balance between user’s time and CPU time.
(1992). 88Applications – CNGS.
32Residual nuclei. 1 A GeV 208Pb + p 89Applications – LHC collimation region.
reactions Nucl. Phys. A 686 (2001) Alfredo Ferrari, MCNEG-06. 89. 8 hours. 1
481-524. week. 4 months. Cooling time. Residual
33Online evolution of activation and dose rate (mSv/h) after one year of
residual dose. Decay b, g, produced and operation. CERN-SC-2005-092-RP-TN.
transported “on line” Screening and 90Applications – LHC collimation region.
Coulomb corrections accounted for b+/- Alfredo Ferrari, MCNEG-06. 90. 8 hours. 1
spectra Complete database for g lines and week. 4 months. Cooling time. Residual
b spectra covering down to 0.1% branching dose rate (mSv/h) after one year of
Time evolution of induced radioactivity operation. CERN-SC-2005-092-RP-TN.
calculated analytically Fully coupled 91Applications – CNGS. Applications –
build-up and decay (Bateman equations) Up CNGS. 91. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 3. 2.
to 4 different decay channels per isotope 1. 4.
Results for activity, energy deposition, 92Combined calorimeter test.
particle fluence etc, calculated for Longitudinal hadron shower profile.
custom irradiation/cooling down profile. hadronic Fe-scintillating-tile
34Benchmark experiment – calorimeter. EM Pb-LAr calorimeter.
Instrumentation. Portable spectrometer 93Combined calorimeter test. Muon signal
Microspec NaI detector, cylindrical shape, in the two calorimeters (? e/? faithfully
5 x 5 cm folds spectrum with detector reproduced).
response (“calibrated” with 22Na source) 94Combined calorimeter test. Energy
physical centre of detector determined spectrum in EM calo. Energy resolution.
with additional measurements with known 95FLUKA and Cosmic Ray physics:
sources (60Co, 137Cs, 22Na) to be 2.4 cm. Atmospheric Showers. Two different
Thermo-Eberline dose-meter FHZ 672 organic streams: Basic research on Cosmic Ray
Scintillator and NaI detector, cylindrical physics (muons, neutrinos, EAS,
shape, 9 x 9 cm assumes average detector underground physics,...) Application to
response physical centre of detector dosimetry in civil aviation (DOSMAX
determined as above to be 7.3 cm. M. Collaboration: Dosimetry of Aircrew
Brugger et al., Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 116 Exposure to Radiation During Solar
(2005) 12-15. Maximum). Available dedicated FLUKA
35Dose rate from induced activity. Dose library + additional packages including:
rate as a function of cooling time for Primary spectra from Z = 1 to Z = 28
different distances between sample and (derived from NASA and updated to most
detector (2 different instruments). recent measurements.) Solar Modulation
36Biasing Techniques. FLUKA offers model (correlated to neutron monitors)
several possibilities for biasing: Atmospheric model (MSIS
Importance Biasing Weight windows Leading Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter) 3D
Particle Biasing Multiplicity Tuning geometry of Earth + atmosphere Geomagnetic
Biased downscattering for neutrons, only model.
for experts Non analogue absorption 96An atmospheric muon benchmark. m+ from
Biasing mean free paths Biasing decay the BESS experiment. BESS 95 Tsukuba. BESS
length and direction User defined biasing. 97 Lynn Lake (lower geomagnetic cutoff).
37Shielding studies Attenuation cone of ~11o. cone of ~25o. FLUKA. FLUKA.
benchmark: beam on a Hg target. p (GeV/c). p (GeV/c). Primary flux
38Predicting radiation damage in GlueX normalized to the AMS/BESS data.
experiment (Hall D). FLUKA is extensively 97Neutrons on the ER-2 plane at 21 km
used to calculate radiation damage. altitude. Measurements: Goldhagen et al.,
Quantities that can be calculated: 1-MeV NIM A476, 42 (2002). Note one order of
neutron equivalent fluence in Si Hadron magnitude difference depending on
fluence with E > 20 MeV (SEU) DPAs latitude. FLUKA calculations: Roesler et
(Displacements Per Atom). al., Rad. Prot. Dosim. 98, 367 (2002).
39An example of damage to Electronics: 98In beam treatment control with PET.
Cern Neutrino to Gran Sasso. 2007 Physics Final goal: Simulation of ?+ emitters
run: Single Event Upsets in ventilation generated during the irradiation In-beam
electronics: caused ventilation control treatment plan verification with PET Work
failure and interruption of communication. in progress: FLUKA validation Comparison
8 1017p.o.t. @ 400 GeV delivered ( ?2% of with experimental data on fragment
a “CNGS nominal year” ). Predicted dose production (Shall et al.) 12C, 14N, 16O
levels in agreement with measurements. beams, 675 MeV/A Adjustable water column
40Damage to electronics. SLAC: Damage to 0-25.5 cm Z spectra of escaping fragments
electronics near the dumps at the LCLS for Z > 4 Cumulative yield of light
(Linear Coherent Light Source). fragments Simulation: corrections applied
41The CERN to Gran Sasso ? beam. FLUKA for angular acceptance and for material in
is the tool which has been used to design the beam upstream the water target
CNGS: both engineering and physics The Comparison with treatment planning code
simulation includes all details of beam TRiP98 on Bragg peak position and width,
transport, interaction, structure of 80-430 MeV/u ion beams Comparison with
target, horn focusing, decay, etc. experimental data on ?+-emitter production
Neutrino event spectra at Gran Sasso. (Fiedler et. al.).
42Applications – CNGS. mSv/h. 100. 10. 99Radioactivity produced by ? m + 12C
1. Example: tcool = 1 day. ?11C + n. n + p ? d + g. Among the goals
43A high energy E-M example. Energy of the CTF experiment: learning how to
resolution 10-100 GeV: The Atlas reduce the cosmogenic background. the 11C
“accordeon” EM calorimeter: detail of the problem: Required reduction factor > 10
FLUKA geometry and modulation of response Goal: tagging and removing 11C event by
vs. electron impact position. event!!! (this is not the only reaction
44LCLS free electron laser. Radiation producing 11C, but the most important) The
damage in permanent magnets. Neutron ? produced in the neutron capture is used
fluence distribution. Transverse section to tag the event. Muon-induced 11C: 7.5
of the magnets at fluence max (Z = 76.21 counts/day.
m). FLUKA Combinatorial Geometry. 100FLUKA results. The total pathlength of
Longitudinal section (83 m long, 5 cm each kind of secondary, differential in
high). energy, was calculated with FLUKA and
45Effect of a magnetic muon spoiler in folded with the 11C production cross
the LCLS tunnel. The spoiler allows to section. Similar calculations were also
reduce the shielding thickness in the done for a different experiment(1) 11C
forward direction. dose rate map without production rate [10-4 / ? / m] 100 GeV(1)
spoiler the same with spoiler. Magnetic 190 GeV(1) 320 GeV Meas.: 22.9±1.8
field map used by FLUKA. 36.0±2.3 51.8±5.0 Calc.: 28.3±1.9 41.3±3.1
46(3D) Calculation of Atmospheric n 59.9 (1) T. Hagner et al., Astropart.
Flux. The first 3-D calculation of Phys. 14, 33 (2000). Galbiati et al.,
atmospheric neutrinos was done with FLUKA. arXiv:hep-ph/0411002 (2004). Neutron
The enhancement in the horizontal capture in scintillator and water.
direction, which cannot be predicted by a Coincidence Time (100 ms).
1-D calculation, was fully unexpected, but 101Multi-TeV muon transport. Underground
is now generally acknowledged. In the Muons: the physics involved. K. p. m. m.
figure: angular distribution of ??, ???,, m. detection: Nm (A,E), dNm /dr. hadronic
?e, ??e.. In red: 1-D calculation. interaction: multiparticle production
47Negative muons at floating altitudes: s(A,E), dN/dx(A,E) ? extensive air shower.
CAPRICE94. Open symbols: CAPRICE data Full Primary p, He, ..., Fe nuclei with lab.
symbols: FLUKA. primary spectrum energy from 1 TeV/n up to 10000 TeV/n.
normalization ~AMS-BESS Astrop. Phys., transverse size of bundle ? pt(A,E).
Vol. 17, No. 4 (2002) p. 477. short-lifetime meson production and prompt
48Reproduction of subcutoff structure of decay (e.g. charmed mesons). (TeV) muon
primary protons as detected by AMS. AMS propagation in the rock: radiative
near-earth orbit satellite experiment: processes and fluctuations.
downgoing proton flux. P. Zuccon et al., 102ICARUS: Simulation. nm. m-. p. 102.
Int. J. Mod. Phys. A17, 1625 (2002). FLUKA is used in ICARUS at Gran Sasso
Simulation (solid line); AMS data laboratory for different applications:
(triangles); secondary protons counted full detector simulation atmospheric
once (dashed). ?M = geomagnetic latitude neutrino generation and interactions
Note the subcutoff component: secondary neutrinos from CNGS beam interaction of
protons crossing the detector several solar and SuperNovae neutrinos generation
times due to the geomagnetic field. and detection of proton decay calculation
49Transport in Gran Sasso rock. Geometry the expected rate vs. multiplicity of
of the mountain described using the FLUKA underground muon events. decay.
“voxel” system. Here: 1 voxel = 100x100x50 103High Energy Cosmic Ray Physics. with
m3. The layered geological structure has S. Muraro, T. Rancati, ICARUS
been reproduced (5 different materials). Collaboration. The aim is to predict
50Neutrons at 3000 m altitude. Neutron multiple muon rates for different primary
spectra on the Zugspitze (2963 m). Red masses and energy within the framework of
points: experimental data Blue histogram: a unique simulation model. Four steps:
FLUKA calculation (dry conditions) Red atmospheric shower generation transport in
histogram: FLUKA calculation (wet Gran Sasso rock folding with the detector
conditions and snow on the ground) H. (spatial randomization of event) full
Schraube et al., Rad. Prot. Dosim. 70, 405 simulation in ICARUS T600 Interaction
(1997), Rad. Prot. Dosim. 86, 309 (1999) model: FLUKA + DPMJET for nucleus-nucleus
S. Roesler et al., Adv. Space Res. 21, collisions Secondary threshold = 1 TeV 3D
1717 (1998). earth+atmosphere layered in 100 shells
51Aircrew doses. Roesler et al., Rad. Input: primary spectra or fixed energies
Prot. Dosim. 98, 367 (2002). Ambient dose for individual nuclear species 5 mass
equivalent from neutrons at solar maximum groups: Z = 1, 2, 7, 13, 26 (spectra from
on commercial flights from Seattle to NASA) Output: muons (E > 1 TeV) event
Hamburg and from Frankfurt to by event.
Johannesburg. Solid lines: FLUKA 104First results: folding with full
simulation. simulation in ICARUS. Fe nuclei, 1000
52Dosimetry applications: doses to TeV/nucleon.
aircrew and passengers. Ferrari et al, 105Applications to Space Radiation
Rad. Prot. Dosim. 108, 91 (2004). Protection. FLUKA ? spatial distribution
53Instrumentation calibration (PTB). of absorbed dose delivered by the
Calibration of three different Bonner different components of the radiation
spheres (with 3He counters) with field “event-by-event” track structure
monoenergetic neutron beams at PTB (full codes ? yields of CL/(Gy cell) induced by
symbols), compared with simulation (dashed different radiation types integration ?
histograms and open symbols). spatial distribution of CL/cell
54Radiation detector responses. FLUKA (“biological” dose).
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