Курсы английского
<<  Safe Practices for Internet Usage (Internet Safety…) Alternatives to the Audio guide for Deaf Museum Visitors  >>
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
Galaxies
Galaxies
Galaxy Diversity
Galaxy Diversity
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Galaxy Classification
Gas and Dust in Galaxies
Gas and Dust in Galaxies
Gas and Dust in Galaxies
Gas and Dust in Galaxies
Barred Spirals
Barred Spirals
Irregular Galaxies
Irregular Galaxies
Irregular Galaxies
Irregular Galaxies
Irregular Galaxies
Irregular Galaxies
Galaxy Types
Galaxy Types
Galaxy Types
Galaxy Types
Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (1)
Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (1)
Cepheid Distance Measurement
Cepheid Distance Measurement
The Most Distant Galaxies
The Most Distant Galaxies
Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (2): The Hubble Law
Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (2): The Hubble Law
The Extragalactic Distance Scale
The Extragalactic Distance Scale
Galaxy Sizes and Luminosities
Galaxy Sizes and Luminosities
Rotation Curves of Galaxies
Rotation Curves of Galaxies
Determining the Masses of Galaxies
Determining the Masses of Galaxies
Masses and Other Properties of Galaxies
Masses and Other Properties of Galaxies
Clusters of Galaxies
Clusters of Galaxies
Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies
Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies
Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies
Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies
Our Galaxy Cluster: The Local Group
Our Galaxy Cluster: The Local Group
Neighboring Galaxies
Neighboring Galaxies
Neighboring Galaxies
Neighboring Galaxies
Interacting Galaxies
Interacting Galaxies
Tidal Tails
Tidal Tails
Tidal Tails
Tidal Tails
Simulations of Galaxy Interactions
Simulations of Galaxy Interactions
Simulations of Galaxy Interactions
Simulations of Galaxy Interactions
Mergers of Galaxies
Mergers of Galaxies
Mergers of Galaxies
Mergers of Galaxies
Mergers of Galaxies
Mergers of Galaxies
Galactic Cannibalism
Galactic Cannibalism
Starburst Galaxies
Starburst Galaxies
Large Scale Structure
Large Scale Structure
The Farthest Galaxies
The Farthest Galaxies
Hubble
Hubble
Картинки из презентации «Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode)» к уроку английского языка на тему «Курсы английского»

Автор: Markus Boettcher. Чтобы познакомиться с картинкой полного размера, нажмите на её эскиз. Чтобы можно было использовать все картинки для урока английского языка, скачайте бесплатно презентацию «Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode).ppt» со всеми картинками в zip-архиве размером 5558 КБ.

Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode)

содержание презентации «Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode).ppt»
Сл Текст Сл Текст
1Note that the following lectures 34Superclusters appear aligned along walls
include animations and PowerPoint effects and filaments. Vast regions of space are
such as fly ins and transitions that completely empty: “voids”.
require you to be in PowerPoint's Slide 35The Farthest Galaxies. The most
Show mode (presentation mode). distant galaxies visible by HST are seen
2Chapter 16. Galaxies. at a time when the universe was only ~ 1
3Guidepost. The preceding chapter was billion years old.
about our Milky Way Galaxy, an important 36New Terms. spiral nebula island
object to us but only one of the many universe Shapley–Curtis Debate elliptical
billions of galaxies visible in the sky. galaxy spiral galaxy barred spiral galaxy
We can no more understand galaxies by irregular galaxy megaparsec (Mpc) distance
understanding a single example, the Milky indicator standard candle distance scale
Way, than we could understand humanity by look-back time Hubble law Hubble constant
understanding a single person. This (H) rotation curve rotation curve method
chapter expands our horizon to discuss the cluster method. velocity dispersion method
different kinds of galaxies and their rich cluster poor cluster ring galaxy
complex histories. We take two lessons galactic cannibalism ultraluminous
from this chapter. First, galaxies are not infrared galaxy starburst galaxy.
solitary beasts; they collide and interact 37Discussion Questions. 1. From what you
with each other. Second, most of the know about star formation and the
matter in the universe is invisible. The evolution of galaxies, do you think the
galaxies we see are only the tip of a Infrared Astronomy Satellite should have
cosmic iceberg. We will carry the lessons found irregular galaxies to be bright or
of this chapter into the next, where we faint in the infrared? Why or why not?
will discuss violently active galaxies, What about starburst galaxies? What about
and on into Chapter 18, where we discuss elliptical galaxies? 2. Imagine that we
the universe as a whole. could observe a gas cloud at such a high
4Outline. I. The Family of Galaxies A. look-back time that it is just beginning
The Discovery of Galaxies B. The Shapes of to form one of the first galaxies.
Galaxies C. How Many Galaxies? II. Further, suppose we discovered that the
Measuring the Properties of Galaxies A. gas was metal rich. Would that support or
Distance B. The Hubble Law C. Diameter and contradict our understanding of galaxy
Luminosity D. Mass E. Supermassive Black formation?
Holes in Galaxies F. Dark Matter in 38Quiz Questions. 1. How was William
Galaxies. Parsons (Lord Rosse) in 1845 able to see
5Outline (continued). III. The spiral structure in some nebulae, whereas
Evolution of Galaxies A. Clusters of others had not noticed this spiral
Galaxies B. Colliding Galaxies C. The structure before? a. He had incredibly
Origin and Evolution of Galaxies D. The large pupils and keen eyesight. b. His
Farthest Galaxies. observatory was located on a high, dry
6Galaxies. Star systems like our Milky mountain peak. c. His telescope, with a
Way. Contain a few thousand to tens of diameter of 72 inches, was the largest in
billions of stars. Large variety of shapes the world. d. No nebulae had been observed
and sizes. with a telescope before his time. e. His
7Galaxy Diversity. Even seemingly empty long time exposure photographs that
regions of the sky contain thousands of revealed the spiral structure.
very faint, very distant galaxies. 39Quiz Questions. 2. What did William
Spirals. Ellipticals. Irregular (some Parsons (Lord Rosse) think the spiral
interacting). The Hubble Deep Field: nebulae were? a. Spiral clusters of low
10-day exposure on an apparently empty luminosity stars located nearby. b. New
field in the sky. Large variety of galaxy planetary systems in the process of
morphologies: formation. c. Spiral star clusters located
8Galaxy Classification. E0, …, E7. Sa. in the Milky Way. d. Dying high-mass
Large nucleus; tightly wound arms. E0 = stars. e. Island universes.
Spherical. E1. Sb. Sc. Small nucleus; 40Quiz Questions. 3. What was the topic
loosely wound arms. E7 = Highly of the Shapley-Curtis Debate of 1920? a.
elliptical. E6. The location of the spiral nebulae. b. The
9Gas and Dust in Galaxies. Spirals are size of the Milky Way Galaxy. c. The
rich in gas and dust. Ellipticals are period-luminosity relationship of Cepheid
almost devoid of gas and dust. Galaxies variable stars. d. The period-luminosity
with disk and bulge, but no dust are relationship of RR Lyrae variable stars.
termed S0. e. The time-sharing schedule of the new
10Barred Spirals. Some spirals show a 100 inch diameter telescope.
pronounced bar structure in the center. 41Quiz Questions. 4. Edwin Hubble
They are termed barred spiral galaxies. resolved the Shapley-Curtis debate in 1924
Sequence: SBa, …, SBc, analogous to by measuring the distance to large, bright
regular spirals. spiral nebulae. What distance method did
11Irregular Galaxies. Often: result of Hubble employ? a. The parallax method. b.
galaxy collisions / mergers. Often: Very The Hubble Law method. c. The Cepheid
active star formation (“Starburst variable star method. d. The spectroscopic
galaxies”). The Cocoon Galaxy. NGC parallax method. e. The RR Lyrae variable
4038/4039. Some: Small (“dwarf galaxies”) star method.
satellites of larger galaxies (e.g., 42Quiz Questions. 5. Galaxies with
Magellanic Clouds). Large Magellanic active star formation also have which of
Cloud. the following? a. Plenty of gas and dust.
12Galaxy Types. (SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY). b. O and B associations. c. Emission
13Distance Measurements to Other nebulae d. A bluish tint. e. All of the
Galaxies (1). Cepheid Method: Using Period above.
– Luminosity relation for classical 43Quiz Questions. 6. The Hubble deep
Cepheids: Measure Cepheid’s Period ? Find field image reveals more than 1500 distant
its luminosity ? Compare to apparent galaxies in a region about 1 arc minute in
magnitude ? Find its distance. b) Type Ia diameter. If this density of galaxies is
Supernovae (collapse of an accreting white typical over the whole sky, how many
dwarf in a binary system): Type Ia distant galaxies are hidden from view at
Supernovae have well known standard one instant by the Moon, with an angular
luminosities ? Compare to apparent diameter of about 30 arc minutes? a.
magnitudes ? Find its distances. Both are Approximately 150 distant galaxies are
“Standard-candle” methods: Know absolute hidden behind the Moon at any given time.
magnitude (luminosity) ? compare to b. Approximately 1500 distant galaxies are
apparent magnitude ? find distance. hidden behind the Moon at any given time.
14Cepheid Distance Measurement. Repeated c. Approximately 15,000 distant galaxies
brightness measurements of a Cepheid allow are hidden behind the Moon at any given
the determination of the period and thus time. d. Approximately 150,000 distant
the absolute magnitude. ? Distance. galaxies are hidden behind the Moon at any
15The Most Distant Galaxies. At very given time. e. More than 1,000,000 distant
large distances, only the general galaxies are hidden behind the Moon at any
characteristics of galaxies can be used to given time.
estimate their luminosities ? distances. 44Quiz Questions. 7. How does a Sa
Cluster of galaxies at ~ 4 to 6 billion galaxy differ from a Sc galaxy? a. The Sa
light years. galaxy has a smaller nuclear bulge. b. The
16Distance Measurements to Other Sa galaxy has more loosely wound spiral
Galaxies (2): The Hubble Law. vr = H0*d. arms. c. The Sa galaxy has less gas and
Measure vr through the Doppler effect ? dust. d. Both a and c above. e. Both b and
infer the distance. E. Hubble (1913): c above.
Distant galaxies are moving away from our 45Quiz Questions. 8. What gives
Milky Way, with a recession velocity, vr, elliptical galaxies a redder color than
proportional to their distance d: H0 ? 70 spiral galaxies? a. Elliptical galaxies
km/s/Mpc is the Hubble constant. are more massive, and thus have a larger
17The Extragalactic Distance Scale. Many gravitational red shift. b. Elliptical
galaxies are typically millions or galaxies are more distant, and thus have
billions of parsecs from our galaxy. more interstellar reddening. c. Elliptical
Typical distance units: Mpc = Megaparsec = galaxies are more distant, and thus have
1 million parsec Gpc = Gigaparsec = 1 larger red shifts. d. Elliptical galaxies
billion parsec. Distances of Mpc or even have a higher percentage of iron. e.
Gpc ? The light we see left the galaxy Elliptical galaxies have less gas and
millions or billions of years ago!! dust.
“Look-back times” of millions or billions 46Quiz Questions. 9. What must we know
of years. about an object to use it as a distance
18Galaxy Sizes and Luminosities. Vastly indicator? a. The object’s luminosity. b.
different sizes and luminosities: From The object’s linear size. c. The object’s
small, low-luminosity irregular galaxies age. d. Either a or b above. e. Either a,
(much smaller and less luminous than the b, or c above.
Milky Way) to giant ellipticals and large 47Quiz Questions. 10. Which of the
spirals, a few times the Milky Way’s size following is NOT a distance indicator used
and luminosity. in galactic astronomy? a. White dwarfs. b.
19Rotation Curves of Galaxies. Observe Cepheid variable stars. c. Planetary
frequency of spectral lines across a nebulae. d. Type Ia supernovae. e.
galaxy. From blue / red shift of spectral Brightest globular cluster.
lines across the galaxy ? infer rotational 48Quiz Questions. 11. What observable
velocity. Plot of rotational velocity vs. property of a standard candle must be
distance from the center of the galaxy: measured to determine its distance? a.
Rotation Curve. Age. b. Mass. c. Luminosity. d. Angular
20Determining the Masses of Galaxies. size. e. Apparent magnitude.
masses of galaxies. Based on rotation 49Quiz Questions. 12. Why is a supernova
curves, use Kepler’s 3rd law to infer. type Ia standard candle better to use in
21Masses and Other Properties of measuring very long distances than either
Galaxies. the brightest globular cluster or Cepheid
22Supermassive Black Holes. ? variable star standard candles? a. Type Ia
Supermassive black holes. From the supernovae are more luminous. b. Globular
measurement of stellar velocities near the star clusters and Cepheid variables exist
center of a galaxy: Infer mass in the very only in the Milky Way Galaxy. c. Type Ia
center ? central black holes! Several supernovae are very common. d. The
million, up to more than a billion solar calibration of Type Ia supernovae is more
masses! precise. e. Both c and d above.
23Dark Matter. Adding “visible” mass in: 50Quiz Questions. 13. When viewing a
stars, interstellar gas, dust, …etc., we distant galaxy, the amount of look-back
find that most of the mass is “invisible”! time in years is equal to the a. distance
The nature of this “dark matter” is not to the galaxy in light years. b.
understood at this time. Some ideas: brown round-trip distance to the galaxy in light
dwarfs, small black holes, exotic years. c. time that has passed since the
elementary particles. galaxy was first discovered. d. exposure
24Clusters of Galaxies. Galaxies time of a photograph that is taken of that
generally do not exist in isolation, but galaxy. e. time since you last looked at
form larger clusters of galaxies. Rich the galaxy.
clusters: 1,000 or more galaxies, diameter 51Quiz Questions. 14. What is the
of ~ 3 Mpc, condensed around a large, distance to a galaxy that has a
central galaxy. Poor clusters: Less than recessional speed of 3500 km/s if the
1,000 galaxies (often just a few), Hubble constant is 70 km/s/Mpc? a. 10 Mpc.
diameter of a few Mpc, generally not b. 20 Mpc. c. 30 Mpc. d. 40 Mpc. e. 50
condensed towards the center. Mpc.
25Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies. Space 52Quiz Questions. 15. What parameter
between galaxies is not empty, but filled must we know to determine the linear
with hot gas (observable in X-rays). That diameter and luminosity of a particular
this gas remains gravitationally bound galaxy? a. The type of galaxy. b. The age
provides further evidence for dark matter. of the galaxy. c. The mass of the galaxy.
Visible light. X-rays. Coma Cluster of d. The distance to the galaxy. e. The
Galaxies. amount of gas and dust in the galaxy.
26Our Galaxy Cluster: The Local Group. 53Quiz Questions. 16. Which type of
Milky Way. Andromeda galaxy. Small galaxy has the largest range in both size
Magellanic Cloud. Large Magellanic Cloud. and mass? a. Spiral. b. Elliptical c.
27Neighboring Galaxies. Some galaxies of Irregular. d. Both a and b have the same
our local group are difficult to observe range. e. All of the above have the same
because they are located behind the center range.
of our Milky Way, from our view point. 54Quiz Questions. 17. What assumption is
Spiral Galaxy Dwingeloo 1. made in determining mass by the rotation
28Interacting Galaxies. Particularly in curve method, the cluster method, and the
rich clusters, galaxies can collide and velocity dispersion method? a. That
interact. Galaxy collisions can produce Newton's law of gravity is valid. b. That
ring galaxies and. tidal tails. Often the system being measured is holding
triggering active star formation: itself together. c. That spiral galaxies
starburst galaxies. Cartwheel Galaxy. NGC rotate faster than elliptical galaxies. d.
4038/4039. Both a and b above. e. All of the above.
29Tidal Tails. Computer simulations 55Quiz Questions. 18. Which feature of a
produce similar structures. Example for galaxy seems to be related to the mass of
galaxy interaction with tidal tails: The the galaxy's central supermassive black
Mice. hole? a. The size of the galaxy's central
30Simulations of Galaxy Interactions. bulge. b. The rotation curve of the
Numerical simulations of galaxy galaxy. c. The overall color of the
interactions have been very successful in galaxy. d. The mass of the galaxy. e. The
reproducing tidal interactions like age of the galaxy.
bridges, tidal tails, and rings. 56Quiz Questions. 19. Which of the
31Mergers of Galaxies. Multiple nuclei following is the least important factor in
in giant elliptical galaxies. Radio image galactic evolution? a. Collision of
of M 64: Central regions rotating galaxies. b. The merger of larger
backward! NGC 7252: Probably result of galaxies. c. The harassment by galaxies
merger of two galaxies, ~ a billion years that pass nearby. d. Small galaxies are
ago: Small galaxy remnant in the center is cannibalized by larger galaxies. e. The
rotating backward! elemental composition of the material from
32Galactic Cannibalism. Collisions of which galaxies form.
large with small galaxies often result in 57Quiz Questions. 20. In a few billion
complete disruption of the smaller galaxy. years our own Milky Way may merge with the
Small galaxy is “swallowed” by the larger Andromeda galaxy. Which type of galaxy is
one. This process is called “galactic most likely to result from such a merger?
cannibalism”. NGC 5194. a. An irregular galaxy. b. A larger spiral
33Starburst Galaxies. Starburst galaxies galaxy. c. An elliptical galaxy. d. Either
are often very rich in gas and dust; a or c above. e. Either b or c above.
bright in infrared: ultraluminous infrared 58Answers. 1. c 2. e 3. a 4. c 5. e 6. e
galaxies. M 82. Cocoon Galaxy. 7. c 8. e 9. d 10. a. 11. e 12. a 13. a
34Large Scale Structure. Superclusters = 14. e 15. d 16. b 17. d 18. a 19. e 20. c.
clusters of clusters of galaxies. 59Hubble. (SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY).
Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode).ppt
http://900igr.net/kartinka/anglijskij-jazyk/note-that-the-following-lectures-include-animations-and-powerpoint-effects-such-as-fly-ins-and-transitions-that-require-you-to-be-in-powerpoints-slide-show-mode-presentation-mode-247361.html
cсылка на страницу

Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode)

другие презентации на тему «Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode)»

«Создание презентаций в PowerPoint» - Переход к другим слайдам осуществляется с помощью ПОЛОСЫ ПРОКТУТКИ. Режим страницы заметок…(ВИД-Страницы заметок или ). Строка состояния. Схематично зарисуйте в тетради панель инструментов Эффекты анимации с пояснениями. Как называются основные элементы окна Power Point? Отметим, что приложениями MicroSoft поддерживается единообразный интерфейс.

«English for you» - При выполнении заданий программа оценивает твой результат и предоставляет отчёт. Ты научишься правильно строить предложение. Слова и выражения по темам. EuroTalk. Твои школьные учебники. ENGLISH FOR YOU. «Английский для тебя» (курс английского языка с применением ИКТ). Ты убедишься насколько интересным и захватывающим может быть обучение языку.

«Презентации PowerPoint» - Получение движущихся изображений на компьютере называется КОМПЬЮТЕРНОЙ АНИМАЦИЕЙ. Этапы создания мини - презентации. Создание нового слайда. Слова «АНИМАЦИЯ» обозначает «ОЖИВЛЕНИЕ» (англ. (Для вставки картинки по теме). Создание титульного слайда. Что обозначает слово «Презентация»? Что слово «Презентация» обозначает в информатике?

«Slide» - Conclusion. Colour - Bad. Fonts - Bad. Tips to be Covered. Questions?? Background – Bad. Graphs - Good. Minor gridlines are unnecessary Font is too small Colours are illogical Title is missing Shading is distracting. Fonts - Good. Spelling and Grammar. Background - Good. Outline. This page contains too many words for a presentation slide.

«Powerpoint» - Чтобы открыть коллекцию клипов, нажмите кнопку Добавить картинку. Создание первой презентации Содержание. Представление первой презентации Выдачи. Знакомство с PowerPoint Режимы. Знакомство с PowerPoint Страница 2 из 9. Назад. Создание первой презентации Итоги: быстрое создание. Вводимый текст автоматически будет размещен в автофигуре.

Курсы английского

25 презентаций о курсах английского
Урок

Английский язык

29 тем
Картинки
900igr.net > Презентации по английскому языку > Курсы английского > Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoints Slide Show mode (presentation mode)