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Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks
What is Particulate Matter
What is Particulate Matter
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
Sources of PM and PM Precursors
The Role of Inversions
The Role of Inversions
Major Episodes of Severe Air Pollution due to Inversions
Major Episodes of Severe Air Pollution due to Inversions
Particulate Matter: Aerodynamic Diameter
Particulate Matter: Aerodynamic Diameter
Particulate Matter: Aerodynamic Diameter
Particulate Matter: Aerodynamic Diameter
Particulate Matter: Size Matters
Particulate Matter: Size Matters
Increasing Evidence of Cardiovascular Effects
Increasing Evidence of Cardiovascular Effects
Integrating Toxicology, Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
Integrating Toxicology, Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - Early Studies
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - Early Studies
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - The London Fog
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - The London Fog
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - Modern Studies
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - Modern Studies
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - Multiple Sites
The Evolution of Air Pollution Research Methods - Multiple Sites
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
Air Pollution Research: Setting the Future Agenda
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Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Health Risks

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1 15the mechanism of action. It is likely that
2Particulate Matter Air Pollution and more than one mechanism is involved in
Health Risks. causing PM-related health effects.
3What is Particulate Matter? Theories include the following: PM causes
Particulate matter (PM) describes a wide inflammation of lung tissue, resulting in
variety of airborne material. PM pollution the release of chemicals that impact heart
consists of materials (including dust, function; PM causes changes in blood
smoke, and soot), that are directly chemistry that results in clots that can
emitted into the air or result from the cause heart attacks. PM leads to lung
transformation of gaseous pollutants. irritation which leads to increase
Particles come from natural sources (e.g., permeability in lung tissue; PM increases
volcanic eruptions) and human activities susceptibility to viral and bacterial
such as burning fossil fuels, incinerating pathogens leading to pneumonia in
wastes, and smelting metals. Image from vulnerable persons who are unable to clear
http://www.epa.gov/eogapti1/ these infections; PM aggravates the
module3/distribu/distribu.htm. severity of chronic lung diseases causing
4How is PM Regulated? PM is one of the rapid loss of airway function;
six EPA “criteria pollutants” that have 16Types of Air Pollution and Health
been determined to be harmful to public Studies. Ecologic study – Examines the
health and the environment. (The other association between exposure rates and
five are ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen disease rates in a group over time. In
dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead.) EPA ecologic studies, the exposure and disease
is required under the Clean Air Act to set status of individuals in the group are
national ambient air quality standards unknown. Therefore, one limitation of this
(NAAQS) to protect public health from study design is that those exposed and
exposure to these pollutants. Areas that those with the disease may not be the same
exceed the NAAQS are designated as individuals. Time-series study – Analyzes
nonattainment, and must institute air a series of data points that results from
pollution control programs to reduce air repeated measurements over time.
pollution to levels that meet the NAAQS. Adjustments are made for cyclical or
5PM. Where Does PM Originate? VOCs NO2 seasonal trends such as daily peaks in PM
SO2. Sources may emit PM directly into the levels or annual influenza trends in order
environment or emit precursors such as to identify larger trends that demonstrate
sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide the association between exposure and
(NO2), and volatile organic compounds disease. Cohort study – The health status
(VOCs), which are transformed through of individuals in a cohort (i.e., group of
atmospheric chemistry to form PM. Ammonia study participants) whose exposure status
(NH3). Ammonia (NH3). is known at the start of the study is
6Sources of PM and PM Precursors. monitored over time to see if there is an
Stationary Sources (power plants, association between their exposure and
factories) NO2, SO2, PM. Mobile Sources particular health outcomes.
(vehicles) VOCs, NO2, PM. Natural Sources 17The Evolution of Air Pollution
(forest fires, volcanoes) PM. Area Sources Research Methods - Early Studies. Early
(drycleaners, gas stations) VOCs. studies of air pollution concentrated on
7Determinants of PM Concentration. the severe episodes described earlier.
Weather patterns Wind Stability (vertical These episodes demonstrated a clear link
movement of air) Turbulence Precipitation between increased levels of ambient
Topography Smokestack height and pollution and adverse health outcomes.
temperature of gases. Nearby natural and Methods used to describe these events
built structures may lead to downward included population surveys, ecological
moving currents causing aerodynamic or studies, and, later, time-series analyses.
building downwash of smokestack emissions. Donora, PA at noon on Oct. 29, 1948. Photo
8The Role of Inversions. An inversion source: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
is an extremely stable layer of the 18The Evolution of Air Pollution
atmosphere that forms over areas. Research Methods - The London Fog. The
Temperature inversions trap pollutants London Fog event of 1952 provides a clear
close to the ground. These inversions example of an early time-series analysis.
involve layers of hot air sitting above The figure to the right shows the
cooler air near ground level. When estimates of weekly mortality and average
particles accumulate in the air layer, sulfur dioxide concentrations for London
they are unable to rise into the during the winter of 1952-53. Deaths in
atmosphere where winds will disperse them. December increased approximately 2.5 times
Source: http://www.epa.gov/apti/ over comparable periods in 1947 to 1951,
course422/ ce1.html. and remained elevated through February
9Major Episodes of Severe Air Pollution 1953. Source:
due to Inversions. 1930: Meuse River http://www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk/
Valley, Belgium An inversion led to a high studentwebs/session4/27/greatsmog52.htm.
concentration of pollutants during a 19The Evolution of Air Pollution
period of cold, damp weather Main sources: Research Methods - Modern Studies. The
zinc smelter, sulfuric acid factory, glass modern era of air pollution research
manufacturers 60 deaths recorded 1948: involved using laboratory sampling
Donora, Pennsylvania Similar inversion to equipment and epidemiologic methods to
Meuse River Valley Main sources: iron and determine personal exposures and to
steel factories, zinc smelting, and an monitor health effects. These efforts were
acid plant 20 deaths observed 1952: London used in the Harvard Six Cities Study, a
Killer fog (right) Primary source: prospective study pioneered in 1973, in
domestic coal burning 4,500 excess deaths which mortality data from a cohort of
recorded during week- long period in adults in six cities with different levels
December. The Great London Smog (1952). of air pollution were analyzed,
10Particulate Matter: Aerodynamic controlling for behavioral risk factors
Diameter. Establishing a particle size such as smoking. This study led to more
definition for irregularly shaped complex techniques for both measuring
particles necessitates the use of a exposure and modeling the
standardized measure referred to as the exposure-response relationship between PM
aerodynamic diameter, measured in microns and health endpoints. P=Portage, WI
or micrometers (?m), a unit equal to one H=Harriman, TN T=Topeka, KS L=St. Louis,
millionth of a meter. The graph at the MO W=Watertown, MA S=Steubenville, OH.
right shows the distribution of the 4 main Source: Dockery D, et al. An Association
particle size categories, with the between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six
categories historically and currently U.S. Cities, NEJM 1993; 329
regulated by EPA indicated below. By (24):1753-1759.
comparison, a human hair is approximately 20The Evolution of Air Pollution
70 microns in diameter. Top: Modified from Research Methods - Multiple Sites. More
Online Reference Module by JR Richards et recent studies have introduced
al. http://registrar.ies. sophisticated statistical approaches to
ncsu.edu/ol_2000. Bottom: U.S. EPA. Office the time-series relationship. The National
of Research and Development. Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution
11Particulate Matter: Size Matters. Size Study (NMMAPS) has made substantial
is important to the behavior of PM in the contributions towards understanding the
atmosphere and human body and determines association of PM with mortality by
the entry and absorption potential for applying a consistent approach to data
particles in the lungs. Particles larger collected at 90 different sites across the
than 10 mm are trapped in the nose and nation. The graph at the right shows the
throat and never reach the lungs. relative rates of mortality per 10 ?g
Therefore, particles 10 mm in diameter or increase in PM10 levels for the 90
less are of most concern for their effects individual study sites. Source: Samet JM,
on human health. Particles between 5 and Zeger SL, Dominici FD et al. 2000. The
10 mm are removed by physical processes in National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air
the throat. Particles smaller than 5 mm Pollution Study. Part II: Morbidity and
reach the bronchial tubes, while particles Mortality from Air Pollution in the United
2.5 mm in diameter or smaller are breathed States. Cambridge, MA: Health Effects
into the deepest portions of the lungs. Institute.
Image: PM2.5. By D. Hershey. From New York 21Air Pollution Research: Setting the
State Department of Environmental Future Agenda. The Committee on Research
Conservation. Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter
http://www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dar/baq was established by the National Research
/micro/two.html. Council in January 1998 in response to a
12What Adverse Health Effects Have Been request from Congress and the EPA. The
Linked to PM? Premature death Lung cancer Committee produced 4 reports over the
Exacerbation of COPD Development of period 1998 – 2004. I. Immediate
chronic lung disease Heart attacks Priorities and a Long-Range Research
Hospital admissions and ER visits for Portfolio. II. Evaluating Research
heart and lung disease Respiratory Progress and Updating the Portfolio. IV.
symptoms and medication use in people with Continuing Research Progress. III. Early
chronic lung disease and asthma Decreased Research Progress.
lung function Pre-term birth Low birth 22Research Priorities. The Committee
weight. identified ten research areas of priority
13Increasing Evidence of Cardiovascular in establishing the relation between PM
Effects. Until the mid 1990s, most exposure and public health: Outdoor
research focused on the association of PM measures vs. actual human exposure
exposure with respiratory disease. Since Exposures of susceptible subpopulations to
then, there has been growing evidence of toxic PM components Characterization of
cardiovascular health effects from PM. emission sources Air-Quality-Model
Source: Pope and Dockery, JAWMA, 2006. development and testing Assessment of
14Integrating Toxicology, Epidemiology hazardous particulate matter components.
and Clinical Studies. Toxicological, Dosimetry: Deposition and fate of
clinical and epidemiological studies have particles in the respiratory tract
increased understanding of the mechanism Combined effects of PM and gaseous
of action by which PM leads to mortality co-pollutants Susceptible subpopulations
and lung and heart disease. For example, Mechanisms of injury Analysis and
at right are stained photomicrographs of measurement.
abdominal arteries from mice exposed to 23For More Information. Further
filtered air and air polluted with fine information on particulate matter air
particulate matter, with the increased pollution is available at:
arterial blockage in the PM-exposed mice http://www.healtheffects.org/
providing scientific support for the link http://www.epa.gov/oar/particlepollution/
between PM and atherosclerosis found in a http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/pm/
study of human subjects (Kunzli et al., _pm_index.html
2005). Sun et al. JAMA, 2005. http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/greenbk/pinde
15How Does PM Cause Health Effects? .html.
Several theories have been advanced as to
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