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Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions

содержание презентации «Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions.ppt»
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1Perspective and Printing Press - The 14A Double Language. Rural and
First Information Revolutions. Printing. small-town occupation names are often
2Language: The First Information English, more urban or technical ones
Technology. English One Two Three Four French: Baker Carpenter Miller Painter
Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten. German Eins Weaver Mason.
Zwei Drei Vier Funf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun 15A Double Language. French government
Zehn. Latin Unus Duo Tres Quattuor Quinque terms reflect a more complex society than
Sex Septem Octo Novem Decem. Greek Ena Dio Anglo-Saxon terms King Governor Queen
Tria Tessera Pente Hexa Hepta Okto Ennea Parliament.
Deka. Russian Odin Dva Tri Chetyre Pyat 16A Double Language. The English grew
Shest Sem Vosem Dyevyat Dyesyat. Kurdish it, the French cooked it Sheep Mutton Cow
Eg Du Shay Char Pench Shash Haysh Heft Na Beef Deer Venison Of course, many cooking
Da. terms are French: Fry, Broil.
3Language Families. English One Two 17Prerequisites for Printing. Paper!
Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten. Cheap, abundant, smooth and absorbent. Far
Kurdish Eg Du Shay Char Pench Shash Haysh better for printing than papyrus or
Heft Na Da. Arabic Wahid Ithnain Thalatha vellum. Means of printing impressions.
Arba’a Khamsa Sitta Saba Thamanya Tisa Chinese wood-block printing. Wood block
Ashra. Turkish Bir Iki Uc Dort Bes Alti used in Europe in 14th century for
Yedi Sekiz Dokuz On. religious pictures and cards. Laurenz
4The Indo-European Languages. Germanic Janzoon (1420-30) used blocks for
English, German, Dutch, Scandinavian individual letters. Press adapted from
Romance (From Latin) French, Spanish, wine-making, book-binding, paper-making.
Italian, Portuguese, Romanian Slavic 18Advent of movable type. Metal type
Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian used ca. 1430 in Holland to stamp copper
Others: Hellenic, Iranian, Indian, etc. plates. Lead poured on to copper to make
5Tracking Language Evolution. printing face Gutenberg ca. 1450 used dies
Historical Documents Words resistant to as masters to cast copies of letters.
borrowing (small numbers, self, mother, Early type letters Pb-Sn (for corrosion
sun, etc.) Patterns of Sound Change resistance) - Sb (for hardness). Basically
Grammatical Structures Genetics Search for modern composition. Type metal is one of
the Proto-Language. the oldest unchanged industrial materials.
6A Modern Idea? Alfa Hotel Oscar Victor 19The Spread of Printing. By 1480, there
Bravo India Papa Whiskey Charlie Juliet were printing presses in 110 towns. Ten
Quebec X-Ray Delta Kilo Romeo Yankee Echo million books in print by 1500. Aldus
Lima Sierra Zulu Foxtrot Mike Tango Golf Manutius of Venice (d. 1515). First cheap
November Uniform. mass-market books. William Caxton, 1476,
7The Oldest Idea in the Book. In a first press in England.
pre-literate world, the best way to learn 20The Great Vowel Shift. Almost all
the alphabet is to use words as mnemonics, English “long” vowels are diphthongs or
not meaningless syllables. Hebrew 1000 blends of vowel sounds “a” in “bay” = a +
B.C. Aleph - Ox Beth - House Gimel - Camel i as in “bait” “i” as in “bite” = e + i as
Daleth - Door. Old Slavic 1000 A.D. Az (I) in “height” “o” as in “go” = o + u as in
Buki (Beech Tree) Vedi (Know) Glagol “though” We also dropped or changed
(Word) Dobro (Good). guttural “gh”: cough, through, light,
8How We Got English. Pre-Roman Britain sight.
was Celtic Only a few place names are 21Why English Spelling is so Chaotic.
relics (Ben for mountain, glen for valley) Great Vowel Shift happened just as English
Romans occupied Britain Castra, military was first being printed Caxton used the
camp, survives in Lancaster, Worcester, spelling system of Chaucer (ca. 1400)
Manchester Angles and Saxons invaded Result: English was set into print with an
starting in the 5th Century Largely wiped already-obsolete spelling system Also,
the linguistic slate clean. English has borrowed from just about every
9English is a Germanic Language. other language and preserved their
Closest language is Frisian, spoken by spelling.
300,000 in Holland and Germany Closest 22Effects of printing. Vast increase in
national language to English is Dutch literacy. Rapid dissemination of ideas.
About 80% of our small everyday words Standardization and simplification of
(day, word, father, mother, sun, moon) are spelling. (& from Latin et and % from
Germanic Sometimes the relationship is p/c are relics of pre-printing days)
hard to see: Vogel isn’t much like bird Stimulus toward accuracy.
but very similar to fowl. 23Change in our concept of
10Word Endings. The Dog Bites the Man is "fact" Before printing,
not the same as The Man Bites the Dog documents were suspect as too easily
-but- Der Hund beisst den Mann means forged. Eyewitnesses and personal
exactly the same as Den Mann beisst der testimony were considered more reliable.
Hund. Printing made documents more authoritative
11Dropping the Endings. Languages that than personal testimony. Hard to fake
use word endings for meaning are called printed documents. Before printing, people
inflected England was partly occupied by relied on memory to store facts. Printing
the Vikings beginning in 865 A.D. Vikings changed the concept of "fact" to
and Anglo-Saxons spoke Germanic languages "printed fact"; "show me in
but differed in word endings We just black and white.” Electronic forgery: we
dropped the word endings (except for have come full circle from pre-printing
plural s, possessive ‘s, and a few days.
others). 24The printed image. Wood-cut along with
12The French Influence. In 911 the King type. Itaglio-engraved metal. Copper
of France gave part of France to a Viking plates with engraved lines did for
chief in return for protection This pictures what type did for text.
region, settled by the “Norsemen,” came to Lithography. Zinc plate, 1868.
be called Normandy In 1066, William of Photography-halftone method. Xerography,
Normandy (a Viking descendant) defeated computer graphics, etc.
Harold (also a Viking descendant) and 25Printing, Culture, and Control.
conquered England By this time, the Europe: mass literature China: official
Normans spoke French. documents, validation Islamic World:
13A Double Language. More earthy terms suppressed until 19th century Modern
tend to be Anglo-Saxon, more abstract corporate and government attempts to
synonyms French: Friendship Amity Freedom control Internet, copyrights, etc.
Liberty Love Affection.
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Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions

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