Курсы английского
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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Variable Thermal Link C. J
Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Variable Thermal Link C. J
Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Variable Thermal Link C. J
Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Variable Thermal Link C. J
International Lunar Network Trade Study
International Lunar Network Trade Study
ILN Anchor Node – Hybrid Wick
ILN Anchor Node – Hybrid Wick
Overall Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
Overall Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
Overall Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
Overall Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
Overall Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
Overall Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
VCHP Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
VCHP Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator
Standard condenser location gives much higher mass
Standard condenser location gives much higher mass
VCHP with Internal Reservoir
VCHP with Internal Reservoir
VCHP with Internal Reservoir
VCHP with Internal Reservoir
VCHP Testing – Instrumentation
VCHP Testing – Instrumentation
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Freeze/Thaw Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Performance Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar Performance Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space Thermal Diode Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space Thermal Diode Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space Performance Results
Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space Performance Results
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По изо весенние цветы фриз 2 класс

содержание презентации «По изо весенние цветы фриз 2 класс.ppt»
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1Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a 19Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
Variable Thermal Link C. J. Peters, J. R. Freeze/Thaw Results. TC27 (Cond). TC1
Hartenstine, C. Tarau, & W. G. (Gas). TC26 (Cond). TC10 (Evap). TC30
Anderson Advanced Cooling Technologies, (Cond). TC23 (Cond). Power. ISO9001-2008
Inc. Bill.Anderson@1-act.com. TFAWS Paper & AS9100-B Certified.
Session. Presented By Calin Tarau. Thermal 20Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
& Fluids Analysis Workshop TFAWS 2011 Freeze/Thaw Results. VCHP Operation (25
August 15-19, 2011 NASA Langley Research °C, 95 W, -2.3°). ISO9001-2008 &
Center Newport News, VA. AS9100-B Certified.
2Presentation Outline. Design Targets 21Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
Variable Thermal Links Variable Freeze/Thaw Results. VCHP Cold Shutoff
Conductance Heat Pipe Design Testing (-60 °C, 0.2 W, -2.3°). ISO9001-2008 &
Conclusions and Recommendations. AS9100-B Certified.
ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B Certified. 22Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
3International Lunar Network Trade Freeze/Thaw Results. VCHP Very Cold
Study. Objective: Develop Variable Thermal Shutoff (-177 °C, 0.1 W, -2.3°). Heat Pipe
Link designs to be used for Thermal Overall Conductances for Freeze/Thaw
Management of the Warm Electronics Box (-2.3° Inclination). Heat Pipe Overall
(WEB) on the International Lunar Network Conductances for Freeze/Thaw (-2.3°
(ILN) Anchor Node mission Remove ~ 60 W Inclination). Testing Condition. Overall
during the lunar day Conserve heat to keep Conductance (W/°C). 25 °C Operation. 4.7.
the electronics and battery warm during -60 °C Shutdown. 0.00310. -177 °C
the lunar night. ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B Shutdown. 0.00057. 9 Inch Evaporator; 12
Certified. Inch Condenser. 9 Inch Evaporator; 12 Inch
4Design Targets. Minimum Electronics Condenser. ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B
Temperature. -10°C (263 K). Maximum Certified.
Electronics Temperature. 50°C (303 K). 23Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
Min. Radiator Load (Moon). 73 W at lunar Freeze/Thaw Results. VCHP can undergo
noon (30 % margin: 94.9 W). Max. Radiator freeze/thaw cycles without performance
Load (Moon). 90 W during cruise (30 % degradation Effectively shuts off at cold
margin: 117 W). Power During Transit. temperatures and reduces heat transfer
Assume Full Power. Trip Length. 5 Days, or VCHP can experience short-duration
Several Months. Duration. ~ 6 years. Warm full-power bursts during -60 °C and -177
Electronics Box Geometry Will be Larger °C cold shutdown Evaporator stays within
for Solar Option. 24” x 41” x 14” -10 °C to +50 °C temperature range with no
(height). Radiator Dimensions. 21” (tall) power except heat in-leak. ISO9001-2008
x 25” (wide). Solar power controls, & AS9100-B Certified.
Maximum Day and Minimum Night. 24Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B Certified. Performance. Purpose: Demonstrate thermal
5Design Targets. Minimizing power usage performance in a simulated lunar
at night is extremely important 1 W power environment Test Procedure – 1
= 5 kg Batteries! 20° tilt means that temperature, 3 elevations -2.3?, 0? and
conventional grooved aluminum/ammonia +2.3? inclinations Condenser nearly
CCHPs can not be used in the WEB to vertical Adiabatic and condenser sections
isothermalize the system Maximum Adverse gravity aided 25?C evaporator temperature
Elevation: 13.3 inch. Maximum Tilt. 20° Test Results Summary 220W @ -2.3? 212W @
(10° slope, 10° hole). Maximum Radiator 0? 220W @ +2.3? Dryout was not
Sink Temperature (Landing). 263 K. Minimum demonstrated, test was terminated based on
Radiator Temperature. 141 K. Minimum Soil elevated temperature on TC9 Possible gap
Temperature. -173°C (100 K). Maximum Soil between evaporator wall and screen wick
Temperature. 116°C (390 K). ISO:9001-2000 resulting in a “hot spot” 2 ? target
/ AS9100-B Certified. power. ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B
6Variable Thermal Link. Three basic Certified.
elements to the WEB thermal control system 25Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
A method to isothermalize the electronics Performance Results. Temperature Profile
and battery during the lunar night, and to (25 °C, 220 W, -2.3°). ISO9001-2008 &
remove heat to a second, variable AS9100-B Certified.
conductance thermal link during the day 26Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar
(Constant Conductance Heat Pipes (CCHPs)). Performance Results. Powers demonstrated
A variable thermal link between the WEB are twice maximum target power Pipe can
and the Radiator A radiator to reject heat operate against lunar gravity Evaporator
Possible Thermal Links Variable stays within -10 °C to 50 °C target
Conductance Heat Pipes (VCHPs) Loop Heat temperature range. ISO9001-2008 &
Pipes (LHPs) LHPs with a Thermal Control AS9100-B Certified.
Valve. ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B Certified. 27Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space. Thermal
7LHP Shut-Down. Need to shut down LHP diode Backward operation (reverse heat
during the Lunar night Minimize Heat input/output & elevation) Measure heat
Losses from the WEB Standard method uses a transport in reverse direction Thermal
heater on the compensation chamber During Performance Determine dryout Extrapolate
normal operation, the Compensation Chamber dryout power to 0-g. For All Space Tests
runs at a lower temperature than the LHP Near horizontal Vary adverse elevation of
evaporator Activate heater to shut down evaporator (0.1 in, 0.2 in, 0.3 in).
Increase saturation temperature and ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B Certified.
pressure of LHP Cancels the pressure 28Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space Thermal
difference required to circulate the Diode. The purpose of this test is to
sub-cooled liquid from the condenser to demonstrate that the pipe can behave as a
the evaporator Standard method validated diode in space Test Procedure – 3
in spacecraft 1 W = 5 kg Develop variable elevations, 1 evaporator temperature 0.1”,
thermal links with no power requirement 0.2” and 0.3” adverse elevation 25?C
LHP with Thermal Control Valve – discussed evaporator temperature 20?C ?T between
in separate presentation VCHP. evaporator and condenser Determine reverse
ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B Certified. heat transfer rate required to meet 20?C
8VCHP Design Constraints. VCHP differs ?T requirement Conservative NCG charge
from normal VCHP in 5 different ways Need Test Results 0.1 inch, 4.3 watts, -0.0195
to operate in space, and on the Lunar W/°C 0.2 inch, 3.2 watts, -0.0157 W/°C 0.3
surface Need to operate with fairly large inch, 3.2 watts, -0.0160 W/°C.
tilts in the evaporator Slope can vary ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B Certified.
from -20° to +20° ~13 inch adverse 29Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space Thermal
elevation across the WEB Grooved CCHPs Diode Results. Thermal Diode Temperatures
operate with 0.1 inch adverse tilt (Evaporator at 25 °C, 0.1 Inch Adverse).
Requires non-standard wick Tight ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B Certified.
temperature control not required Have a 30Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space Thermal
~40°C range versus ±1°C for conventional Diode Results. Pipe is an effective
VCHPs No power available for reservoir thermal diode Pipe has very low thermal
temperature control 1 W = 5 kg External conductance Pipe reduces reverse heat
reservoir will cool down to ~140 K Need to transfer (transports only 4 % of maximum
minimize heat leak when shut down. power). ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B
ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B Certified. Certified.
9VCHP Design. Develop a VCHP design 31Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space. Purpose:
with three novel features Hybrid-Wick Demonstrate thermal performance in a
Screen wick in evaporator, grooved wick in simulated space environment Test Procedure
condenser Allows operation on the Lunar – 3 elevations, 1 temperature 0.1”, 0.2”
surface, and during transit Reservoir Near and 0.3” adverse elevation 25?C evaporator
Evaporator Keeps the reservoir warm at temperature Pipe operation with NCG and
night Minimizes the reservoir size without NCG Possible asymmetry Flipped
Bimetallic Adiabatic Section Grooved pipe 180? Marked improvement in
stainless steel section in the adiabatic performance. ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B
section acts as a thermal dam to minimize Certified.
heat leak during shutdown. ISO:9001-2000 / 32Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space
AS9100-B Certified. Performance Results. (25 °C, No NCG).
10ILN Anchor Node – Hybrid Wick. Zero-g power extrapolated. ISO9001-2008
Standard VCHPs use grooved wick - not & AS9100-B Certified.
suitable for Moon 0.1 inch against gravity 33Task 3. VCHP Testing – Space
Tilt range for lunar surface: ±14° VCHP Performance Results. Pipe carries
evaporator needs to operate against approximately 72 % of the zero-gravity
gravity Maximum adverse elevation: (9 target power Possible contributing factors
inch) ? sin(14°) = 2.2 inch Screen wick in causing asymmetry and lower than expected
evaporator; Grooved wick in condenser thermal performance Screen attachment
Grooves and screen pump in space Screen resulting in a gap between the wall and
pumps on lunar surface. +14°, Evaporator wick Interface between screen and grooves
Gravity Aided. -14°, Evaporator Works resulting in a larger than designed
Against Gravity. 0°, Puddle Flow in hydraulic joint. ISO9001-2008 &
Evaporator. ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B AS9100-B Certified.
Certified. 34Conclusions and Recommendations.
11Overall Design – NCG Reservoir Variable Thermal Link can be provided by
Adjacent to Evaporator. NCG Tube. Loop Heat Pipe LHP with Thermal Control
Radiator. Condenser. NCG Tube. NCG Valve Variable Conductance Heat Pipe VCHP
Reservoir. Condenser. Al. SS. Al. NCG has the following benefits No power to
Reservoir. Bimetallic Transition. shutdown Least expensive However, lowest
Evaporator. Adiabatic. Evaporator. TRL level VCHP was developed with the
Reservoir is located near evaporator following Hybrid-Wick, to allow the VCHP
instead of condenser Placing near to operate with a tilt Reservoir Near
condenser is standard for most spacecraft Evaporator, to minimize the reservoir size
VCHPs with electric heaters Condenser is Bimetallic Adiabatic Section, to minimize
too cold Would require oversized reservoir axial heat leak to the cold radiator
Location of reservoir inside WEB ensures during shutdown. ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B
that its temperature will be regulated NCG Certified.
tube connects reservoir to condenser. 35Conclusions and Recommendations.
ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B Certified. Simulated Lunar performance testing
12VCHP Design – NCG Reservoir Adjacent demonstrated Shuts off at cold
to Evaporator. Radiator. WEB Enclosure. temperatures and reduces heat transfer
Condenser (Grooves). Adiabatic (Grooves). Freeze/thaw cycles without performance
NCG Reservoir. Evaporator (Screen). degradation and accommodated
ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B Certified. short-duration full-power bursts during
13Standard condenser location gives much -60 °C and -177 °C cold shutdown Design
higher mass. ILN Anchor Node – NCG can meet target power at adverse
Reservoir Adjacent to Evaporator. Vertical elevations Demonstrated start up with
Asymptotes Reservoir Near Evaporator: 0 K frozen condenser and can operate briefly
Reservoir Near Condenser: ?29.78 K. at low condenser temperatures Simulated
ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B Certified. 0-g testing demonstrated Effective thermal
14VCHP with Internal Reservoir. diode operation Performance shortfalls
Adiabatic Section. Condenser. NCG encountered in testing indicated potential
Reservoir. Evaporator. ISO:9001-2000 / hybrid wick design and fabrication issues
AS9100-B Certified. Currently examining sintered wick insert
15VCHP with Internal Reservoir. NCG Eliminate hot spots Better wick/groove
Reservoir. Evaporator. Condenser. interface. ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B
Adiabatic Section. Heating Block. Cooling Certified.
Block. ISO:9001-2000 / AS9100-B Certified. 36Acknowledgements. The trade study was
16VCHP Testing – Objectives. Lunar sponsored by NASA Marshall Space Flight
Surface Operations (1/6 g) Freeze Center under Purchase Order No. 00072443.
tolerance; conductance of “on” versus The VCHP was sponsored by NASA Marshall
“off” states Performance in adverse Space Flight Center under Purchase Order
gravity orientations Space Operations No. NAS802060. Jeffery Farmer was the
Thermal diode behavior Thermal Technical Monitor Kara Walker was the
Performance. ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B engineer on the Variable Thermal Link
Certified. trade study. Tim Wagner as the technician
17VCHP Testing – Instrumentation. TC at ACT. We would like to thank Kyle Van
Locations. ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B Riper for technical discussions about the
Certified. VCHP. Any opinions, findings, and
18Task 3. VCHP Testing – Lunar conclusions or recommendations expressed
Freeze/Thaw. Purpose Demonstrate ability in this presentation are those of the
to shut down Demonstrate ability to authors and do not necessarily reflect the
startup and operate for brief periods of views of the National Aeronautics and
time when cold Determine overall thermal Space Administration. ISO:9001-2000 /
conductance Procedure Vary sink conditions AS9100-B Certified.
to simulate lunar cycle -60?C (liquid) and 37Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a
-177?C (frozen) Several orientations -2.3? Variable Thermal Link C. J. Peters, J. R.
& +2.3? Condenser nearly vertical Hartenstine, C. Tarau, & W. G.
Adiabatic and condenser sections gravity Anderson Advanced Cooling Technologies,
aided 25?C initial evaporator temperature Inc. Bill.Anderson@1-act.com. TFAWS Paper
Measure performance Evaluate temperature Session. Presented By Calin Tarau. Thermal
gradients across heat pipe; conductances; & Fluids Analysis Workshop TFAWS 2011
input power. ISO9001-2008 & AS9100-B August 15-19, 2011 NASA Langley Research
Certified. Center Newport News, VA.
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