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Policies towards the tradable sector un chile: recent history and current debates

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1POLICIES TOWARDS THE TRADABLE SECTOR 17has been set at a flat rate since 1979. It
IN CHILE: RECENT HISTORY AND CURRENT reached 6% in 2003, but the average
DEBATES. RAUL E. SAEZ International applied tariff was less than 2% at the
Affairs Coordinator Ministry of Finance, beginning of 2004 as a result of trade
Chile. agreements. The effect of unilateral trade
2AGENDA. The importance of the tradable liberalization was what theory would
sector in the Chilean economy and in predict: development of activities in
policy-making Macroeconomic environment which Chile has a comparative advantage,
Exchange-rate policy Trade policy: and shrinking of those activities in which
unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign there is no comparative advantage.
Direct Investment policy Competitiveness 18The basket of exports has become more
and private provision of infrastructure diversified and the number of countries of
and certain government services The destination has increased. Chile has no
current debate: - The natural resource dominant or “natural” export market. The
curse - Investment incentives - Education vulnerability to shocks in the price of
- Science, research and development. copper has been reduced as well as to the
3AGENDA. The importance of the tradable economic cycle of specific regions of the
sector in the Chilean economy and in world. TRADE POLICY: UNILATERAL
policy-making Macroeconomic environment LIBERALIZATION AND FTAs.
Exchange-rate policy Trade policy: 19Until 1990, trade policy was based
unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign only on unilateral elimination of trade
Direct Investment policy Competitiveness barriers. Starting in 1990, an active
and private provision of infrastructure policy of negotiating FTAs was implemented
and certain government services The as a complement to unilateral
current debate: - The natural resource liberalization. As a result, about two
curse - Investment incentives - Education thirds of Chile’s exports are covered by a
- Science, research and development. bilateral trade agreement. TRADE POLICY:
4Share of “traditional” tradable UNILATERAL LIBERALIZATION AND FTAs.
sectors reached 31% in 2002. Exports of 20The main objectives of negotiating
services play an increasingly important FTAs has been to improve market access,
role: - 1999 US$ 96 million - 2003 US$ 198 both in terms of facing lower or no
million - Jan-Oct. 2004 US$ 169 million barriers and reducing uncertainty
Share of exports in GDP in 2003 was 36% regarding the conditions of such access.
and in the first semester of 2004, 39%. This has been through the elimination of
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TRADABLE SECTOR IN tariffs which, as a collateral result,
THE CHILEAN ECONOMY AND IN POLICY-MAKING. should eliminate tariff escalation, and
5Import-competing sectors face strong the scrapping and/or regulation of
competition. Policy approach is non-tariff restrictions. TRADE POLICY:
neutrality. Policy is flat MFN tariff; UNILATERAL LIBERALIZATION AND FTAs.
with wheat, wheat flour and sugar as only 21AGENDA. The importance of the tradable
exceptions. Ratio of imports to GDP in sector in the Chilean economy and in
2003 was 33%. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE policy-making Macroeconomic environment
TRADABLE SECTOR IN THE CHILEAN ECONOMY AND Exchange-rate policy Trade policy:
IN POLICY-MAKING. unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign
6All economic-policy decisions are Direct Investment policy Competitiveness
taken in the context and considering that: and private provision of infrastructure
1) the tradable sector, and especially and certain government services The
exports, plays a crucial role in economic current debate: - The natural resource
growth; 2) Chile’s economy is a small and curse - Investment incentives - Education
very open economy; 3) competitiveness and - Science, research and development.
higher productivity are the keys for 22FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT POLICY. The
sustaining growth. Goal is systemic basic premise has been neutral policies
competitiveness of the economy. THE towards direct foreign investment. Only
IMPORTANCE OF THE TRADABLE SECTOR IN THE benefit is a guarantee of tax
CHILEAN ECONOMY AND IN POLICY-MAKING. invariability for those investors that use
7Close cooperation between the public DL 600. Debate over whether incentives
and private sectors to improve the should be used to attract investment in
economic environment. One important high technology industries. Recently
example is the Pro-growth Agenda agreed grants for the co-financing of activities
between the Government and the related to investment activities in high
Manufacturers’ Association in January technology sectors have been introduced.
2002, which includes, among other issues: Chile does not use performance
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TRADABLE SECTOR IN requirements. Furthermore, now the FTA
THE CHILEAN ECONOMY AND IN POLICY-MAKING. with the U.S. limits their use.
81) Measures to improve competitiveness 23FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT POLICY.
such as: - Reform of competition policy Active search for establishment of
bodies; - Reform of bankrupcy law; - regional call centers and shared-services
Modernization of regulation of the centers. Attractiveness based on low cost
telecommunications, fishing and of telecommunications, high levels of
electricity sectors. 2) Measures related connectivity and quality of life.
to technology policy. 3) Tax measures so Limitation: Human capital availability.
as to facilitate the location in Chile of 24AGENDA. The importance of the tradable
foreign investors’ headquarters for their sector in the Chilean economy and in
Latin American operations. THE IMPORTANCE policy-making Macroeconomic environment
OF THE TRADABLE SECTOR IN THE CHILEAN Exchange-rate policy Trade policy:
ECONOMY AND IN POLICY-MAKING. unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign
9THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TRADABLE SECTOR Direct Investment policy Competitiveness
IN THE CHILEAN ECONOMY AND IN and private provision of infrastructure
POLICY-MAKING. 4) Reform of the capital and certain government services The
market to promote the creation of a current debate: - The natural resource
risk-capital industry, improve information curse - Investment incentives - Education
disclosure and allow for more - Science, research and development.
self-regulation of financial institutions. 25COMPETITIVENESS AND PRIVATE PROVISION
5) Measures to improve the efficiency of OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND CERTAIN GOVERNMENT
government spending. 6) Elimination of SERVICES. Competitiveness and the
red-tape. 7) Export-promotion actions. development of the tradable sector
Originally limited to reform of drawback requires appropriate infrastructure so
and other instruments but has evolved into that exports can reach ports of exit at
own private-public working group which the lowest cost possible. In the second
covers trade facilitation (both in goods half of the 1990s, Chile began a massive
and services), general incentives, access process of transferring roads to private
to foreign markets and export promotion. operators through BOT contracts. The
10AGENDA. The importance of the tradable government has also been transferring the
sector in the Chilean economy and in operation of docks at major ports to
policy-making Macroeconomic environment private enterprises, maintaining the
Exchange-rate policy Trade policy: overall management of the ports. More
unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign recently, other services, such as the
Direct Investment policy Competitiveness building and operation of prisons, is
and private provision of infrastructure being transferred to the private sector.
and certain government services The 26AGENDA. The importance of the tradable
current debate: - The natural resource sector in the Chilean economy and in
curse - Investment incentives - Education policy-making Macroeconomic environment
- Science, research and development. Exchange-rate policy Trade policy:
11MACROECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT. unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign
Macroeconomic policy framework geared Direct Investment policy Competitiveness
towards insuring stability. Rules-based and private provision of infrastructure
policies: - Fiscal policy guided by and certain government services The
structural-rule: surplus of 1% of GDP - current debate: - The natural resource
Monetary policy with target range for curse - Investment incentives - Education
inflation: 2-4% Has allowed reduction of - Science, research and development.
interest rates to stimulate the economy: 27THE CURRENT DEBATE IN CHILE. Natural
the average real interest rate for loans resource curse? Concentration in natural
over three years was 5.17% in 2003. Low resource-based exports does not mean that
country-risk: 75 basis points (Global JP Chile only exports commodities. Wine and
Morgan). Low cost of credit contributes to salmon are two major examples. Fresh fruit
competitiveness. is also another example if one includes
12AGENDA. The importance of the tradable all the sophisticated services associated
sector in the Chilean economy and in with exporting it. Even in the case of
policy-making Macroeconomic environment copper, and mining in general, an industry
Exchange-rate policy Trade policy: of providers, some of them with innovative
unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign products, has developed. But, is it enough
Direct Investment policy Competitiveness to sustain growth?
and private provision of infrastructure 28THE CURRENT DEBATE IN CHILE. Some
and certain government services The research indicates that natural-resource
current debate: - The natural resource abundance reduces growth: - Rent-seeking
curse - Investment incentives - Education activities - Dutch disease - Little or no
- Science, research and development. linkages to domestic economy But, there is
13REAL EXCHANGE RATE INDEX. REI. REI-5. also research that shows that that
REI is real exchange rate index with all natural-resource abundance affects
trade partners; REI-5 is real exchange negatively growth only in countries with
rate index with the U.S., Japan, the UK, low levels of human capital. The issue
Canada and the six largest partners in the that Chile faces can be illustrated with
Euro-zone. Source: Central Bank of Chile. the following diagram.
14EXCHANGE RATE. Pesos per US dollar. 29COMPOSITION OF EXPORTS IN 2002.
Source: Central Bank of Chile. Source: Estado de la Hacienda P?blica
15EXCHANGE-RATE POLICY. Fully-flexible 2004, Ministerio de Hacienda de Chile.
exchange rate policy since September 1999. 30THE CURRENT DEBATE IN CHILE. Looking
This has resulted in a real depreciation at developed countries relatively rich in
(measured as the relationship between an natural resources (Finland, Sweden,
index of external prices and the consumer Australia and New Zealand). Three basic
price index) and greater volatility of the issues: 1) High levels of human capital
nominal exchange rate. Exchange-rate can interact with natural resource
policy is not used to promote the tradable endowment and lead to high growth; 2)
sector. Depreciation is the result of the Capacity to innovate: - R&D/GDP
fiscal/monetary policy mix. To face Finland 3,4% Sweden 4,3% Chile 0,6%.
short-term volatility, exporters are 31THE CURRENT DEBATE IN CHILE. - Number
encouraged to use market-provided hedging of patents per year per 1 million persons
instruments. Finland 180 Sweden 195 Chile 1 -
16AGENDA. The importance of the tradable Innovation around natural resources 3)
sector in the Chilean economy and in Appropriate institutions, respect of
policy-making Macroeconomic environment contracts and property rights, rule of
Exchange-rate policy Trade policy: law, development of capital market, in
unilateral liberalization and FTAs Foreign particular seed capital, coherent economic
Direct Investment policy Competitiveness incentives.
and private provision of infrastructure 32THE CURRENT DEBATE IN CHILE.
and certain government services The Incentives for Direct Foreign Investment
current debate: - The natural resource Education Science, research and
curse - Investment incentives - Education development Funding through royalty on
- Science, research and development. mining.
17TRADE POLICY: UNILATERAL 33POLICIES TOWARDS THE TRADABLE SECTOR
LIBERALIZATION AND FTAs. Since 1974, the IN CHILE: RECENT HISTORY AND CURRENT
promotion of the exportable sector in DEBATES. RAUL E. SAEZ International
Chile has been based on the reduction of Affairs Coordinator Ministry of Finance,
tariffs and elimination of other Chile.
restrictions on imports. The MFN tariff
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