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Автор: Dr. Sloans Chimatiro. Чтобы познакомиться с картинкой полного размера, нажмите на её эскиз. Чтобы можно было использовать все картинки для урока английского языка, скачайте бесплатно презентацию «Political Economy of Fisheries Reform: Lessons and Applications for Development Assistance.ppt» со всеми картинками в zip-архиве размером 807 КБ.

Political Economy of Fisheries Reform: Lessons and Applications for Development Assistance

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1Political Economy of Fisheries Reform: 9consumption by country : 21% daily
Lessons and Applications for Development protein; - Ghana (65%), Sierra Leone
Assistance. Sloans Chimatiro Senior (63%), Gambia (57%), Nigeria (36%), South
Fisheries Advisor NEPAD Secretariat, Africa (8%); Policy and management. -
Johannesburg, South Africa Steve Policy development and fisheries
Cunningham, Director IDDRA Montpelier, management are major challenges; key
France. Presented at the Case Study Peer issues: - limited institutional capacity;
Review Session of the Africa Platform for - role of public sector reform and better
Development Effectiveness 6th June 2011, governance, and ODA; - Concern over
Balalaika Hotel Sandton, South Africa. fishing capacity and subsidies; - Also in
2Presentation outline. Background to key areas (mainstreaming EcSA and PrecA,
the study Methodology Factors which have bycatch, bottom trawl regulations, shark
influenced fisheries aid to Africa Levels fisheries, IUU); - prioritization of
of fisheries aid to Africa (1973-2001) capacity-building; - role of international
Analysis of performance of fisheries aid and regional dimensions. There have been
Challenges to effectiveness of fisheries few objective assessments of policy and
aid Recommendations. fisheries management in Africa; There are
3Background. This study is part of a some recent indicators: (1) Fisheries
collaborative global study between NEPAD development policy: - PRSPs – fisheries
Agency and the World Bank entitled “The quality rating: 32% - WB-CAS – rating: 6%
political economy of natural resource use: - EU-CSP –rating: 10% - Mean value : 16%
lessons for fisheries reforms”; and (2) Fisheries management : -
subsidiary study known as “The political Formulation/Implementation mean : 34% (3)
economy of fisheries reform: lessons and Fisheries management (McWhinnie rating): -
applications for development assistance”. Morocco (33%) - Namibia (50%) - South
The studies aim at drawing lessons to Africa (50%). Table 3. Comparison of the
inform the architecture of the donor status of global and African fisheries and
support to African fisheries policy and aquaculture fisheries Source: Cunningham
governance reforms. The studies are based and Neiland (2009), adapted from
on the hypothesis that: “the key reason FAO-SOFIA.
for the disconnect between fisheries 10Challenges to effective aid- Key
development aid and impact of fisheries issues. Lack of ownership of the process
(natural resources) sustainability is that of identifying and formulating projects by
by and large development projects have the African fisheries institutions,
lacked a solid theoretical underpinning”. including Ministries of Fisheries and
4Methodology. Preparation of background fish-dependent communities. Over the past
paper on Africa, as part of the World decades, capacity development was never
Bank’s global study Commissioned four case emphasised in fisheries development aid
studies: Ghana (Anglophone, West Africa, (recently this has changed). Volume of aid
less aid); Mozambique (Lusophone, Southern and aid targets have been influenced by
Africa, a lot of aid); Senegal the prevailing development narrative with
(Francophone, West Africa, a lot of aid); particular focus on infrastructure (e.g.
and Uganda (Anglophone, East Africa, a lot Fishing harbours and fleets). With
of aid) Description of country’s aid evidence that choice of targets were
structure; fisheries performance in terms consultative; Fisheries policy has been
of formulation of projects, and influenced by international development
development impact Economic theory of narratives for natural resources; with no
overexploitation of fisheries and efforts have to link fisheries to the
suggestions for effective involvement of wider national macro-economic development
aid. policies.
5Factors which have influenced 11Challenges to effective aid- Key
fisheries aid to Africa. Growing scarcity issues. Multiplicity of channels of aid
of fish globally has focused interest in has overwhelmed the capacity of recipient
Africa The powerful fishing entities in countries to coordinate and make good use
Europe and Asia represents a strong of aid The performance of fisheries aid is
political lobby to sustain their industry difficult to discern precisely in all the
“Aid Business” has become more case-studies. In all four case study
pluralistic, comprising donors, aid countries, the fisheries are in general
agencies, intermediaries in recipient currently characterised by:
countries. overexploitation, both economic and
6Levels of fisheries aid to Africa. biological, which suggests that the
Using data provided by the World Bank, we overall contribution of fisheries aid
found that African fisheries have received aimed at fisheries development has not
substantial aid (US $4.6 billion between been very successful, in many cases, the
1973-2001). fisheries are in poor state than before.
7Levels of fisheries aid to Africa. effective fisheries management systems
Table 3. Fisheries Development Aid in have been not been established, and the
Africa – Top 10 Donors. Table 3. Fisheries problems associated with regulated open
Development Aid in Africa – Top 10 Donors. access have emerged including weak
Table 3. Fisheries Development Aid in economic performance, declining stock
Africa – Top 10 Donors. Table 3. Fisheries levels and social instability.
Development Aid in Africa – Top 10 Donors. 12Recommendations. Likely use of aid as
Donor. US $ millions. Donor. No. projects. a source of investment, should include a
Japan. 799. France. 294. France. 432. detailed assessment, at an early stage, of
EU-OECD. 206. Sweden. 392. Sweden. 167. the potential benefits which can be
Italy. 312. Japan. 165. EU-OECD. 309. realised on a sustainable basis from a
Norway. 161. AFDB. 281. Italy. 131. well-managed fisheries sector. Aid-funded
Norway. 272. Canada. 117. West Germany. projects should be well-designed and
234. Netherlands. 100. World Bank (IDA). provide the future vision and direction
178. Belgium. 84. World Bank (IBRD). 145. for fisheries sectoral development through
Spain. 81. Total. 3,354. 3,354. 1,506. the clear identification of policy
Source: Calculations based on database objectives and implementation mechanisms.
developed by Hicks (2007). Source: The prioritisation of fisheries aid
Calculations based on database developed programmes and projects should be clearly
by Hicks (2007). Source: Calculations linked and flow from the sectoral policy
based on database developed by Hicks framework – objectives and mechanisms. The
(2007). Source: Calculations based on performance of fisheries aid investments
database developed by Hicks (2007). should be carefully monitored, assessed
8Levels of fisheries aid to Africa. and evaluated: at a project level (i.e.
Table 4. Fisheries Development Aid in did the project achieve its stated
Africa – Top Recipients. Table 4. objectives?); and in relation to sectoral
Fisheries Development Aid in Africa – Top policy goals (i.e. did the investment have
Recipients. Table 4. Fisheries Development a positive and desired impact in relation
Aid in Africa – Top Recipients. Table 4. to policy goals?);
Fisheries Development Aid in Africa – Top 13Recommendations. Fisheries aid should
Recipients. Recipient. Total (US $ be part of this dynamic process, with a
millions). Recipient. Number of projects. need to anticipate and plan ahead for
Mozambique. 385. Mozambique. 147. Angola. likely investments required over time; The
366. Angola. 106. Morocco. 342. Senegal. linkage between national macro-economic
103. Senegal. 302. Madagascar. 75. policy and fisheries policy must be
Mauritania. 203. Mauritania. 69. Egypt. established and understood in order to
191. Tanzania. 64. Madagascar. 190. ensure that fisheries aid is effectively
Namibia. 60. Tunisia. 178. Morocco. 59. prioritised and used within the overall
Somalia. 149. Source: Calculations based context of national development. Fisheries
on database developed by Hicks (2007). aid for improved fisheries management
Source: Calculations based on database should give proper consideration to the
developed by Hicks (2007). Source: central role of resource rent in fisheries
Calculations based on database developed exploitation (both a benefit and an
by Hicks (2007). Source: Calculations incentive to overexploit under weak
based on database developed by Hicks management) and addressed using
(2007). appropriate management approaches (e.g.
9Levels of fisheries aid to Africa. wealth-based fisheries management).
Parameter. Global. Africa. Fish Economic analysis should provide the
utilization and trade. 110 million tones essential theoretical and empirical
(77% catch) used for human food; Trade: framework; The relationship between
37% catch (value US $86 billion); exports fisheries reform and fisheries aid should
grown by 32% (2000-06); 49% exports from also be well-defined in the future;
DCs; - Africa is a net exporter of fish including the benefit & cost of
(since 1985); - Total exports: US $4.4 reform, and the need for aid where
billion (5% global) - Total imports: US appropriate over time given that fisheries
$679 million (<1% global) - 19.4 % reform can take decades rather than just
agric exports on average; Supply and years.
consumption. - Global per capita fish 14Thank You ! www.nepad.org
supply increased to 16.7 kg in 2006 (from www.africanfisheries.org
16.4 kg in 2005); - fish contributes 15% www.stopillegalfishing.com. Pix: S.
global protein supplies; - Fish supply in Chimatiro.
SSA is static (8.3 kg/capita); - Mean fish
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Political Economy of Fisheries Reform: Lessons and Applications for Development Assistance

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