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Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region
Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region
Key questions:
Key questions:
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
The Arctic region under transition
Russia’s role in the Arctic region
Russia’s role in the Arctic region
Russian expedition-2007
Russian expedition-2007
Russia’s flag on the North Pole
Russia’s flag on the North Pole
Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region
Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region
Shall we expect an Arctic race for natural resources and territories…
Shall we expect an Arctic race for natural resources and territories…
Or the polar states will eventually come to a common ground
Or the polar states will eventually come to a common ground
Militarization of the Arctic region
Militarization of the Arctic region
Thank you for attention
Thank you for attention
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Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region

содержание презентации «Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region.ppt»
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1Political Framework of Cooperation in 19task – to prove that the Lomonosov and
the Arctic Region. Alpha-Mendeleev Arctic Ridges were part of
2Key questions: The Arctic region under the Eurasian continental shelf, i.e. the
transition Future scenarios for Northern continuation of the Siberian Platform.
Europe, Arctic region and Russia. Moscow was determined to prove this case
3The Arctic region under transition. in the UN expert commissions. In case of
Arctic region is still under construction. success, Russia could extend its
In a narrow context, it consists of 5 continental shelf borders up to 1.2
polar countries (the Arctic-5 group). In a million km and thus take control over
broader context, it unites 8 countries of large deposits of oil and gas.
the Arctic Council (AC) plus other 20Reaction of other Arctic states. “This
interested participants – EU, NATO. isn't the 15th century. You can't go
4The Arctic region under transition. We around the world and just plant flags and
can also include the third interested say, we're claiming this territory”. The
group of countries – China, Japan, United Canadian foreign minister, Peter MacKay
Kingdom, etc. But the main players are “The first principle of Arctic sovereignty
USA, Canada, Russia, Norway and Denmark. is: use it or lose it” Prime Minister
5The Arctic region under transition. Stephen Harper.
The Arctic region has become subject to 21
territorial disputes of the littoral 22Shall we expect an Arctic race for
states, the majority of which are members natural resources and territories…
of the Northern Dimension initiative, 23Or the polar states will eventually
including the Russian Federation. However, come to a common ground?
only a part of the enormous Arctic space 24Militarization of the Arctic region.
is institutionally covered by the Northern Since 2007 the majority of the polar
Dimension networks, with the US and Canada countries have announced plans to deploy
pursuing their own Arctic strategies. limited military forces in the Arctic
6The role of the Arctic Council. The region to defend zone of their economic
political role of the Arctic Council is interests. In the meantime NATO has also
rather small. It does not pretend to solve announced its interests in the security
urgent political issues or to address sphere of the Arctic region. In January
territorial disputes. At the same time the 2009 in Reykjavik the North Atlantic
Arctic Council has a strong position in officials held a seminar on security
question like nature protection, rights of threats in the Arctic space. The EU
indigenous people, etc. officials unexpectedly used the rhetoric
7The Arctic-5 group. The political role of the cold war and strongly criticized
of the Arctic-5 group is stronger, but it Russia for its Arctic endeavors.
still does not have a formal status. In 25Militarization of the Arctic region.
spring 2008 Greenland hosted the first In March 2008 the High representative for
international conference of the polar the CFSP of the EU Javier Solana
states – the US, Russia, Canada, Norway acknowledged that European countries
and Denmark. The participants agreed to should be prepared for a conflict with
consider the region a vulnerable Russia over the Arctic energy resources.
ecological area, but did not find a common 26Militarization of the Arctic region.
ground on territorial issues. In February 2009 the Nordic Council
8The Arctic-5 group. They sighed in announced plans to form Nordic Task forces
2008 the Ilulissat Declaration, which with a mission of monitoring the situation
states that international law and the Law in the Arctic region and performing crisis
of the Sea is the foundation for relations management, air surveillance and satellite
in the region. In 2010 the 5 Arctic states cooperation.
met again in Chelsea (Canada), to find a 27Militarization of the Arctic region.
balance between economical and ecological Former Norwegian foreign minister Thorvald
interests. Stoltenberg spoke in favor of armed forces
9The Arctic region under transition. capable of protecting the interests of the
The main problem of the Arctic region – Nordic Council member states in northern
there is no fundamental international territories. As expected, troops from
agreement on the Arctic region. Meanwhile, Sweden, Norway and Denmark will become the
the current Arctic race raises a question core element of the future task forces.
of a future model of interaction on the 28Russia’s Arctic strategy. At the
huge Arctic space, its border Russian Security Council meeting in
delimitation, juridical status, etc. The September 2008 President Medvedev set the
major obstacles – different approaches of task to transform the Arctic region into
polar states towards the Arctic region, Russia’s resource base and delimitate its
the clash of their respective interests, continental shelf borders. At the same
and the lack of mutual confidence as well. session The Basis of Russia’s National
10The Arctic region under transition. Policy in the Arctic Region for the Period
The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea up to 2020 and in the Longer Term were
(1982) is widely recognized by the adopted as a strategy that would shape
majority of polar states (with the Russia’s policy in the Arctic region.
exception of the USA). As a result, the 29Russia’s Arctic strategy. But the
polar states prefer to act individually, economic recession has suspended the
without a regional consensus. They also realization of the Russian ambitious
prefer to stress the importance of the plans. The Russian application to a UN
Arctic region in terms of national committee about shelf delimitation has
security Politization of problems been postponed till 2011-2012, geological
Militarization of the region Revival of research of the Arctic region has been
cold war perceptions. frozen, and the creation of the Russian
11The Arctic region under transition. Arctic security forces was put in
However, good news is that some polar question.
states recently signed bilateral 30Europe with a strong efficient center
agreements (Canada-Denmark, (Brussels). In this model Northern Europe
Russia-Norway). In April 2010 Russia and and the Baltic countries stay in the
Norway signed an agreement on border periphery of European politics
delimitation in the Barents Sea. (semi-insiders); integration dominates
12The Arctic region under transition. over regionalization. Russia plays the
The problems of the Arctic region require role of external partner (outsider), which
a certain “desecuritization”. The term can be member of some preferential
“desecuritization” refers to the experts treaties (close-outsider). Role of
from the Copenhagen school of Northern Europe. Role of Russia in the
international relations (Barry Buzan, Ole North-European region.
Waever). Only if interested states stop to 31Europe with influential regional
regard every issue of the Arctic agenda a centers (Paris, Berlin, London, Stockholm,
security issue, they can succeed in Warsaw). Northern Europe will maintain its
establishing a multilateral dialog on specific character and develop “Nordic
Arctic issues. cooperation” (semi-insider vs.
13The Arctic region under transition. semi-outsider); regionalization dominates
The Arctic region has a considerable over integration. Russia is an external
potential of crude hydrocarbons: oil force, but plays a significant role in
(about 7% of world reserves) and gas regional projects (semi-outsider). Role of
(about 26% of world reserves). At the same Northern Europe. Role of Russia in the
time, the Arctic ice is melting faster North-European region.
than expected before (40% during a period 32Competition among Northern, Eastern
from 1970 till 2007). and Arctic dimensions (role of Brussels is
14The Arctic region under transition. On insufficient). A possible result is a
the one hand, polar states cannot agree on merger of dimensions with a further
division of the outer borders of the consolidation of the Nordic countries and
continental shelf. On the other hand, the Baltic states. A Baltic Union can be
development of transport networks established to be in charge of economic
(cross-polar flights, Northern Sea Route), integration and security threats. Russia
nature protection, fishing industry in the will eventually leave the Northern
Arctic region seam to be not less Dimension and remain an external partner
important than oil and gas extraction. of the Baltic Union; cross-border
15The Arctic region under transition. cooperation between Russia, Norway and
16Russia’s role in the Arctic region. Canada within the Arctic dimension. Role
The geological and geophysical exploration of Northern Europe. Role of Russia in the
maturity of the RF continental shelf as North-European region.
regards the number of drilled wells and 33Europe as a zone of conflict. Europe
seismic grid spacing is to date tens and is split over the Arctic resources.
hundreds times poorer than that in Norway, Northern countries create a new military
Denmark, Brazil, etc. alliance to secure their economic
17Russian expedition-2007. The starting interests. Bilateral relations dominate
point – Russian polar expedition in 2007, over regionalization. Possible
which provoked a wide international participation of Russia in conflicts over
response. the Arctic resources. Role of Northern
18Russia’s flag on the North Pole. Europe. Role of Russia in the
19The Russian polar expedition in 2007. North-European region.
The Russian expedition had a challenging 34Thank you for attention!
Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region.ppt
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Political Framework of Cooperation in the Arctic Region

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