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Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban
Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban
Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban
Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban
Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban
Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban
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Автор: Dorothy Taylor Damore. Чтобы познакомиться с картинкой полного размера, нажмите на её эскиз. Чтобы можно было использовать все картинки для урока английского языка, скачайте бесплатно презентацию «Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban Populations.ppt» со всеми картинками в zip-архиве размером 319 КБ.

Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban Populations

содержание презентации «Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban Populations.ppt»
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1Preschool and School Age Activities: 15more often attended summer camp
Comparison of Urban and Suburban (p<.01).
Populations. Dorothy Damore, MD Weill 16
Cornell Medical College New York, NY 17School Age Results. The school age
Published in Journal of Community Health groups were similar in mean age gender
2002;27:203-211. health insurance Urban school age children
2Objective. To compare the activities had greater ethnic diversity (p<.01).
of urban and suburban children in the New The parental level of education was
York metropolitan area. greater in the suburban group (p=.01).
3Background. Leisure time activities 18School Age Results. Suburban school
may be related to the living environment. age children spent more time outdoors,
Studies have found greater illicit drug with 87% of suburban children spending 4
use and greater smokeless tobacco use in or more days outdoors per week compared
rural children and teenagers when compared with 54% of urban children (p<.01) more
with their urban counterparts. This frequently participated in a community
substance abuse is associated with sport league, 62% of suburban children vs.
criminal activity. Finke L et al. J Drug 23% of urban children (p<.01) and more
Educ 1999;29:279-291. Kuria MW. East Afr often attended summer camp (p<.01)
Med J 1996;73:339. Olds RS. J Sch Health Urban school age children watched more TV
1988;58:374-378. Gordon WR et al. or videos, with 25% of urban children
Adolescence 1996;31:883-901. watching more than 3 hours per day vs.
4Background. The average American child 100% of suburban children watching 3 hours
watches between 21 and 27 hours of or less per day (p<.01).
television a week which accounts for more 19
time spent watching television than on any 20Suburban School Age Children School
other activity except sleep including Year vs. Summer Results. The suburban
school and homework. AC Nielsen Company, groups, school year vs. summer, were
Nielsen Media Research, 1989. similar in mean age gender ethnicity
5Background. In certain individuals health insurance parental level of
watching violent television programming education.
relates to aggressive behavior. Violent 21Suburban School Age Children School
television viewing in the third grade has Year vs. Summer Results. School year used
been shown to correlate with aggressive the library more frequently, with 41%
behaviors 10 to 22 years later. Increased visiting the library at least 1 to 3 times
television viewing is associated with per week during the school year vs. 18%
decreased sporting activities, decreased during the summer (p=.01) Summer spent
time spent outdoors and obesity. Cantor J. more time outdoors, with 63% spending 1
J Adolesc Health 2000;27:S30-34. Dietz WH hour or more per day outdoors during the
et al. Curr Probl Pediatr 1991;8-31. summer vs. 23% during the school year
Gortmaker SL et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc (p<.01).
Med 1996;150:356-362. Tucker LA. 22
Adolescence 1986;21:797-806. Dietz WH et 23Discussion. Suburban preschool and
al. Pediatrics 1985;75:807-812. school age children spent more time
6Methods. Prospective survey outdoors. Suburban school age children
Convenience sample Conducted at one urban tended to spend more time playing sports
and one suburban primary care pediatric than urban school age children. Easier for
office Urban office in the Upper East Side suburban children to spend time outdoors
of Manhattan Suburban office in near their homes. Transportation may be
Westchester County, just north of New York easier in suburban settings.
City. 24Discussion. One study found greater
7Methods. The primary investigator physical activity to be associated with
asked the caretakers of preschool and greater time spent outdoors. In contrast,
school age children to complete a adults living in urban settings have been
questionnaire about their child’s found to be more active than those living
activities. Questionnaire available in in rural settings. Klesges RC et al.
Spanish Only one questionnaire per family Health Psychol 1990;9:435-449. MMWR.
Exclusion: children with physical 1998;47:1097-1100.
handicaps. 25Discussion. In our school age
8Questionnaire. Activities included: children, 36 – 53% played sports 4 or more
sports time spent outdoors reading library days per week and 51 – 79% played sports
use video or television watching computer more than 30 minutes a day. Vigorous
use summer camp 34 questions, 5 pages Took activity for 3 days a week or more and 20
most parents 5 minutes to complete. minutes or more at a time is one of the
9Methods. Preschool and school age objectives of Healthy People 2000. Other
activities were compared between urban and studies have found that 60 – 80% of school
suburban populations. Suburban school age age children meet this criteria. US
activities were compared between the Department of Health and Human Services,
school year and summer. Due to time 1991. Molnar D et al. Eur J Pediatr
constraints, data collection for the urban 2000;159:S45-55. Andersen RE et al. JAMA
school age children during the summer was 1998;279:938-942.
not performed. 26Discussion. Most of our children 75 –
10Methods. Assuming that 80% of urban 100% watched TV or videos, 3 hours or less
children watched TV or videos for 3 or per day. However, in the urban school age
more hours a day and that a difference of group, 25% watched 3 or more hours per
50% in the suburban children would be day. The American Academy of Pediatrics
considered significant, to detect this recommends that Pediatricians encourage
difference with 80% power, a sample size their parents to limit their child’s
of 45 in each group was determined using a viewing of TV to less than 2 hours per
chi-square test (two-tailed, alpha=0.05). day. In one study with over 4000 school
11Methods. Mann-Whitney test was used age children, 67% watched >2 hours of
for numeric or quantitative variables. TV per day and 26% watched >4 hours per
Fisher’s Exact test was used for day. Andersen RE et al. JAMA
categorical variables. Informed consent 1998;279:938-942.
from a legal guardian The Institutional 27Limitations. Responses depended on
Review Board approval. parental interpretation of sports
12Results. Completed Questionnaires 66 activities as well as parental estimations
urban preschool children 70 suburban of the number of days and amount of time
preschool children 57 urban school age their children spent outdoors, playing
children 61 suburban school age children sports, reading, using the library or
63 suburban school age children during the using the computer. Most of the children
summer. had private insurance which makes the
13Results. Refusal rates from 1 - 12% in groups similar but may not apply to other
the different groups Four questionnaires children with different insurance.
completed in Spanish. 28Limitations. Greater ethnic diversity
14Preschool Results. The preschool was seen in the urban preschool and school
groups were similar in mean age gender age groups and a greater parental level of
health insurance parental level of education in the suburban school age group
education Urban preschool children had which may account for some of the
greater ethnic diversity (p<.01). differences seen between the various
15Preschool Results. Suburban preschool groups. Since this study was conducted in
children spent more time outdoors, with the New York metropolitan area, other
86% of suburban children spending 4 or urban and suburban areas may have
more days outdoors per week versus 52% of different findings.
urban children (p<.01) were read to 29Conclusions. Important differences
more frequently, with 97% of suburban exist between the activities of urban and
children being read to 4 or more days per suburban children in two practices in the
week versus 83% of urban children (p=.01) New York metropolitan area. Pediatricians
visited the library more frequently, with caring for urban children may have an
66% of suburban children visiting the important opportunity to promote
library at least 1 to 3 times per month participation in sports and educational
versus 47% of urban children (p=.03) and activities.
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Preschool and School Age Activities: Comparison of Urban and Suburban Populations

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