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PPP projects
PPP projects
Typical concession contract
Typical concession contract
Collecting tolls
Collecting tolls
Collecting tolls
Collecting tolls
Collecting tolls
Collecting tolls
Deterioration of road quality
Deterioration of road quality
Public-private partnership in the development of transport projects in
Public-private partnership in the development of transport projects in
Public-private partnership in the development of transport projects in
Public-private partnership in the development of transport projects in
Kazakhstan PPP projects
Kazakhstan PPP projects
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan
Thank you for you attention
Thank you for you attention
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Public-private partnership in the development of transport projects in Central Asia and Caspian region

содержание презентации «Public-private partnership in the development of transport projects in Central Asia and Caspian region.pptx»
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1Public-private partnership in the 19be provided by the government.
development of transport projects in 20Fiscal incentives. Tax incentives are
Central Asia and Caspian region. Anthony a very important component of any fiscal
Pearce Honorary Director General, package. The various forms of tax
International Road Federation. incentives could be: tax holiday on income
2Agenda. Transport PPPs internationally tax for the concessionaire;
Road PPPs Regional examples Conclusions. exemption/rebate on customs duty for
3Agenda. Transport PPPs internationally imported equipment used in construction or
Road PPPs Regional examples Conclusions. operation of highway; exemption of stamp
4PPPs. 4 main roles for the private duty applicable to various contracts in
sector in PPPs: additional capital; better the project; exemption/rebate/deferment of
management and implementation skills; other taxes value added tax, employee
value added to the consumer and the public taxes, etc.
at large; better identification of needs 21Ancillary revenues. The concessionaire
and optimal use of resources. Around 1000 may be given permission for property
PPP road schemes in nearly 60 countries development along the highway. The various
worldwide. alternatives for ancillary revenues could
5Main Characteristics of PPPs. be: transport terminals - garages, service
Risk-sharing between public and private stations, warehouses, rest houses and
sectors Long-term relationship between other relevant infrastructure;
parties Public service and ultimate restaurants, shops and motels; publicity
regulatory responsibility remain in public and advertising space. Estimated that
sector Using private sector skills for Moscow-St Petersburg road will make 30% of
public sector services Contracts for revenue from ancillary revenues.
services, not procurement of assets 22Which model to choose? Will users pay
Output, not input, specifications Payments for road? is the traffic volume
related to service delivery Whole life predictable? is the traffic volume
approach to design, build and operation. expected to be high? is there a need to
6General issues. PPP arrangements are reduce congestion? is there willingness to
growing in use and acceptance as an pay? move towards payment for distance
alternative and effective method to travelled? If “no”, then: shadow tolls or
mobilize additional financial resources Annuity or availability payments.
and benefits from private sector 23Traditional road maintenance. Road
efficiencies PPPs are not the only way to administrations have increasing
deliver project financing and project difficulties under traditional works
realisation. They do not provide a contracts to ensure: that design of works
‘miracle’ solution nor a quick fix and is adequate that the quality of works is
should only be used where appropriate and adequate that works are completed at the
where it is able to deliver clear price given by winning contractor that
advantages and benefits There is a roads are maintained after construction
multitude of PPP structures and the works are completed. Improved road sector
appropriate must be selected according to performance can be achieved because PPPs
project type, needs and sector. There is adopt a life cost cycle approach.
no single perfect model. 24Deterioration of road quality.
7KEY Structural Questions. What is the 25
partnership project? Under what legal 26Optimum level of service
authority does the public entity undertake determination. Target Level of Service.
the project? What type of entity is the 27Output and Performance-based Road
private sector? Are there pre-existing Contracts (OPRC). Payments under OPRC are
assets being contributed / new assets linked to outputs / outcomes. OPRC can be
being constructed? Who will own the used to… Manage and maintain existing good
assets? What capital resources are roads over multi-year periods. Bring roads
available to the partners / who will to a maintainable condition and then
provide any needed capital and how? manage and maintain them for several
8PPP projects. In 2010 92 transport years. Rehabilitate and improve roads, and
projects, involving investment commitments then manage and maintain them for several
of US$25.8 billion, reached financial or years. Construction of new roads, followed
contractual closure in 16 low- and by a long period of management and
middle-income countries. maintenance.
9Agenda. Transport PPPs internationally 28Agenda. Transport PPPs internationally
Road PPPs Regional examples Conclusions. Road PPPs Regional examples Conclusions.
10Typical concession contract. Kakakhstan PPP projects Proposed road
11Types of ppp. Lots of letters… Let’s Almaty-Issyk Kul Logistics hub at Navoi,
look at a practical example. B – Build D – Uzbekistan.
Design F – Finance L – Lease M – Maintain 29Kazakhstan PPP projects.
O – Operate T – Transfer. BOT – Build 30Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul. New
Operate Transfer BOO – Build Own Operate highway between Almaty city and Issyk-Kul.
BOOT – Build Own Operate Transfer DBF – 31Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul. New
Design Build Finance DBFO – Design Build highway between Almaty city and Issyk-Kul.
Finance Operate DBO – Design Build Operate Estimated traffic: Peak 10 000 veh./day
BLT – Build Lease Transfer BTO - Build Average 3 000 veh./day Construction
Transfer Operate DBFOM – Design Build period: 2 years Cost: $ 50 million?
Finance Operate Manage. Distance ~ 130 km - cut journey by 200 km.
12How can it be paid back? Options: Source: National Agency Kazinform.
Tolling Shadow tolling Minimum revenue 32Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul. Toll:
guarantee Annuity Availability payments $7 = 8? /km (saving on 200 km fuel ? $10)
Other income. Maintenance: annual 2.5% of asset value
13Tolling only. Rule of thumb is that, periodic 20% after 8 years 3,000 vehicles:
with a 20 year cost recovery period and a 85% cars, 15% trucks Annual income: $9
toll of €0.03 to €0.06 per vehicle km for million.
light vehicles: To cover: Vehicles per 33Proposed road Almaty-Issyk kul. Income
day. Construction and maintenance. possibly sufficient to cover costs at
>15,000 vpd. Rehabilitation, operation 3,000 vpd as a pure toll project. Some
and maintenance. > 6,000 vpd. public sector grant to support regional
Maintenance costs. > 3,500 vpd. Toll development? Therefore options are:
collection only. > 1,500 vpd. Government(s) grant 35%; or PPP is
14Collecting tolls. Manual tolling. structured as (say) 35% availability
Combined manual and Electronic tolling. payment and 65% based on tolls; or
All electronic tolling. Governments guarantees a certain minimum
15Shadow tolling. Toll charges are paid traffic flow.
directly by the government / project 34Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan. At
sponsor to the concessionaire according to the crossroads of international
a predetermined toll structure. Shadow "North-South" and
toll can be paid in addition to the toll "East-West" land and air
being collected from road-users (for corridors.
example the difference between the 35Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan.
toll-charge that provides a normal rate of Korean Air cargo has 150,000 sq m cargo
return and the toll-charge users are terminal to handle 100,000 tons a year air
willing to pay could constitute the Shadow freight rising to 500,000 tons. 747-400F
Toll). Incheon-Navoi-Milan flights started in
16Minimum revenue guarantee. A major August 2010. "Korean Air will spare
challenge is the correct allocation of no effort in supporting the growth of
risks between the public and the private Navoi into Central Asia's best logistics
sectors - traffic risk is difficult to hub."
allocate because neither the 36Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan. Free
concessionaire nor the government can Economic Zone with manufacturing of:
reasonably control it. Also traffic Electro-technical and telecommunications
forecasts have proved to be inaccurate. equipment; Machinery and computers;
Consequently, many governments mitigate Pharmaceuticals and medical ; Plastics and
traffic risk by providing a minimum income polymers.
guarantee. 37Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan.
17Annuity. Payment to the concessionaire Forecast traffic: 2011 – 486,000 tons 2020
is fixed without reference to the traffic – 1.04 m tons 2030 – 1.20 m tons.
volume. Government retains the right to Extensive road (E40), rail and air
charge a toll from users at any stage of connections.
the project. Generally, it also retains 38Logistics hub Navoi, Uzbekistan.
rights relating to property development, 39Agenda. Transport PPPs internationally
advertising along the project site, etc. Road PPPs Regional examples Conclusions.
The key difference between shadow toll and 40What Have We Learned? Successfully
annuity is traffic risk: under shadow concluding a transport PPP is a challenge:
toll, traffic risk borne by As a result of unrealistic and aggressive
concessionaire; under annuity system, bids, a large number of projects face
concessionaire does not bear the traffic re-negotiation Government commitment can
risk. disappear in periods of financial stress
18Availability payments. Made based on Historically only 55% of proposed projects
achievement of particular project have reached financial close.
milestones or performance standards. 41What Have We Learned? Cost recovery is
Project milestones can refer to the road a major challenge: Full cost recovery is
being open by a certain deadline, while only achievable in some transport
performance standards can be measured sub-sectors Revenue projections often
operationally, such as lane closures for suffer from a bias towards optimism Access
maintenance purposes, incident management, to local currency funding is a critical
or level-of-service performance. Often success factor for infrastructure projects
used for toll roads that are not expected with local currency revenues The
to generate sufficient revenue to pay for vulnerability of PPP projects to changing
their construction and operation. There is political, financial and economic
less overall risk to the operator than circumstances is often underestimated.
with a traditional concession - the 42Conclusions. PPPs enable the public
concessionaire receives a predictable, sector to realise infrastructure projects
fixed set of payments over the life of the by making use of the skills and experience
agreement. of the private sector. In many cases they
19Financial incentives. Grants: may also involve private finance. PPPs are
generally for construction for cost and NOT just about money, but about quality
balance, if any, should be used for and value. But they are complex to design,
meeting the O&M cost. Low interest implement and manage. A systematic
loans: generally governments can borrow at approach with the highest political
lower cost than the private sector. support essential.
Revenue shortfall loan: if there is a 43Thank you for you attention. Anthony
revenue in any year low interest loan may Pearce apearce@irfnet.net.
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