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Reading Comprehension Strategy: Using Background Knowledge

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1Reading Comprehension Strategy: Using 12that box on a tray outside a second-hand
Background Knowledge. Look for the traces furniture shop. It struck my eye. I took
of your own life in everything you read. it up. I examined it. I inquired of the
Catherine M. Wishart Literacy Coach proprietor of the shop in what the puzzle
Copyright © 2009. All rights reserved. lay. He replied that that was more than he
2“A story has as many versions as it could tell me. He himself had made several
has readers” (John Steinbeck). attempts to open the box, and all of them
3What is Background Knowledge? Do you had failed. I purchased it. I took it
remember a particular vacation you took home. I have tried, and I have failed. I
that was especially great? Do you remember am aware, Tress, of how you pride yourself
the last book you read that you really upon your ingenuity. I cannot doubt that,
liked? Do you remember a family event that if you try, you will not fail.” While Pugh
everyone in the family still talks about? was prosing, I was examining the box. It
Do you remember a special friend from your was at least well made. It weighed
childhood? Do you remember a specific certainly under two ounces. I struck it
movie that you really enjoyed? All of with my knuckles; it sounded hollow. There
these events, experiences, memories make was no hinge; nothing of any kind to show
up your own personal background knowledge. that it ever had been opened, or, for the
4Activating Background Knowledge. When matter of that, that it ever could be
reading a text, make a personal opened. The more I examined the thing, the
connection: That reminds me of when…. more it whetted my curiosity. That it
That’s how my family…. My friend used to…. could be opened, and in some ingenious
I tried to do something like that when I…. manner, I made no doubt – but how? The box
I act like that character when I…. When was not a new one. At a rough guess I
you make a personal connection to a text, should say that it had been a box for a
you are making a text-to-self connection. good half century; there were certain
Text-to-self connections make the reading signs of age about it which could not
more real and more important for the escape the practiced eye. Had it remained
reader. unopened all that time? When opened, what
5Text-to-Self Connections. “A Child’s would be found inside? It SOUNDED hollow;
Laughter” One of a kind this cheerful probably nothing at all – who could tell?
sound A child’s laughter wherever it’s It was formed of small pieces of inlaid
found From the giggling of a baby in a wood. Several woods had been used; some of
playpen To the laughter of a toddler again them were strange to me. They were of
and again A child’s laughter can bring a different colors; it was pretty obvious
smile To one who hasn’t done so in such a that they must all of them been hard
long while I know because that one was me woods. The pieces were of various shapes –
Until my daughter’s laugh set mine free A hexagonal, octagonal, triangular, square,
child’s laughter can bring out the best Of oblong, and even circular. The process of
most every man when he’s depressed Cause inlaying them had been beautifully done.
his spirit that’s fallen to soar Until at So nicely had the parts been joined that
last he laughs once more Harry J. Couchon the lines of meeting were difficult to
Jr. Poemhunter.com. discover with the naked eye; they had been
6What Does the Poem Remind You Of? Do joined solid, so to speak. It was an
you remember a time when a child was excellent example of marquetry. I had been
laughing – maybe you as a child? Do you over-hasty in my deprecation; I owed as
remember a time when someone was much to Pugh.
especially sad, but a child said or did 13What Connections Do You Make? Reread
just the right thing to change his or her this portion of “The Puzzle” to yourself.
mood? Do you recall a special child-parent Think about what kind of connections you
moment that ended up in laughter? make to parts of the story. Complete the
Answering any of these questions when double-entry journal page. Choose your own
thinking about the poem means you have quotes from the story on which to comment.
drawn on your background knowledge to make Be prepared to discuss your connections
the poem more real. Answering any of these with this part of the story in class.
questions means you have made a 14Questions to Guide Making Background
text-to-self connection. Knowledge Connections. Does anything here
7Accessing Text-to-Text Connections. remind me of something that happened in my
Text-to-text connections involve linking life? What do I know now about this topic
two or more different texts you have that I didn’t know before I read this
personally read. When making a article? How are these two texts related?
text-to-text connection, you find what is How can I use my background knowledge to
similar and familiar in these texts. predict what may happen next? Can I get a
Finding the similarities makes learning movie going that shows how my own life
and understanding easier. experiences and this story have
8Background Knowledge: Text-to-Text connections? What does this article tell
Connections. “Shopping at the Hospital” me about the world? Do I agree with what
Mom and Dad were very excited – their new the author says, or do I disagree? Why?
son had finally arrived. Like all parents, 15The K-W-L Chart for Non-Fiction
they thought Matthew was perfect. Today, 2 Reading. What I Know. What I Want to Know.
? year old Dawn would meet her new baby What I Learned. The K-W-L Chart is a great
brother for the first time. Dawn dressed way to access background knowledge and to
up in a fancy new dress to meet her track new learning. When reading about a
brother. Mom, Dad, and Dawn all strolled new topic, brainstorm a list of what you
down to the nursery to see Matthew. Dad already know about the topic. Then
lifted up Dawn so she could see all the brainstorm a list of what you believe you
babies. Mom beamed and said, “See that want to learn about the topic. After
baby right here in front of us? That’s reading, brainstorm a list of what you
your new baby brother.” Dawn started to learned that has added to your background
pout. She said, “But Mommy, I don’t want knowledge for future reading.
that one with no hair! I want that one 16A Simple Way to Build Background
with the pretty curly hair!”. Knowledge. Spend some time in the
9How Do the Poem and Story Connect? children’s section of the library!
Text-to-text connections: Both the poem Important terms will be explained in
and the story are about laughing and simple language Important ideas will be
happiness Both the poem and the story are presented Your background knowledge will
about children and how they see the world be increased to make reading more
Both the poem and the story show how difficult texts on the topic easier to
adults react to children If you had read understand.
the poem first, you could use your 17“Remember only this one thing,” said
background knowledge about children’s Badger. “The stories people tell have a
laughter and its effects on adults to way of taking care of them. If stories
understand the story. This connection is a come to you, care for them. And learn to
text-to-text connection. give them away where they are needed.
10Text-to-World Connections. “Books, Sometimes a person needs a story more than
articles, and stories that make you think food to stay alive. That is why we put
of something beyond your own life help you these stories in each other’s memory. This
create text-to-world connections” is how people care for themselves. Crow
(Zimmermann and Hutchins, 2003, p. 53). and Weasel, Barry Lopez (Zimmermann and
Text-to-world connections are often the Hutchins, 2003, p. 62).
most difficult to make. Text-to-world 18References. Anonymous. “The Puzzle.”
connections help you learn about the world http://www.classicreader.com/book/1409/1/.
from what you read. Couchon, Harry J. Jr. “A Child’s
11Practicing This Strategy. The short Laughter.”
story, “The Puzzle,” is continued on the http://www.poemhunter.com/poems/laughter/.
next slide. Read this portion of the story “Critical Perspectives: Reading and
carefully. You may also decide to review Writing about Slavery.”
previous portions of the story to assure http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/less
you recall the highlights of the n_view.asp?id=1060. Zimmermann, Susan and
characters and the plot. Hutchins, Chryse. 7 Keys to Comprehension.
12Making Connections: “The Puzzle” by NY: Three Rivers Press, 2003.
Anonymous. Pugh explained. “I observed
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